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Programs  and  Activities 


Programs  and  Activities 

The  Smithsonian  Year  1977,  Statement  by  the  Secretary,  including 

the  Financial  Report  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution,  is  available 

from  the  Superintendent  of  Documents,  U.S.  Government  Printing 

Office,  Washington,  D.C.  20402. 

With  Secretary  Ripley  at  the  throttle,  Olomana  was  installed  in  the  National  Museum 
of  History  and  Technology  on  May  19,  1977.  Olomana  hauled  sugarcane  for  sixty- 
two  seasons  in  Hawaii,  and  is  typical  of  small  steam  locomotives  used  by  industrial 
railways  from  circa  1870  to  1940. 


Programs  and  Activities 

OCTOBER  1,  1976,  THROUGH 
SEPTEMBER  30,  1977 

Smithsonian  Institution  Press  •  City  of  Washington  *  1978 

Library  of  Congress  Catalog  Card  Number  67-7980 

For  sale  by  the  Superintendent  of  Documents,  U.S.  Government  Printing  Office 
Washington,  D.C.,  20402  (paper  cover)  Stock  Number:  047-000-00348-2 

The  Smithsonian  Institution 

The  Smithsonian  Institution  was  created  by  act  of  Congress  in  1846 
in  accordance  with  the  terms  of  the  will  of  James  Smithson  of  Eng- 
land, who  in  1826  bequeathed  his  property  to  the  United  States  of 
America  "to  found  at  Washington,  under  the  name  of  the  Smith- 
sonian Institution,  an  establishment  for  the  increase  and  diffusion 
of  knowledge  among  men."  After  receiving  the  property  and  ac- 
cepting the  trust,  Congress  incorporated  the  Institution  in  an  "es- 
tablishment," whose  statutory  members  are  the  President,  the  Vice 
President,  the  Chief  Justice,  and  the  heads  of  the  executive  depart- 
ments, and  vested  responsibility  for  administering  the  trust  in  the 
Smithsonian  Board  of  Regents. 


Jimmy  Carter,  President  of  the  United  States 

Walter  F.  Mondale,  Vice  President  of  the  United  States 

Warren  E.  Burger,  Chief  Justice  of  the  United  States 

Cyrus  R.  Vance,  Secretary  of  State 

W.  Michael  Blumenthal,  Secretary  of  the  Treasury 

Harold  Brown,  Secretary  of  Defense 

Griffin  B.  Bell,  Attorney  General 

Cecil  D.  Andrus,  Secretary  of  the  Interior 

Bob  S.  Bergland,  Secretary  of  Agriculture 

Juanita  M.  Kreps,  Secretary  of  Commerce 

F.  Ray  Marshall,  Secretary  of  Labor 

Joseph  A.  Califano,  Jr.,  Secretary  of  Health,  Education,  and  Welfare 

Patricia  Roberts  Harris,  Secretary  of  Housing  and  Urban  Development 

Brock  Adams,  Secretary  of  Transportation 

James  R.  Schlesinger,  Secretary  of  Energy 

Board  of  Regents  and  Secretary  •  September  30,  1977 



Warren  E.  Burger,  Chief  Justice  of  the  United  States,  Chancellor 

Walter  F.  Mondale,  Vice  President  of  the  United  States 

Henry  M.  Jackson,  Member  of  the  Senate 

Barry  Goldwater,  Member  of  the  Senate 

Claiborne  Pell,  Member  of  the  Senate 

George  H.  Mahon,  Member  of  the  House  of  Representatives 

Elford  A.  Cederberg,  Member  of  the  House  of  Representatives 

Corinne  C.  Boggs,  Member  of  the  House  of  Representatives 

J.  Paul  Austin,  citizen  of  Georgia 

John  Nicholas  Brown,  citizen  of  Rhode  Island 

William  A.  M.  Burden,  citizen  of  New  York 

Murray  Gell-Mann,  citizen  of  California 

Caryl  P.  Haskins,  citizen  of  the  District  of  Columbia 

A.  Leon  Higginbotham,  Jr.,  citizen  of  Pennsylvania 

Thomas  J.  Watson,  Jr.,  citizen  of  Connecticut 

James  E.  Webb,  citizen  of  the  District  of  Columbia 

Warren  E.  Burger,  Chancellor  (Board  of  Regents) 

William  A.  M.  Burden 

Caryl  P.  Haskins 

James  E.  Webb  (Chairman) 

the  secretary       S.  Dillon  Ripley 

Dorothy  Rosenberg,  Executive  Assistant  to  the  Secretary 

John  F.  Jameson,  Assistant  Secretary  for  Administration 

Charles  Blitzer,  Assistant  Secretary  for  History  and  Art 

David  Challinor,  Assistant  Secretary  for  Science 

Paul  N.  Perrot,  Assistant  Secretary  for  Museum  Programs 

Julian  T.  Euell,  Assistant  Secretary  for  Public  Service 

T.  Ames  Wheeler,  Treasurer 

Peter  G.  Powers,  General  Counsel 

Richard  L.  Ault,  Director,  Support  Activities 

James  McK.  Symington,  Director,  Membership  and  Developmen* 

Lawrence  E.  Taylor,  Coordinator,  Public  Information 


Smithsonian  Year  •  1977 





16  Chesapeake  Bay  Center  for  Environmental  Studies 
24  Fort  Pierce  Bureau 

27  National  Air  and  Space  Museum 

39  National  Museum  of  Man,  Center  for  the  Study  of  Man 

45  National  Museum  of  Natural  History 

57  National  Zoological  Park 

64  Office  of  International  Programs 

65  Radiation  Biology  Laboratory 

73  Smithsonian  Astrophysical  Observatory 

87  Smithsonian  Tropical  Research  Institute 


97  Archives  of  American  Art 

100  Cooper-Hewitt  Museum  of  Design  and  Decorative  Arts 

102  Freer  Gallery  of  Art 

106  Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden 

113  Joseph  Henry  Papers 

114  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts 

120  National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology 

133  National  Portrait  Gallery 

137  Office  of  Academic  Studies 

138  Office  of  American  and  Folklife  Studies 


143  Conservation  Analytical  Laboratory 

141  National  Museum  Act  Program 

148  Office  of  Exhibits  Central 

149  Office  of  Horticulture 



page     150  Office  of  Museum  Programs 

153  Office  of  the  Registrar 

154  Smithsonian  Institution  Archives 

155  Smithsonian  Institution  Libraries 

159  Smithsonian  Institution  Traveling  Exhibition  Service 


166  Anacostia  Neighborhood  Museum 
169  Division  of  Performing  Arts 

173  Office  of  Elementary  and  Secondary  Education 

175  Office  of  Smithsonian  Symposia  and  Seminars 

179  Office  of  Telecommunications 

180  Smithsonian  Institution  Press 

181  Smithsonian  Magazine 

183  Smithsonian  Resident  Associates 

186  Visitor  Information  and  Associates'  Reception  Center 










Smithsonian  Year  •  7977 

The  following  is  a  representative  selection  of  Smithsonian  events  during 
the  year.  No  attempt  has  been  made  to  make  it  a  complete  compilation 
of  all  Smithsonian  activities. 


October  1 

October  3 

October  6 

publication":  Inaugural  edition  of  The  Wilson  Quarterly 
published  by  the  VVoodrow  Wilson  International  Center 
for  Scholars. 

science:  Volcano  monitoring  stations,  initiated  by  Nation- 
al Museum  of  Natural  History  scientist  Dr.  Richard  Fiske, 
established  on  the  Lesser  Antillean  Islands  of  Martinique, 
St.  Vincent,  and  Montserrat,  similar  to  those  established 
earlier  on  the  flanks  of  Guadeloupe's  threatening  La- 
Soufriere  Volcano. 

new  department:  National  Portrait  Gallery  established  a 
Department  of  Photographs,  made  possible  through 
change  in  charter  redefining  portraiture  for  the  purpose 
of  acquisitions. 

exhibition:  Smithsonian  Institution  Traveling  Exhibition 
Service  exhibition  (Bicentennial)  "Belgian  Gunmaking 
and  American  History"  began  tour  at  Smithsonian  Insti- 
tution's National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology. 

concert  series:  First  of  five  Blues  Concerts,  at  the  Na- 
tional Museum  of  Natural  History,  presented  by  the  Di- 
vision of  Performing  Arts. 

opening:  The  Archives  of  American  Art  established  its 
Midwest  Regional  Office  at  the  Detroit  Institute  of  Arts, 
with  remarks  by  the  Mayor  of  Detroit. 

lecture  series:  First  of  eight  lectures  in  a  series  titled 
"New  Windows  on  the  Universe"  presented  by  the  Na- 
tional Air  and  Space  Museum  and  the  Harvard-Smith- 
sonian Center  for  Astrophysics. 

October  7  opening  :  Cooper-Hewitt  Museum  of  Design  and  Decora- 

tive Arts  reopened  to  the  public  in  New  York  City  fea- 
turing inaugural  exhibition  "MAN  transFORMS,  Aspects 
of  Design." 

award:  First  International  Award  for  Distinguished  Con- 
tributions to  Natural  History  presented  to  George  Gay- 
lord  Simpson,  paleontologist  and  evolutionary  theorist, 
for  his  contributions  as  researcher,  teacher,  and  philoso- 

October  10  concert  series:  First  of  five  Jazz  Heritage  concerts  pre- 
sented by  the  Division  of  Performing  Arts  at  the  National 
Museum  of  Natural  History. 

October  14  exhibition:  "Hans  Hofmann,"  the  first  large  survey  of  this 
American  artist's  work  since  his  death  in  1966,  opened  at 
the  Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden. 

October  15  exhibition  :  "The  American  Presidency  in  Political  Car- 
toons" opened  at  the  National  Portrait  Gallery. 

October  18  award:  The  Edward  W.  Browning  Achievement  Award 
for  Conserving  the  Environment  presented  to  Dr.  Joel  W. 
Hedgpeth,  Professor  Emeritus,  Oregon  State  University, 
for  his  lifetime  contributions  in  research  and  education 
in  the  field  of  marine  biology. 

permanent  installation:  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts 
opened  the  John  Gellatly  Gallery,  with  one  hundred  Euro- 
pean and  Asiatic  art  objects,  part  of  a  collection  of  paint- 
ings and  art  objects  donated  to  the  Smithsonian  in  1929. 

October  19  exhibition:  "Americas:  The  Decorative  Arts  in  Latin 
America  in  the  Era  of  the  Revolution,"  a  major  Bicenten- 
nial exhibition,  opened  at  the  Renwick  Gallery. 

October  20  acquisition:  Bush  dog,  one  of  many  animals  acquired  by 
purchase  or  loan  by  the  National  Zoo,  was  received  on 
loan  from  zoo  at  Frankfurt,  Germany. 

October  23  milestone  :  One  hundred  and  fifty  years  ago,  James  Smith- 
son  wrote  his  will  leading  to  the  creation  of  the  Smith- 
sonian Institution. 

October  24  concert  series  :  First  of  six  American  Popular  Song  pro- 
grams presented  by  the  Division  of  Performing  Arts  at 
the  National  Museum  of  Natural  History. 

visit:  Soviet  space  scientists  visited  the  Center  for  Astro- 
physics in  Cambridge,  Massachusetts,  as  part  of  a  nation- 
wide tour  to  further  Russian-American  space  efforts. 

October  27        award  :   Arts  and  Industries   Building  received   Historic 

2  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

October  30 

November  1 

November  6 

November  7 

November  8 

November  11 

November  15 

November  19 

November  23 

Preservation  Award  from  the  Washington  Metropolitan 
Chapter  of  the  American  Institute  of  Architects. 

exhibition:  "Robert  Rauschenberg,"  featuring  150  works, 
opened  at  the  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts,  later  trav- 
eling to  the  Museum  of  Modern  Art  in  New  York,  the 
San  Francisco  Museum  of  Modern  Art,  the  Albright-Knox 
Art  Gallery,  and  The  Art  Institute  of  Chicago. 

concert  series:  Theatre  Chamber  Players,  in  residence  at 
the  Smithsonian,  performed  in  the  first  of  their  five- 
concert  series. 

concert  series:  First  of  three-concert  series  featuring 
"Music  from  Marlboro"  presented  by  the  Division  of 
Performing  Arts  at  the  National  Museum  of  Natural 

concert  series:  First  of  three  programs  in  the  Jazz  Con- 
noisseur series  presented  by  the  Division  of  Performing 
Arts  at  the  Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden. 

concert  series  :  The  Smithsonian  Chamber  Players  began 
a  new  series  of  fifteen  concerts,  presented  by  the  Division 
of  Performing  Arts  and  the  Division  of  Musical  Instru- 
ments at  the  National  Museum  of  History  and  Tech- 

exhibition:  "Alfred  Leslie,"  an  exhibition  of  works  by  a 
major  American  realist  painter,  opened  at  the  Hirshhorn 
Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden. 

visit:  Nine  astronomers  from  the  People's  Republic  of 
China  visited  the  Smithsonian-Harvard  Center  for  Astro- 
physics in  Cambridge,  Massachusetts,  as  part  of  a  month- 
long  scientific  exchange. 

exhibition:  "Chac-Mool:  A  Bicentennial  Loan  from  Mexi- 
co," an  official  showing  of  one  of  Mexico's  national  treas- 
ures, the  Chac-Mool  from  Chichen-Itza  (Maya-Toltec 
sculpture:  10th-12th  centuries,  a.d.),  opened  at  the  Hirsh- 
horn Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden. 

exhibition:  "Jacob  Kainen:  Prints,  a  Retrospective"  opened 
at  the  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts. 

exhibition:  "The  Art  of  Poetry:  1950-1975"  opened  at  the 
National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts  as  part  of  a  citywide 
poetry  and  visual  arts  celebration. 

exhibition:  "Treasures  of  Cyprus"  opened  at  the  National 
Museum  of  Natural  History.  The  Smithsonian  Institution 
Traveling  Exhibition  Service  circulated  the  exhibit  as  part 
of  the  International  Salute  to  the  States  Bicentennial 

Chronology  I  3 

December  1  special  event:  The  Anacostia  Neighborhood  Museum  be- 
gan a  month-long  series  of  Christmas-season  activities, 
including  a  workshop  on  the  African  Kwanza  festival, 
and  marching  bands. 

December  1-2  exhibitions:  Two  exhibitions  opened  as  part  of  the  Dis- 
trict of  Columbia's  celebration  featuring  poetry  and  the 
visual  arts  in  the  community:  "A  Touch  of  the  Poet: 
Portraits  from  the  Permanent  Collection,"  National  Por- 
trait Gallery;  and  "E.  E.  Cummings:  The  Poet  as  Artist," 
Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden. 

December  2 

December  4 

December  8 

December  9 


December  15 

exhibition:  "Peter  Plagens:  Works  on  Paper,"  a  West 
Coast  artist's  first  one-man  show  in  a  major  museum, 
opened  at  the  Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden. 

film:  Smithsonian-produced  film  Celebrating  a  Century 
had  its  premiere  showing  for  museum  visitors,  beginning 
a  regular  feature  at  the  Arts  and  Industries  Building  and 
the  Museum  of  History  and  Technology.  It  was  telecast 
nationally  May  11-15  via  Public  Broadcasting  Service.  It 
also  won  a  CINE  Golden  Eagle  Award. 

opening:  The  Naturalist  Center,  with  reference  books  and 
equipment  for  research  and  study  by  serious  amateur 
naturalists,  opened  as  the  final  phase  of  the  West  Court 
project  at  the  National  Museum  of  Natural  History. 

special  event:  "A  Hirshhorn  Holiday:  An  Adventure  in 
Art  and  Illusion,"  four  hours  of  free  entertainment  and 
performances  for  children,  sponsored  by  the  Women's 
Committee  of  the  Smithsonian  Associates,  was  presented 
at  the  Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Gardens. 

doubleday  lecture:  John  Updike  spoke  on  "The  Written 
Word"  as  part  of  the  lecture  series  presented  at  the  Na- 
tional Museum  of  History  and  Technology. 

exhibition:  "Not  a  Model  Boy"  opened  at  the  National 
Portrait  Gallery  marking  the  one  hundredth  anniversary 
of  the  publication  of  Mark  Twain's  The  Adventures  of 
Tom  Sawyer. 

national  associates  program  :  Program  for  regional  mem- 
bers of  Smithsonian  Associates  presented  in  Peoria,  Illi- 
nois, co-sponsored  by  the  Lakeview  Center  for  the  Arts 
and  Sciences,  featured  exhibitions,  workshops,  lectures, 
and  performing  arts  events. 

exhibition:  "The  Object  as  Poet"  opened  at  the  Renwick 
Gallery,  examining  the  relationship  of  poetry  to  the  poetic 
image  in  objects  made  by  artists/craftsmen. 

4  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

December  15 

December  16 

December  22 

December  28 

exhibition:  "Edward  Munch:  The  Major  Graphics — A  Bi- 
centennial Exhibition  from  Norway"  opened  at  the  George 
Washington  University  and  was  circulated  by  the  Smith- 
sonian Institution  Traveling  Exhibition  Service  in  the  In- 
ternational Salute  to  the  States  program. 

exhibition:  "Person  to  Person,"  a  multi-media  exhibit 
marking  the  one-hundredth  anniversary  of  the  telephone, 
opened  at  the  National  Museum  of  History  and  Tech- 

exhibition:  "John  White  Alexander  (1856-1915),"  the 
first  comprehensive  exhibit  of  Alexander's  work  in  sixty 
years,  opened  at  the  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts. 

acquisition:  Nineteen  Winslow  Homer  letters,  some  illus- 
trated with  sketches,  acquired  by  the  Archives  of  Ameri- 
can Art. 


January  10  exhibitions:  "First  Ladies  Jewelry  and  Accessories  and 
Presidential  Inaugural  Medals"  opened  at  the  National 
Museum  of  History  and  Technology,  in  tribute  to  the 
Presidential  Inaugural. 

appointment:  United  States  Senator  Barry  Goldwater,  of 
Arizona,  appointed  a  Regent  of  the  Smithsonian  Institu- 

acquisition:  Pioneer  10  spacecraft  displayed  in  the  Mile- 
stones of  Flight  Gallery  of  the  National  Air  and  Space 


January  11  opening:  The  Silver  Hill  Museum,  with  several  buildings 
of  displays  and  the  restoration  facility  of  the  National  Air 
and  Space  Museum,  opened  for  public  tours  at  Silver  Hill, 

January  12  special  event:  President-Elect  Jimmy  Carter  held  a  foreign 
affairs  briefing  in  the  Smithsonian  Institution  Building. 

January  15  exhibition:  "The  President's  Medal  1789-1977"  opened  at 
the  National  Portrait  Gallery,  exhibiting  the  medals  of 
Presidents  from  George  Washington  to  Jimmy  Carter,  and 
reviewing  the  origins  and  development  of  this  form  of 
American  portraiture. 

reinstallation:  Hall  of  Presidents  reopened  by  the  Na- 
tional Portrait  Gallery  including  newly  acquired  portraits 
of  John  Adams  and  Zachary  Taylor. 

January  18-22  concert  series  :  Eighty-five  free  concerts  held  in  seven 
museums,  under  the  direction  of  the  Division  of  Perform- 

Chronology  I  5 

January  26 

January  29 

January  29- 
February  6 

ing  Arts,  in  tribute  to  the  inaugurations  of  President 
Carter  and  Vice  President  Mondale. 

January  20  appointment:  Walter  F.  Mondale  became  ex-officio  mem- 
ber of  the  Regents  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution  on  his 
inauguration  as  Vice  President. 

January  24  exhibition:  "Artists  and  Writers  in  America:  Some  Rela- 
tionships" opened  at  the  National  Portrait  Gallery  by  the 
Archives  of  American  Art. 

appointment:  United  States  Senator  Claiborne  Pell,  of 
Rhode  Island,  appointed  a  Regent  of  the  Smithsonian 

doubleday  lecture:  United  States  Congressman  John 
Brademas  of  Indiana  spoke  at  the  National  Museum  of 
History  and  Technology  on  "Education  in  the  Real 

exhibition:  "Locks  from  Iran:  Pre-Islamic  to  the  Twen- 
tieth Century,"  produced  and  circulated  by  the  Smith- 
sonian Institution  Traveling  Exhibition  Service,  opened  at 
the  National  Museum  of  Natural  History. 

national  associates  program:  Program  for  regional  mem- 
bers of  Smithsonian  Associates  held  in  Milwaukee  in  co- 
sponsorship  with  the  Milwaukee  Art  Center,  the  Mil- 
waukee Public  Museum,  and  Friends  of  the  Museum,  Inc., 
assisted  by  the  Performing  Arts  Center,  included  exhibi- 
tions, workshops,  lectures,  and  performing  arts  events. 

February  2  symposium:  "20th  Century  Canadian  Culture:  A  Sympo- 

sium," an  eleven-week  series  of  lectures,  panel  discus- 
sions, and  films  on  Canadian  arts  and  humanities,  opened 
at  the  Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden  with  the 
evening  keynote  address,  "Canadian  Culture  Today,"  by 
Dr.  Northrop  Frye,  and  introductory  remarks  by  Mrs. 
Walter  Mondale  and  Mrs.  Pierre  Trudeau. 

opening:  Education- Administration  Building  opened  at  the 
National  Zoo  as  part  of  the  Zoo's  master  plan  for  mod- 

February  3  exhibition:  "14  Canadians:  A  Critic's  Choice"  opened  at 
the  Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden  in  con- 
junction with  "20th  Century  Canadian  Culture"  sym- 

February  6-20  national  associates  program  :  A  program  of  exhibitions, 
lectures,  workshops,  and  performing  arts  events  held  for 
Smithsonian  Associates  in  Detroit,  Michigan,  co-spon- 
sored by  the  Cranbrook  Education  Community,  Detroit 
Historical  Museum  and  Detroit  Historical  Society,  and 
the  Detroit  Institute  of  Arts. 

6  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

February  10  acquisition:  A  rare  1880  self-portrait  by  Mary  Cassatt 
acquired  by  the  National  Portrait  Gallery;  one  of  only  two 
painted  by  the  American  artist,  who  was  a  major  figure 
in  the  French  Impressionist  movement. 

February  11  exhibition:  "Daniel  Chester  French:  An  American  Sculp- 
tor" opened  at  the  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts,  the 
first  major  retrospective  of  French's  work. 

February  16  films:  Opening  of  thirteen-film  series,  produced  by  Wan- 
go  Weng  and  presented  by  the  China  Institute  in  Ameri- 
ca, entitled  China:  The  Enduring  Heritage  at  the  National 
Museum  of  Natural  History. 

February  21  visit:  United  States  Senator  John  Glenn,  of  Ohio,  was 
the  honored  guest  at  a  National  Air  and  Space  Museum 
luncheon  to  observe  the  fifteenth  anniversary  of  the  first 
American  orbital  flight.  As  an  astronaut,  Senator  Glenn 
was  the  pilot  of  Friendship  7  which  made  the  flight. 

February  28-  scientific  workshop:  One  hundred  scientists  and  science- 
March  3  related  professionals  attended  conference  on  Watershed 
Research  in  Eastern  North  America,  sponsored  by  the 
Chesapeake  Bay  Center  for  Environmental  Sciences  and 
the  National  Science  Foundation  and  held  at  the  Bay 
Center.  Sixty  scientific  papers  presented  at  the  workshop 
have  been  published  in  one  volume. 

March  1  award:  America  as  Art,  a  book  by  Joshua  C.  Taylor,  Di- 

rector, National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts,  was  chosen  as  one 
of  five  finalists  in  the  history  category  for  the  twenty- 
eighth  annual  National  Book  Awards  given  by  the  Amer- 
ican Academy  and  Institute  of  Arts  and  Letters.  (See  April 

March  1-11  national  associates  program:  A  regional  program  for 
Smithsonian  Associates  held  in  Seattle,  Washington,  in 
co-sponsorship  with  the  Pacific  Science  Center,  the  Seattle 
Art  Museum,  the  Seattle  Historical  Society,  and  the  Mu- 
seum of  History  and  Industry,  and  assisted  by  the  Depart- 
ment of  Music,  University  of  Washington,  featured  per- 
forming arts  events,  exhibitions,  workshops,  and  lectures. 

March  3  exhibition:  "Royal  Pavillion  at  Brighton"  opened  at  the 

Cooper-Hewitt  Museum  of  Design  and  Decorative  Arts, 
New  York  City. 

March  4  appointment:  United  States  Congresswoman  Corinne  C. 

(Lindy)  Boggs  of  Louisiana  appointed  a  Regent  of  the 
Smithsonian  Institution,  the  first  woman  to  hold  this 

March  6  exhibition:  "The  Anacostia  Story"  opened  at  the  Anacos- 

tia  Neighborhood  Museum,  with  focus  on  the  area's  his- 
tory from  1608  to  1930. 

Chronology  I  7 

March  9-17  national  associates  program:  A  program  for  Smithson- 
ian Associates  held  in  Portland,  Oregon,  in  co-sponsor- 
ship with  the  Oregon  Historical  Society  and  the  Portland 
Art  Museum. 

March  16  doubled  ay  lecture:  Charles  Eames,  artisan  and  designer, 

spoke  at  the  National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology 
on  "Education  Outside  the  Educational  Establishment." 

March  17  exhibition:  "Rails  of  the  World:  Paintings  by  J.  Fenwick 

Lansdowne"  opened  at  the  National  Museum  of  Natural 
History.  The  exhibit  was  circulated  by  the  Smithsonian 
Institution  Traveling  Exhibition  Service. 

March  18  exhibition:  "Paint  on  Wood:  Decorated  American  Furni- 

ture Since  the  17th  Century"  opened  at  the  Renwick 

March  25  exhibition:     "Acquisitions:     1974-1977"     presented     the 

Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden's  more  than 
one  hundred  thirty  works  acquired  through  gift  and  pur- 
chase since  the  Museum  opened  in  October  1974. 

March  26  special    event:    Annual    Kite   Festival   and   Competition, 

sponsored  by  the  Smithsonian  Resident  Associates  and 
under  the  direction  of  Paul  Garber,  National  Air  and 
Space  Museum,  was  held  on  the  Mall. 

April  2  visit:    First   Lady   Rosalynn   Carter   and   daughter  Amy 

visited  the  National  Zoological  Park. 

April  3  spring   celebration:    First   of  more   than   eighty  musical 

events  presented  over  a  fifteen-day  period  on  the  grounds 
of  the  National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology. 

April  5  meeting:  Assistant  Secretary  David  Challinor  met  with 

President  Anwar  el-Sadat  in  Washington  to  discuss 
Smithsonian  projects  in  Egypt. 

April  7  exhibitions  :  "Oriental  Calligraphy,"  a  major  showing  of 

calligraphy  from  China,  Japan,  and  the  Near  East,  and 
Biblical  manuscripts  from  the  3rd  to  17th  centuries, 
opened  at  the  Freer  Gallery  of  Art. 

April  11-21  national  associates  program:  A  program  for  regional 
members  of  Smithsonian  Associates  held  in  Denver,  Colo- 
rado, in  co-sponsorship  with  the  Denver  Art  Museum, 
the  Denver  Public  Library,  and  the  State  Historical  So- 
ciety of  Colorado. 

April  12  milestone:  Tenth  anniversary  of  the  Carousel  on  the  Mall. 

April  20  doubleday  lecture  :  James  M.  Hester,  Rector  of  the  United 

Nations  University,  spoke  at  the  National  Museum  of 

8  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

History  and  Technology  on  "Education  for  a  Changed 
April  20-27  national  associates  program  :  A  regional  program  for 
Smithsonian  Associates  held  in  Minneapolis-St.  Paul, 
Minnesota,  in  co-sponsorship  with  the  Minnesota  His- 
torical Society,  the  Minneapolis  Institute  of  Arts,  the 
Science  Museum  in  Minnesota,  and  the  Walker  Art 
Center,  and  with  the  assistance  of  the  Department  of 
Music,  University  of  Minnesota. 

April  30  exhibition:  "America  as  Art,"  a  major  Bicentennial  exhi- 

bition, opened  at  the  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts. 

May  1  native  American  training  program:  Dr.  George  Abrams, 

member  of  the  Seneca  Nation  and  Director  of  the  Seneca 
Museum,  arrived  as  the  first  participant  in  the  training 
program  organized  by  the  Office  of  Museum  Programs 
for  the  study  of  techniques  and  methods  of  museology. 

May  19  visit:  His  Holiness,  the  Sixteenth  Gyalwa  Karmapa,  head 

of  the  Tibetan  Buddism  sect  Kagyu,  toured  the  Smith- 
sonian Institution. 

May  20  symposium:  "The  Life  and  Accomplishments  of  Charles 

A.  Lindbergh"  presented  by  the  National  Air  and  Space 
Museum  in  observance  of  the  fiftieth  anniversary  of  Lind- 
bergh's solo  flight  across  the  Atlantic. 

exhibition:   "Painting  and  Sculpture  in  California:  The 
Modern  Era"  opened  at  the  National  Collection  of  Fine 
Arts  with  270  works  created  from  1900  to  1976  by  199 
May  21  exhibition:  "American  Crafts  in  the  White  House"  opened 

at  the  Renwick  Gallery. 

May  24  exhibition  :  "The  Thomas  Eakins  Collection  of  the  Hirsh- 

horn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden,"  the  first  extensive 
showing  of  one  of  the  largest  Eakins  collections  in  the 
United  States,  opened  at  the  Hirshhorn  Museum. 

symposium:  "Thomas  Eakins:  A  Symposium,"  a  day-long 
series  of  lectures  by  four  leading  Eakins  scholars,  pre- 
sented in  the  Hirshhorn  Museum  auditorium. 

May  25  annual  lecture  :  Dr.  Robert  H.  Dyson  Jr.,  President  of 

the  Archeological  Institute  of  America  spoke  on  "Twenty 
Years  Digging  in  Iran,"  presented  by  the  Smithsonian 
Institution  and  the  Archeological  Institute  of  America. 

music  institute:  The  Division  of  Performing  Arts  opened 
a  nine-day  "Institute  on  Criticism  in  Jazz." 

May  27  exhibition:  "25th  National  Exhibition  of  Prints,"  opened 

at  the  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts. 

Chronology  I  9 


June  9 

June  10 

June  14 

June  16 

June  23 

June  24 
June  29 

accreditation:  The  Anacostia  Neighborhood  Museum 
offered  an  accredited  course  designed  for  teachers,  in  con- 
junction with  the  Advisory  and  Learning  Exchange. 

film:  Faces  of  Freedom,  a  30-minute  film  presenting  an 
overview  of  American  history  as  told  through  portraiture, 
produced  by  Charles  Guggenheim  Productions  for  the  Na- 
tional Portrait  Gallery  with  Charlton  Heston  as  narrator, 
premiered  at  the  National  Portrait  Gallery. 

exhibition:  "Recent  Works  in  Metal  by  Albert  Paley," 
including  the  hand-wrought  gates  he  designed  and  fabri- 
cated for  the  Renwick  Gallery  museum  shop,  and  "Iron, 
Solid  Wrought/USA"  opened  at  the  Renwick  Gallery. 

sixth  international  symposium:  "Kin  and  Communities: 
The  Peopling  of  America,"  a  four-day  program  produced 
by  the  Smithsonian  Office  of  Seminars  and  Symposia, 
opened  at  the  Kennedy  Center,  with  ceremonies  that  in- 
cluded First  Lady  Rosalynn  Carter,  anthropologist  Mar- 
garet Mead,  Senator  Hubert  H.  Humphrey,  author  Alex 
Haley,  wife  of  the  District  of  Columbia's  mayor  Mrs.  Wal- 
ter Washington,  and  Smithsonian  Secretary  S.  Dillon  Rip- 
ley. Related  film  programs  and  exhibitions  were  scheduled 
in  the  National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology  and 
the  Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden. 

award:  United  States  Senator  Hubert  H.  Humphrey  of 
Minnesota  was  awarded  the  Smithsonian  Institution's  Jo- 
seph Henry  Medal  at  the  opening  ceremonies  of  "Kin  and 
Communities"  symposium. 

exhibition:  "The  Photography  of  Leland  Rice"  opened  at 
the  Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden,  the  mu- 
seum's first  exhibition  of  contemporary  photography. 

visit:  Her  Royal  Highness  Princess  Anne  and  Captain 
Mark  Phillips  of  Great  Britain  toured  the  National  Mu- 
seum of  History  and  Technology  and  the  Silver  Jubilee 
exhibition,  which  commemorated  the  twenty-fifth  anni- 
versary of  the  reign  of  Great  Britain's  Queen  Elizabeth  II. 

exhibition:  "Photographing  the  Frontier,"  the  first  half  of 
a  showing  of  photographs  by  the  pioneers  of  the  Ameri- 
can Frontier,  opened  at  the  National  Museum  of  History 
and  Technology. 

exhibition:  "22  Polish  Textile  Artists"  opened  at  the  Ren- 
wick Gallery. 

sculpture  dedication:  On  the  west  lawn  of  the  National 
Air  and  Space  Museum,  Carlos  A.  Perez,  President  of 
Venezuela,  dedicated  Alejandro  Otero's  Delta  Solar  sculp- 
ture, his  country's  Bicentennial  gift  to  the  United  States. 

10  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 


July  4 

July  8 

July  9 

July  14 

July  20 

July  29 


August  4 

August  5 

science:  Pleistocene  lake  site  in  Colorado,  excavated  by 
National  Museum  of  Natural  History  archeologist  Dr. 
Dennis  Stanford,  revealed  proof  that  early  man  was  in  the 
New  World  hunting  mammoths,  camels,  and  other  ice-age 
animals  earlier  than  previously  known. 

special  event:  Smithsonian  Station  of  the  Washington 
area's  Metro  subway  system  opened  on  the  Mall  at  12th 

special  event:  Three  days  of  music,  crafts,  and  dancing 
held  on  the  terrace  and  grounds  of  the  National  Museum 
of  History  and  Technology  in  celebration  of  the  Fourth 
of  July. 

milestone:  National  Air  and  Space  Museum  welcomed 
its  10  millionth  visitor  since  its  opening  July  1,  1976.  The 
record  was  set  one  week  after  nasm's  first  anniversary. 

exhibition  :  "Raices  y  Visiones — Roots  and  Visions,"  a  bi- 
lingual show,  opened  at  the  National  Collection  of  Fine 
Arts  with  paintings,  prints,  and  sculpture  by  artists  of 
the  American  Hispanic  communities. 

exhibition:  "Palaces  for  the  People,"  an  exhibit  on  a 
hundred  years  of  resort  and  motel  architecture  in  Ameri- 
ca, opened  at  the  Cooper-Hewitt  Museum  of  Design  and 
Decorative  Arts,  New  York  City. 

exhibition:  "Summer  Sculpture  '77,"  the  first  outdoor 
contemporary  sculpture  show  on  loan  to  the  Hirshhorn 
Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden,  was  opened. 

exhibition:  "Arthur  Wesley  Dow  (1857-1922)"  opened  al 
the  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts;  Dow  was  an  influ- 
encial  art  educator  around  the  turn  of  the  century. 

science:  Research  team,  led  by  National  Museum  of  Natu- 
ral History  archeologist  Dr.  William  Fitzhugh  to  remote 
regions  of  Arctic  Northern  Labrador,  made  discoveries 
about  the  origins  of  Indian  and  Eskimo  people  and  found 
the  northernmost  Indian  burial  structure  known  in  eastern 
North  America. 

art  commission:  Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Gar- 
den announced  major  commission  by  the  Institute  of  Scrap 
Iron  and  Steel,  Inc.,  for  the  creation  of  a  monumental  out- 
door sculpture  by  American  artist  Mark  Di  Suvero.  Instal- 
lation on  plaza  and  dedication  ceremonies  planned  for 
summer,  1978. 

exhibition:  "Grass,"  a  major  show  of  natural  grasses  and 
their  use  as  both  functional  and  decorative  objects  of 
many  cultures,  opened  at  the  Renwick  Gallery. 

Chronology  I  11 

August  7 

August  12 

August  20 

August  26 

August  27 

September  4 

September  9 

conference:  Seventh  International  Conference  on  the 
History  of  Cartography  began  in  the  National  Museum 
of  History  and  Technology,  co-sponsored  by  the  Library 
of  Congress.  Rare  maps,  early  surveying  equipment,  and 
documents  from  pre-Columbian  times  to  the  19th  century 
were  featured  in  exhibits  developed  in  conjunction  with 
the  meeting. 

satellite:  HEAO-1,  an  X-ray  satellite  carrying  an  experi- 
ment developed  jointly  by  the  Smithsonian  Astrophysical 
Observatory  and  the  Massachusetts  Institute  of  Technol- 
ogy, was  the  first  in  a  series  of  three  high-energy  obser- 
vatories launched  by  the  National  Air  and  Space  Museum 
to  survey  and  map  the  X-ray  sky.  HEAO-1  subsequently 
identified  a  bright  X-ray  nova  in  the  constellation  Ophiu- 
chus  and  a  rapid  X-ray  burster  at  the  galactic  center. 

exhibition:  Smithsonian  Institution  Traveling  Exhibition 
Service  exhibition  "North  American  Indian  Baskets"  be- 
gan tour  at  Houston  Museum  of  Natural  Science,  Texas. 

exhibition:  "We  Were  But  a  Handful,"  the  story  of  the 
Woman's  Party  from  Seneca  Falls  to  the  19th  amend- 
ment, opened  at  the  National  Portrait  Gallery. 

exhibition:  Smithsonian  Institution  Traveling  Exhibition 
Service's  exhibit  "And  Now  a  Message  ...  A  Century  of 
American  Advertising  1830-1930"  opened  in  three  copies 
at  McMaster  University,  Ontario,  Canada;  Saint  Louis 
Public  Library;  and  the  Lincoln  First  National  Bank  in 
Rochester,  New  York. 

special  event:  The  National  Air  and  Space  Museum's  first 
annual  Smithsonian  Frisbee  Festival  held,  with  demonstra- 
tions and  workshops,  on  the  Mall. 

exhibition:  Smithsonian  Institution  Traveling  Exhibition 
Service  exhibit  "Folk  Arts  &  Crafts"  opened  at  Center  for 
Southern  Folklore  in  Memphis,  Tennessee. 

September  15  milestone:  Tenth  Anniversary  of  the  Anacostia  Neighbor- 
hood Museum  observed  with  an  Open  House. 

exhibitions:  "Chinese  Album  Leaves  and  Fan  Paintings" 
and  "The  Four  Seasons  in  Japanese  Art"  opened  at  the 
Freer  Gallery  of  Art. 

September  21  award  :  CINE  Golden  Eagle  certificate  awarded  to  Smith- 
sonian Institution-produced  film,  The  Smithsonian  Insti- 
tution with  S.  Dillon  Ripley,  Secretary. 

September  24  exhibition:  Smithsonian  Institution  Traveling  Exhibition 
Service  exhibit  from  Hungary  entitled  "Hungarian  Art 

12  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Nouveau"  began  tour  at  Ackland  Memorial  Art  Center, 
Chapel  Hill,  North  Carolina. 

September  26  exhibition:  Smithsonian  Institution  Traveling  Exhibition 
Service  exhibit  "Images  of  Old  Age  in  America"  began 
its  national  tour  at  the  Institute  of  Gerontology,  Univer- 
sity of  Michigan. 

September  30  exhibition:  "Raphael  Soyer:  Drawings  and  Watercolors" 
opened  at  the  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts;  in  con- 
junction with  the  exhibition,  Joshua  C.  Taylor,  Director 
of  the  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts,  and  Soyer  held  a 
dialogue  about  the  artist's  work. 

Chronology  I  13 



■■■       -J:.      ■, 

-**'  h  t 

Two  scientists  at  the  Chesapeake  Bay  Center  for  Environmental  Studies  measure 
soil  moisture  as  part  of  an  investigation  of  the  hydrologic  characteristics  of  indi- 
vidual drainage  basins. 

Smithsonian  Year  -1977 

The  bicentennial  celebrations  brought  a  greater  awareness  among 
the  science  bureaus  of  the  need  to  redouble  their  efforts  to  serve  the 
public.  Attendance  at  the  museums  increased  this  past  year  over  that 
of  1976  owing  in  large  measure  to  the  extreme  popularity  of  the 
National  Air  and  Space  Museum.  A  great  deal  of  energy  has  been 
expended  this  past  year  on  visitor  surveys  in  an  attempt  to  deter- 
mine where  we  have  been  successful  with  the  public  and  to  point 
out  areas  of  weakness.  We  are  delighted  with  the  initial  results, 
which  indicate  a  continued  interest  among  the  public  in  our  pres- 
entations and  an  increased  knowledge  of  scientific  principles. 

With  the  hectic  days  of  1976  now  behind  us,  the  science  units 
have  intensified  their  research  efforts.  Among  the  exciting  finds  of 
the  past  year  was  confirmation  of  past  theories  linking  periods  of 
the  sun's  activity  with  climate.  Studies  at  the  Chesapeake  Bay 
Center  for  Environmental  Studies  (cbces)  have  yielded  preliminary 
findings  which  may  link  the  use  of  herbicides  to  a  decline  in  the 
ecologically  and  economically  important  sea  grasses  of  Chesapeake 
Bay.  Continued  monitoring  of  experimental  solar  panels  at  the 
Radiation  Biology  Laboratory  may  have  profound  significance  on 
the  use  of  solar  energy  to  heat  and  cool  our  homes  in  the  future. 
Scientists  at  the  National  Museum  of  Natural  History  have  made  a 
significant  finding  in  archeology  which  will  redefine  our  thinking 
as  to  when  man  first  inhabited  North  America.  Studies  on  amphi- 
pods,  small  Crustacea,  have  assisted  in  determining  tolerance  levels 
to  oil  pollution.  In  the  tropics,  at  the  Smithsonian  Tropical  Re- 
search Institute,  studies  of  wasp  species  have  enabled  us  to  deter- 
mine more  clearly  how  these  species  relate  and  their  role  as  carriers 
of  disease. 


Our  educational  programs  made  great  strides  in  fiscal  year  1977 
by  moving  away  from  the  more  traditional  role  of  letting  exhibits 
tell  the  whole  story.  A  Naturalist  Center,  established  at  the  Na- 
tional Museum  of  Natural  History,  gave  interested  amateurs  the 
opportunity  to  study  specimens  from  the  collection  rather  than 
just  look  at  them  through  glass.  Resource  rooms  were  established  at 
the  Zoo  to  allow  more  active  participation  for  visitors  and  school 
groups  in  the  Zoo's  programs  by  focusing  in  depth  on  certain  exhib- 
its. The  cbces  continued  its  program  of  naturalist  tours  and  is  devel- 
oping innovative  curriculum  material  for  all  ages  of  visitors. 

The  past  year  did  have  its  challenges  and  doubts.  The  ever- 
present  problem  of  inadequate  research  support  continued  to  ham- 
per the  effectiveness  of  our  efforts.  Coupled  with  this  concern  was 
the  constant  challenge  by  some  of  the  very  nature  of  our  scientific 
enterprises.  All  institutions  are  subject  to  this  challenge  from  time 
to  time,  but  our  firm  conviction  is  that  we  should  move  ahead 
permitting  time  to  prove  our  efforts  to  be  in  the  best  interests  of 
our  nation. 

Chesapeake  Bay  Center  for  Environmental  Studies 

Activities  at  the  Chesapeake  Bay  Center  for  Environmental  Stud- 
ies (cbces)  include  ecological  research  and  education  programs. 
Principal  themes  in  research  include  the  comparative  ecology  of 
terrestrial  communities  with  emphasis  on  the  effects  of  past  land 
use.  Estuarine  research  is  concerned  with  the  response  of  biological 
populations  to  physical  and  chemical  factors.  The  integration  of 
these  two  programs  is  accomplished  by  an  extensive  program  of 
monitoring  and  analysis  of  runoff  from  the  Rhode  River  watershed 
through  a  system  of  permanent  gauging  stations.  Education  pro- 
grams include  basic  research  on  the  design  and  implementation  of 
outdoor-centered  learning  experiences,  conduct  of  science-educa- 
tion field  trips  for  school  groups,  and  the  development  of  public 
programs  emphasizing  the  application  of  science  to  environmental 

16  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 


Upland  Ecology 

The  study  of  the  Center's  terrestrial  communities  was  expanded 
with  the  addition  to  the  staff  of  Dr.  Dennis  Whigham,  a  plant 
ecologist.  He  and  his  colleagues  have  established  a  system  of  per- 
manent quadrats  as  part  of  a  long-term  vegetation  inventory 
which  will  be  used  to  monitor  population  changes  as  well  as  meas- 
uring yearly  production  rates  and  long-term  fluctuations  in  the 
standing  stock  of  nutrients  under  various  land-use  conditions.  In 
cooperation  with  Daniel  Higman,  Dr.  Whigham  is  also  studying  how 
honeysuckle,  sassafras,  and  broomstraw  grass  interact  competitively 
in  early  stages  of  succession.  Investigators  at  the  Center  have  been 
joined  by  Dr.  Beryl  Simpson  of  the  National  Museum  of  Natural 
History  and  Mr.  Paul  Opler  of  the  United  States  Fish  and  Wild- 
life Service  in  monitoring  plant  phenology  in  a  recently  abandoned 
field,  a  young  forest,  and  a  mature  forest.  These  investigators  are 
determining  patterns  of  breeding  systems,  seed  dispersal,  and  seed 
size  within  the  three  study  sites.  The  work  is  designed  to  provide 
a  comparison  of  these  systems  with  desert  and  tropical  ecosys- 
tems. Through  a  grant  from  the  State  of  Maryland,  Drs.  Whigham 
and  J.  F.  Lynch  are  investigating  the  configurations  of  forest 
patches  that  are  necessary  to  maintain  certain  bird  and  plant  com- 

Dr.  Lynch  and  his  colleagues  are  examining  the  effects  of  sec- 
ondary plant  succession  and  land  use  on  various  animal  communi- 
ties found  in  the  Rhode  River  watershed.  They  are  monitoring 
animal  populations  on  a  number  of  study  sites,  each  of  which  has 
been  selected  to  represent  a  different  land  use  or  successional 
stage  ranging  from  active  cornfields  and  pasture,  through  re- 
cently abandoned  old  fields,  to  middle  and  late  successional  decid- 
uous forest.  Data  on  abundance  and  diversity  have  been  gathered 
for  birds,  large  mammals,  small  mammals,  ants,  litter  arthropods, 
and  understory  arthropods.  All  of  these  groups  have  been  studied 
in  detail  for  at  least  one  year  and  monitored  regularly  for  more 
than  two  years.  The  study  of  the  latter  groups  will  continue  for 
at  least  several  additional  years  in  order  to  document  long-term 
fluctuations  or  directional  trends  in  abundance. 

Science  I  17 

A  study  of  the  community  ecology  of  ants  at  the  Center  was 
begun  in  1975.  The  goal  is  to  document  the  spatial  and  temporal 
distribution  of  the  approximately  sixty  ant  species  found  at  the 
Center  and  to  assess  the  role  of  competition  for  food  and  nest  sites 
in  maintaining  observed  patterns  of  distribution  and  abundance. 
Ant  occurrence  has  been  assessed  by  means  of  quantitative  sam- 
pling of  understory  vegetation  and  leaf  litter,  and  by  recording  ant 
activity  at  standardized  baiting  stations.  Ants  are  sampled  on  a 
monthly  basis  at  twelve  sites  representing  a  maximal  range  of  land 
use  and  successional  maturity.  The  possible  effects  of  interspecific 
competition  for  food  are  studied  by  documenting  behavioral  inter- 
actions at  baits  before  and  after  experimental  manipulation  of 
species  abundances. 

The  range  of  land-use  types  intensely  studied  at  the  Center  was 
increased  with  the  addition  of  pasture  and  lawn  sites.  Dr.  John 
Falk  is  studying  the  net  primary  productivity  of  grass  systems 
under  intensive  and  minimal  management  conditions.  He  is  also 
examining  the  adaptive  features  of  invertebrates  on  lawn  systems 
subject  to  frequent  mowing. 

Watershed  Studies 

The  Center's  extensive  watershed  research  and  monitoring  pro- 
gram was  expanded  during  the  year  to  include  two  stations  in  tidal 
waters  which  receive  the  drainage  from  moderate  density  residen- 
tial communities.  In  addition,  several  temporary  stations  were 
installed  in  the  Patuxent  River  drainage  basin  in  order  to  deter- 
mine the  extent  to  which  runoff  data  from  the  Rhode  River  water- 
shed can  be  applied  to  other  drainage  areas  of  the  eastern  coastal 
plain.  To  supplement  this  program,  a  network  of  twelve  rain 
gauges  was  installed  throughout  the  Rhode  River  watershed  to 
permit  the  accurate  characterization  of  variations  in  local  rainfall 
and  runoff  patterns. 

Dr.  Maria  Faust  has  for  the  past  three  years  been  estimating 
the  concentration  of  fecal  bacteria  and  pathogens  in  runoff  in  re- 
lation to  land  use,  season,  and  other  factors.  Her  data  indicates 
that  fecal  bacteria  levels  in  runoff  fluctuate  seasonally  and  are 
highest  in  March,  July,  and  August.  Her  findings  suggest  that  ap- 
proximately 2,600  cubic  meters  of  receiving  water  are  required 
for  every  hectare  of  watershed  area  in  order  to  assure  that  the 

18  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

concentrations  of  fecal  bacteria  do  not  exceed  water  quality  stand- 
ards for  shellfish  harvesting.  Dr.  Faust  also  determined  that  over 
two-thirds  of  total  fecal  coliform  discharge  from  the  Rhode  River 
watershed  originated  from  pastures  which  represent  less  than  20 
percent  of  the  total  land  area.  Similar  findings  were  made  for  fecal 

Dr.  Tung  Lin  Wu  has  been  analyzing  the  heavy  metal  constitu- 
ents of  watershed  runoff  and  rainwater.  He  estimates  that  the 
Rhode  River  receiving  waters  annually  receive  via  land  runoff 
approximately  49  tons  of  iron,  IV2  tons  of  manganese  and  lesser 
quantities  of  zinc,  chromium,  cadmium,  copper,  and  lead.  In  gen- 
eral, cultivated  land  appears  to  contribute  the  highest  yield  of 
metals  in  the  fall  season,  while  pasture  contributes  the  greatest 
quantities  in  the  summertime. 

The  complete  findings  of  the  Center's  Watershed  Program 
through  1976  were  reported  at  a  conference  on  Watershed  Re- 
search in  Eastern  North  America  sponsored  by  the  Center  and 
funded  by  the  National  Science  Foundation.  Some  one  hundred 
and  twenty  scientists  and  agency  representatives  attended  the  con- 
ference to  discuss  the  results  of  major  watershed  studies  in  eastern 
United  States  including  those  on  the  Walker  Branch  in  Tennessee, 
Lake  Jackson  Watershed  in  Florida,  Coweeta  and  the  Chowan 
River  in  North  Carolina,  the  Mahantango  Creek  Watershed  in 
Pennsylvania,  and  Rhode  River  in  Maryland.  Proceedings  of  the 
conference  have  been  published. 

Estuarine  Research 

Fish  population  work  was  aimed  at  evaluating  the  amount  of  pri- 
mary production  from  tidal  marshes  and  mud  flats  which  are 
utilized  to  support  spawning  and  larval  fish  populations.  This 
utilization  of  primary  productivity  can  then  be  compared  to  other 
major  pathways  such  as  microbial  breakdown  with  the  marsh  or 
the  transport  of  organic  matter  into  the  estuary  by  tidal  currents. 
Preliminary  studies  were  initiated  by  Joseph  Miklas  on  the  spawn- 
ing movements  of  yellow  and  white  perch  in  headwater  streams  and 
marshes.  The  spawning  movements  of  both  of  these  species  were 
observed  to  be  temperature  dependent.  Using  mark  and  recapture 
methods,  the  population  of  each  spawning  stock  was  estimated  and 
will  be  related  to  similar  data  to  be  collected  in  subsequent  years. 

Science  I  19 

A  team  of  investigators  at  the  Center,  led  by  Drs.  David  Correll 
and  Tung  Lin  Wu,  has  been  investigating  various  environmental 
factors  which  may  have  influenced  the  virtual  disappearance  of 
sea  grasses  in  the  Chesapeake  Bay.  The  dense  beds  of  plants 
acted  to  stabilize  bottom  sediments  and  as  wave  filters  to  protect 
shorelines  on  the  Bay.  Thus,  their  decline  has  been  speculatively 
linked  to  increased  rates  of  shoreline  erosion  in  recent  years.  Coin- 
ciding with  this  decline  has  been  the  increased  use  of  agricultural 
herbicides  in  connection  with  the  adoption  of  "no  till"  or  mini- 
mum-till agricultural  methods  in  the  Chesapeake  drainage.  The 
preliminary  findings  of  Drs.  Correll  and  Wu  suggest  that  concen- 
trations of  some  herbicides  occur  in  Bay  sediments  at  levels  which 
might  be  toxic  to  sea  grasses.  This  reconnaissance  work  is  now 
being  supplemented  by  bioassay  experiments  wherein  four  species 
of  formerly  abundant  grasses  are  being  tested  for  their  response  to 
herbicide  concentrations  similar  to  those  found  in  surface  waters 
and  Bay-bottom  sediments. 

Dr.  Maria  Faust  has  been  examining  the  utilization  of  inorganic 
carbon  and  orthophosphate  by  phytoplankton  and  bacteria  in  an 
estuarine  environment.  By  using  radioactive  carbon  and  phos- 
phorus combined  with  autoradiography,  she  has  been  able  to  dis- 
tinguish metabolically  active  and  inactive  microorganisms.  Her 
findings  suggest  that  only  about  28  percent  to  42  percent  of  the 
total  phytoplankton  in  the  estuary  were  metabolically  active  and 
that  phytoplankton  smaller  than  20  microns  in  size  were  more 
active,  as  compared  with  larger  species,  than  their  total  biomass 
would  indicate.  This  suggests  that  smaller  cells  have  an  advantage 
in  nutrient  uptake  because  of  larger  surface-to-volume  ratio.  De- 
pending on  the  season  of  the  year,  between  63  percent  and  85 
percent  of  bacteria  in  the  estuary  were  metabolically  active,  and  in 
November  bacteria  associated  with  the  plankton  were  the  most 
active  fraction  of  the  microorganisms.  The  high  metabolic  activi- 
ties of  bacteria  corresponded  with  the  highest  phosphorus  uptake 
rates  of  phytoplankton  at  that  time.  This  may  indicate  a  close 
relationship  between  the  metabolic  activities  of  phytoplankton 
and  those  of  bacteria  in  an  estuarine  environment. 


During  fiscal  year  1977,  cbces  increased  its  educational  emphasis 

20  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

on  research  and  curriculum  development  in  outdoor-centered  en- 
vironment education  while  maintaining  a  high  level  of  activity  in 
the  areas  of  information  transfer  and  public  programs. 

Research  in  Environmental  Education 

The  addition  of  Dr.  John  Balling,  an  educational  psychologist,  to 
the  staff  in  the  fall  of  1976,  provided  the  cbces  educational  re- 
search program  added  depth  and  expertise.  Several  investigations 
were  launched  under  his  direction  during  this  year.  A  follow-up 
study  on  the  impact  of  novel  settings  on  learners  corroborated 
earlier  findings  that  children  learn  better  in  surroundings  that  are 
familiar  to  them.  Another  study  was  conducted  which  identified 
a  second  major  variable  in  the  outdoor  learning,  the  setting.  This 
investigation  varied  the  relevance  of  the  learning  setting  to  the 
subject  matter  being  taught.  The  findings  support  the  long-held 
belief  of  outdoor  educators  that  certain  subjects  may  be  positively 
enhanced  by  being  taught  in  a  reinforcing  setting.  This  work  is 
expected  to  lead  to  the  development  of  new  approaches  to  the  Cen- 
ter's public  education  programs. 

Investigations  were  begun  in  human  ecology,  focusing  on  the 
effects  of  environmental  change  on  human  behavior  and  attitudes. 
One  study  conducted  by  Drs.  Balling  and  Falk  measured,  over  a 
wide  range  of  age  groups,  preference  toward  natural  settings.  Five 
natural  biomes  were  evaluated  including  tropical  rain  forest,  tem- 
perate deciduous  forest,  coniferous  forest,  savanna,  and  desert. 
Overall,  the  savanna  was  rated  highest  for  both  a  residential  setting 
and  as  a  place  to  visit. 

Public  Education  Programs 

Initiated  in  1975,  the  teacher-led  tour  program  is  designed  to  pro- 
vide children  with  outdoor  experiences  which  reinforce  or  intro- 
duce science  concepts.  The  Center  worked  closely  with  the  local 
Anne  Arundel  County  School  System  to  develop  the  following 
teacher-led  activities:  "Micro-Trails,  Macro-Trails"  for  the  first 
grade;  "Animal  Adaptations:  Insects  and  Spiders"  for  the  second 
and  third  grades;  "Community  Comparison:  Forest  and  Old  Field" 
and  "Estuary  Chesapeake"  for  the  fifth  and  sixth  grades;  and 
"Seeing  the  Trees  for  the  Forest:  A  Census  Activity"  for  the  sev- 
enth and  eighth  grades.  Each  activity  is  outlined  in  a  brochure  that 

Science  I  21 

includes  background  information  for  the  teacher,  objectives  for 
the  students,  a  step-by-step  procedure  section  for  the  class  and 
suggested  follow-up  activities. 

Another  model  concept  in  outdoor  environmental  education  is 
the  Center's  Summer  Ecology  Program.  The  program  emphasizes 
community-centered  learning.  The  program,  conducted  in  seven 
different  locations  instead  of  the  Center's  research  facility,  helps 
familiarize  children  with  the  human  and  natural  ecology  of  their 
own  communities.  Four  college  students  and  four  high  school  stu- 
dents, selected  as  part  of  the  Smithsonian's  Intern  Program,  im- 
plemented and  evaluated  education  activities  of  their  own  design. 
At  the  end  of  the  summer,  the  students  conducted  a  workshop  on 
the  outdoor  education  activities  developed  for  the  Program.  Envi- 
ronmental educators,  science  teachers,  and  other  interested  indi- 
viduals participated  in  this  one-day  workshop. 

Work/Learn  Program 

The  Work/ Learn  Program  in  Environmental  Studies,  initiated  in 
the  fall  of  1975,  is  a  cooperative  education  program  that  provides 
college  students  with  the  opportunity  to  live  and  work  in  a  re- 
search setting.  Each  participant  receives  a  small  stipend,  plus  liv- 
ing accommodations,  and  may  arrange  to  receive  academic  credit 
for  work  completed  at  the  Center. 

Seventeen  students  were  selected  to  participate  in  the  program 
during  the  first  year.  They  worked  with  cbces  professional  staff 
on  projects  in  estuarine  and  terrestrial  ecology,  land-use  manage- 
ment, and  environmental  education. 

Information  Transfer 

A  major  objective  of  the  information  transfer  program  is  to  dis- 
seminate the  Center's  scientific  research  findings  to  public  groups 
that  can  use  this  information  in  making  land-use  and  water- 
quality  decisions.  During  1976-1977,  the  cbces  staff  conducted 
several  projects  specifically  aimed  at  disseminating  the  Center's 
watershed  and  estuarine  research  findings. 

Since  1974,  scientists  at  the  Center  have  been  monitoring  sur- 
face runoff  from  the  Rhode  River  watershed  for  nutrients,  bac- 
teria, and  sediment.  This  research  was  expanded  to  include  monitor- 
ing of  heavy  metals  in  1975  and  herbicides  in  1976.  Major  objec- 

22  I  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

tives  of  the  study  are  to  determine  the  magnitude  and  kind  of  non- 
point  source  pollution  resulting  from  rural  land-use  practices  and 
the  impact  of  this  pollution  on  the  Rhode  River  estuary.  The  re- 
sults of  this  research  program  have  applicability  to  similar  regions 
of  the  country. 

Using  technical  reports  from  this  work,  Marjorie  Beane  summa- 
rized and  interpreted  three  years  of  cbces  research  findings  in  a  pub- 
lication entitled  Assessing  Non-Point  Source  Pollution:  A  Detailed 
Study  of  a  Rural  Watershed  in  the  Coastal  Plain  of  Maryland. 
This  report  also  included  a  description  of  state  and  national  water- 
quality  planning  programs  and  made  recommendations  for  man- 
agement practices  to  reduce  non-point  source  pollution.  It  was 
widely  distributed  to  water-quality  planners,  resource  managers, 
public  officials,  and  interested  citizens  throughout  the  eastern 
United  States.  Government  agencies,  citizen  organizations,  and 
other  groups  concerned  with  water  quality  have  found  the  report 
especially  useful  because  it  summarizes  a  large  amount  of  scientific 
data  in  a  brief,  concise,  and  understandable  form. 

The  Center  also  provided  support  in  the  form  of  staff  time  and 
expertise  to  citizen  organizations  throughout  the  Chesapeake  Bay 
region.  Support  activities  for  these  groups  included  organizing 
workshops  and  conferences,  developing  technical  information  on 
environmental  issues,  and  helping  achieve  citizen  participation  in 
land  and  water-quality  planning. 

cbces  staff  helped  plan  and  organize  a  major  conference  on  the 
Chesapeake  Bay  which  was  held  in  April  1977.  The  purpose  of 
this  conference  was  to  assess  the  present  and  future  status  of  the 
Bay  over  the  next  ten  years. 

During  the  summer  of  1977,  the  Center's  information  specialist 
Transfer:  A  Model  Approach  to  the  Chesapeake  Region,  describing 
completed  a  project  report  entitled  Environmental  Information 
the  Center's  efforts  to  develop  a  model  program  for  disseminating 
environmental  information  from  a  research  institution  to  the 
surrounding  community. 

Over  the  past  five  years,  cbces  staff  conducted  studies  to  deter- 
mine major  sources  of  environmental  information  for  citizen  or- 
ganizations, legislators,  and  resource  managers  in  the  Chesapeake 
Bay  region;  identified  top  priority  issues  among  these  groups;  and 
investigated  the  extent  of  communication  between   these  public 

Science  I  23 

groups  and  the  scientific  community.  The  staff  have  also  investi- 
gated existing  information  transfer  programs  and  the  involvement 
of  citizens  in  the  environmental  decision-making  process.  On  the 
basis  of  these  studies,  the  Center  developed  different  methods  for 
disseminating  scientific  information  to  resource  managers,  public 
officials,  and  citizens.  The  Center's  investigations,  special  projects, 
and  recommendations  for  a  model  information  transfer  program 
are  summarized  in  the  project  report.  This  five-year  research  pro- 
gram was  funded  by  the  Edward  John  Noble  Foundation. 


Work  was  begun  at  the  end  of  the  year  on  the  addition  of  a  new 
laboratory  wing  to  the  existing  Old  Dominion  Building.  This  facil- 
ity will  provide  laboratory  space  and  services  for  chemical  and 
microbiological  experiments.  Several  other  projects  were  under- 
taken during  the  year  to  upgrade  and  renovate  existing  structures. 

Fort  Pierce  Bureau 

This  past  year  the  Smithsonian's  Fort  Pierce  Bureau  stressed  its 
program  of  research  on  life  histories,  reproduction,  development, 
estuarine  lagoon  near  the  Atlantic  Ocean,  within  easy  access  of  the 
and  larval  biology  of  marine  organisms  of  the  Indian  River  Lagoon 
and  offshore  continental  shelf.  The  locality  of  Fort  Pierce,  on  an 
Gulf  Stream  with  its  long-distance  larvae,  and  in  a  zoogeographic 
transitional  zone  where  both  tropical  and  temperate  organisms 
are  available  for  study,  offers  a  variety  of  habitats  and  important 
advantages  for  studies  of  life  histories  and  reproduction. 

In  studies  on  reproduction,  information  is  being  accumulated  on 
reproductive  cycles,  breeding  seasons  and  spawning  of  local  ani- 
mals, and  such  basic  biological  phenomena  as  the  formation  and 
maturation  of  sex  cells  and  fertilization  of  eggs.  Studies  of  devel- 
opment are  furnishing  information  on  comparative  developmental 
patterns  of  local  species  which  are  useful  in  interpretations  of  phy- 
logenetic  relationships,  systematics,  evolutionary  history,  and  in 
the  furtherance  of  understanding  of  the  local  ecosystems  and  adap- 
tability of  species  to  environmental  stresses.  Work  on  larval  biol- 

24  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

This  scanning  electron  photomicrograph  taken  at  the  Fort  Pierce  Bureau  shows  the 
first  larval  stage  of  Menippe  Nodifrons,  the  Cuban  Stone  Crab  (75X),  revealing  a 
wealth  of  detail  not  easily  visible  under  ordinary  light  microscopy. 

ogy  is  concentrating  on  problems  of  larval  systematics,  differen- 
tiation of  embryonic  and  larval  tissues  and  organs,  structural  trans- 
formations, settlement,  and  factors  regulating  these  processes.  Re- 
search during  the  past  year  emphasized  work  on  sipunculan 
worms,  ascidians,  bryozoans,  marine  gastrotrichs,  and  crustaceans. 

Other  activities  included  systematic  and  ecological  research  on 
specific  groups  of  marine  invertebrates  such  as  decapod  crusta- 
ceans and  benthic  foraminiferans.  Representative  specimens  of 
importance  to  the  National  Collections  were  sent  to  the  National 
Museum  of  Natural  History.  Programs  for  postdoctoral  fellows  and 
visiting  scientists  in  life  histories  studies  were  implemented.  The 
electron  microscope  facility,  established  over  a  year  ago  in  collab- 
oration with  the  Harbor  Branch  Foundation,  Inc.,  for  the  Life 
Histories  Program,  was  expanded  to  include  a  scanning  electron 
microscope  as  well  as  the  transmission  microscope. 

Continuing  studies  on  life  histories  of  marine  worms  of  the 
phylum  Sipuncula  concentrated  on  reproductive  biology  of  local 
species  with  the  objectives  of  accumulating  information  on  repro- 
ductive cycles,  breeding  seasons,  and  spawning;  and  on  morphol- 
ogy, metamorphosis,  and  systematics  of  planktonic  oceanic  larvae. 

In  studies  of  oceanic  larvae,  scanning  electron  microscopy  was 
utilized  in  morphological  characterizations  of  larvae  and  in  an 
examination  of  metamorphic  transformations.  For  studies  of  in- 
ternal anatomy,  a  technique  was  devised  for  viewing  serial  sections 
of  larvae  by  scanning  electron  microscopy.  In  combination  with 
transmission  electron  microscopy,  the  scanning  microscope  was 
used  in  an  investigation  of  adhesive,  sensory,  and  cuticular  struc- 
tures of  oceanic  larvae.  Observations  on  behavioral  changes  dur- 
ing settlement  and  metamorphosis  of  oceanic  larvae  revealed  that 
an  unidentified  factor  produced  by  adults  will,  when  combined 
with  the  appropriate  substratum,  induce  metamorphosis  of  larvae. 
This  discovery  was  utilized  to  induce  synchronous  metamorphosis 
in  large  numbers  of  larvae  for  rearing  and  identification  purposes 
and  for  studies  of  morphological  changes  during  metamorphosis 
and  early  juvenile  development. 

The  Crustacean  Biology  Section  continued  previously  estab- 
lished investigations  on  the  ecology,  larval  development,  and  sys- 
tematics of  decapod  and  stomatopod  crustaceans  from  the  fresh, 
lagoonal  estuarine  and  marine  waters  of  the  Indian  River  area. 

26  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Numerically  large  and  species-rich  assemblages  of  decapod  crus- 
taceans form  a  major  component  of  lagoonal  sea-grass  beds,  and 
continental  shelf-edge  oculinid  coral  reefs.  Over  30  species  and 
44,000  crustacean  specimens  indicated  that  the  lagoonal  drift 
algae,  with  its  associated  shrimps  and  crabs,  comprises  a  com- 
munity as  important,  if  not  more  so,  as  the  crustacean  communi- 
ties traditionally  associated  with  just  the  sea-grass  beds  in  the 
Indian  River. 

Quantitative  station  samples  collected  by  the  submersible 
]ohnson-Sea-Link  from  oculinid  shelf-edge  reefs  suggested  that 
at  least  ten  common  decapod  species  live  within  the  branches  or 
are  associated  with  the  coral  bases  and  are  predominant  members 
of  this  community. 

In  life  histories  studies,  the  complete  larval  development  of  four 
species  of  crabs  and  two  species  of  shrimp  was  obtained  in  the 

Systematic  investigations  on  the  baseline  inventory  collections 
of  decapod  and  stomatopod  crustaceans  continued  to  yield  both 
major  and  minor  range  extensions  for  about  twenty  members  of 
the  tropical  decapod  crustacean  fauna.  The  Indian  River  Coastal 
Zone  Reference  Museum  now  contains  approximately  12,000  lots 
and  well  over  20,000  identified  specimens  comprising  about  1,200 
species.  Data  for  these  continue  to  be  routinely  added  to  the  Sel- 
Gem  computerized  files  for  use  by  other  investigative  agencies. 

Studies  on  foraminifera  of  the  area  take  several  approaches  in- 
cluding a  general  survey  of  the  population  in  the  Indian  River  and 
an  examination  of  their  role  in  the  ecology  of  the  estuary.  Prelim- 
inary studies  of  offshore  foraminifera  are  in  progress. 

National  Air  and  Space  Museum 

In  the  year  following  the  completion  of  the  new  National  Air  and 
Space  Museum  (nasm),  over  9.5  million  people  visited  the  treas- 
ures of  America's  aviation  and  spaceflight  heritage,  making  the 
newest  Smithsonian  addition  to  the  Mall  the  most  popular  mu- 
seum in  the  country.  By  the  end  of  September,  the  total  visitor 
count  was  approximately  13  million. 

Science  I  27 

The  fifteen  months  since  the  Museum  opened  have  been  pro- 
ductive and  exciting.  The  staff  focus  has  shifted  from  readying 
the  new  building  to  implementing  research  projects  and  public 
service  programs,  studying  public  response  to  the  inaugural  exhi- 
bitions, adding  artifacts  to  the  galleries,  and  modifying  some  dis- 
plays. During  this  period,  the  Silver  Hill  facility  in  suburban 
Maryland  was  developed  and  opened  to  the  public. 

A  striking  addition  to  the  Museum  grounds  is  the  Delta  Solar 
sculpture  on  the  west  lawn.  Created  by  Venezuelan  sculptor 
Alejandro  Otero,  Delta  Solar  reflects  sparkling  light  off  stainless 
steel  "sails"  that  turn  in  the  breeze.  The  sails  are  mounted  in  an 
open  geometric  grid  within  the  27-  by  40-foot  delta-shaped  piece. 
In  a  ceremony  by  the  sculpture's  reflecting  pool,  the  President  of 
Venezuela,  Carlos  A.  Perez,  dedicated  his  country's  Bicentennial 
gift  to  the  United  States  on  June  29,  1977. 

Inside  the  building,  there  have  also  been  a  number  of  new 
installations:  Pioneer  10  and  Ranger  spacecraft  were  suspended 
in  the  Milestones  of  Flight  and  East  End  galleries,  respectively; 
two  new  aircraft,  a  Douglas  M-2  and  a  Beechcraft  D-18S,  were 
added  to  the  Hall  of  Air  Transportation;  and  the  North  American 
F-86  displayed  in  the  West  End  bay  was  replaced  by  a  Grumman 

The  nasm  Art  Department  arranged  a  special  exhibition  of  Rob- 
ert Rauschenberg's  "Stoned  Moon"  series  of  lithographs.  The 
twenty-one  pieces  which  represent  Rauschenberg's  reaction  to  the 
first  lunar  landing  were  displayed  in  the  Space  Hall  during  Novem- 
ber and  December,  1976. 

Two  new  exhibits  were  placed  in  the  Special  Exhibits  area  on 
the  second  floor.  The  Museum  observed  the  fiftieth  anniversary 
of  Charles  Lindbergh's  historic  transatlantic  flight  with  the  instal- 
lation of  a  commemorative  exhibit  which  is  located  between  the 
Spirit  of  St.  Louis  and  Charles  and  Anne  Morrow  Lindbergh's 
Lockheed  Sirius.  Photographs,  film  footage  of  the  flight,  and  the 
aviator's  welcomes  in  Paris  and  on  his  return  to  the  United  States 
anchor  the  display.  Included  in  this  exhibit  are  the  check  Lindbergh 
received  for  the  flight,  the  barograph  for  the  Spirit  of  St.  Louis, 
and  memorabilia  from  the  young  hero's  goodwill  flights  through 
Latin  America  later  in  1927. 

Amelia  Earhart's  Lockheed  Vega,  in  which  she  became  the  first 

28  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

!'••■".  .»mni  .„,„,„,., 

The  National  Air  and  Space  Museum,  which  opened  to  the  public  on  July  1,  1976, 
was  visited  by  9.5  million  people  in  its  first  year  of  operation.  In  the  foreground  is 
Venezuela's  Bicentennial  gift  to  the  United  States,  the  sculpture  Delta  Solar  by 
Alejandro  Otero,  which  was  dedicated  on  June  29,  1977.  Below:  Director  of  the 
National  Air  and  Space  Museum  and  former  astronaut  Michael  Collins  in  front  of 
the  Spirit  of  St.  Louis,  which  hangs  in  the  Museum's  Milestones  of  Flight  Gallery. 

woman  to  complete  a  solo  transatlantic  flight,  was  also  installed 
in  Special  Exhibits  in  May.  The  exhibit  includes  the  radio  receiver 
she  used  during  the  flight,  one  of  her  flight  jackets,  and  memora- 
bilia associated  with  her  flight-related  activities. 

Research  was  completed  and  construction  begun  on  a  new 
gallery,  "Exploring  the  Planets,"  which  will  occupy  the  area  for- 
merly held  by  Air  Traffic  Control.  Scheduled  to  open  in  the  summer 
of  1978,  "Exploring  the  Planets"  will  acquaint  visitors  with  the 
growth  of  interest  in  the  planets  and  moons  of  the  solar  system 
from  the  time  of  their  discovery  to  present-day  planetary  explo- 
ration programs.  The  exhibit  script,  prepared  by  nasm's  Center 
for  Earth  and  Planetary  Studies  staff,  highlights  current  knowledge 
of  the  planets,  the  tools  of  exploration,  and  individual  space 
missions.  A  unique  feature  of  the  exhibit  plan  is  the  emphasis  on 
comparative  planetology,  accompanied  by  a  discussion  of  cratering, 
volcanism,  and  other  planetary  processes. 

Staff  planning  and  research  continues  for  modifications  in  the 
General  Aviation  Gallery,  completion  of  which  is  scheduled  for 
the  spring  of  1978.  "Flight  for  Everyone"  will  be  the  dominant 
theme  and  many  of  the  units  will  be  on  how  to  fly. 

To  ensure  improvement  and  excellence  in  the  exhibits,  the  nasm 
began  an  evaluation  of  its  effectiveness  as  a  publicly  oriented 
communications  medium.  During  fiscal  year  1977,  the  nasm  devel- 
oped two  programs  of  exhibits  evaluation.  The  first  was  based  on 
modern  techniques  of  opinion  research,  while  the  second  was 
an  ad  hoc  study  based  on  qualitative  and  quantitative  observations 
of  visitor  behavior. 

Evaluation  of  about  one-third  of  the  new  galleries  was  con- 
tracted to  a  private  firm,  which  developed  the  interview  structure, 
conducted  the  interviews,  and  reduced  and  correlated  all  data.  The 
demographic  parameters  of  the  visitors  to  nasm  were  quantified 
and  tabulated.  Results  showed  that  the  Museum  is  especially 
popular  with  young  people;  more  than  one  in  four  visitors  are 
between  the  ages  of  sixteen  and  twenty-five,  while  a  majority  of  all 
visitors  are  over  sixteen.  Over  one-half  of  the  visitors  surveyed  were 
college  graduates,  while  four  out  of  ten  were  employed  in  profes- 
sional and  executive  positions. 

The  Museum  was  found  to  be  one  of  the  biggest  tourist  attrac- 
tions in  the  nation's  capital,  with  a  high  number  of  repeat  visitors 

30  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

— about  one  in  three.  The  following  quote  from  the  preliminary 
survey  report  conveys  visitors'  attitude:  "Word  about  the  nature 
of  the  museum  has  clearly  gotten  around — for  the  mood  and  level 
of  expectation  of  the  visitors  was  quite  different  from  what  we 
have  found  at  other  institutions.  The  primary  motive  was  enter- 
tainment and  pleasure — but  with  a  feeling  that  they  would  end  up 
with  a  twofold  benefit — a  good  time  and  educational  gains  as  well." 

Behind  the  scenes  of  the  exhibition  areas,  the  staff  pursues  his- 
torical and  scientific  research  projects.  Curatorial  research  efforts  at 
the  nasm  are  for  exhibits,  publications,  aircraft  restoration,  and 
response  to  public  inquiries.  Scientific  research  is  conducted  by  the 
Center  for  Earth  and  Planetary  Studies. 

In  addition  to  the  Hall  of  Air  Transportation  and  General  Avi- 
ation revisions,  three  future  aeronautics  exhibits  were  planned  and 
most  of  the  script  completed.  These  include  an  exhibit  called  "Fly- 
ing for  Fun"  which  will  replace  the  aircraft  in  the  West  Gallery, 
and  small  exhibits  on  Grover  Loening  and  James  H.  Doolittle  in  the 
Special  Exhibits  Gallery.  All  are  scheduled  to  open  during  the  next 
fiscal  year. 

The  Department  of  Aeronautics  staff  is  preparing  books  and 
monographs  on  the  following  subjects:  the  effect  of  McCook  Field 
on  American  aviation;  United  States  Women  Fliers,  1910-1918; 
United  States  Women  Fliers,  1919-1928;  the  P-51C  Mustang  Excali- 
bur;  and  the  Aeronca  C-2.  In  addition,  more  than  1,500  aviation- 
oriented  organizations  have  been  asked  to  provide  lists  of  their  avia- 
tion holdings  in  order  to  compile  an  aeronautical  history  source 
guide.  It  is  expected  that  this  project  will  take  two  years  to  complete. 

The  Department  of  Science  and  Technology  continued  its  pro- 
gram of  research  on  aerospace  history,  the  impact  of  flight  upon 
society,  and  technology  transfer. 

Projects  completed  include  studies  of  the  airplane  as  a  subject  in 
technical  art,  surveys  of  postwar  high-speed  research  aircraft,  and 
the  origins  of  the  swept-wing  and  delta-wing  planeforms. 

A  monthly  works-in-progress  seminar  was  established  to  encour- 
age interdepartmental  discussion  on  research  currently  underway 
by  the  nasm  staff  and  others.  Topics  included:  Guggenheim  Sup- 
port of  American  Aviation  1926-1930,  Engineers  and  the  Airplane 
1875-1905,  Using  Aerospace  Technology  on  Earth,  U.S.  Women  in 
Aviation  through  wwi,  Diplomatic  History  and  the  Berlin  Airlift, 

Science  I  31 

the  Life  of  Robert  H.  Goddard,  and  History  of  Black  Fighter  Pilots 
in  wwn. 

The  Department  of  Astronautics  staff  is  preparing  books  and 
papers  on  the  following:  Prelude  to  the  Space  Age:  Rocket  Soci- 
eties 1924-1940;  International  Astronautical  Movement  1920- 
1940;  Earliest  Flight;  and  Lilienthal  and  the  Americans,  which  will 
be  the  foreword  to  a  book  being  published  by  the  Massachusetts 
Institute  of  Technology.  In  addition,  "To  Ride  the  Fractious  Horse," 
a  book-length  manuscript  by  curator  Thomas  D.  Crouch  about  the 
rise  of  the  American  aeronautical  community  between  1895  and 
1905  is  being  reviewed  for  publication. 

The  Smithsonian  Institution,  through  the  nasm,  was  awarded  a 
grant  from  the  Bureau  of  Education  for  the  Handicapped,  Depart- 
ment of  Health,  Education  and  Welfare,  to  develop  a  set  of  guide- 
lines to  assist  museum  educators  in  establishing  educational  pro- 
grams for  handicapped  students.  These  guidelines  are  being  incor- 
porated in  a  publication  that  also  contains  a  survey  of  available 
literature,  information  related  to  federal  legislation,  and  the  results 
of  surveys  sent  to  special  education  teachers,  museum  educators, 
and  consumers.  Publication  of  the  book  is  expected  in  the  next  fiscal 

Staff  research  revolving  around  aircraft  restoration  is  another 
intriguing  aspect  of  the  curatorial  program.  Before  restoration  can 
begin,  a  package  containing  detailed  information  required  by  the 
restoration  crew  must  be  assembled.  The  principal  steps  in  the 
whole  process  are  identified,  and  the  detailed  painting  and  markings 
of  the  original  aircraft  are  delineated,  if  known.  A  continuing  prob- 
lem is  the  location  of  replacement  parts  for  aircraft  long  out  of 
production.  A  great  deal  of  effort  is  being  expended  to  meet  the 
Museum's  goal  of  complete  accuracy.  During  1977,  restoration 
packages  were  prepared  by  the  Aeronautics  staff  for  the  following 
aircraft:  Messerschmitt  Me  262,  Arado  AR  196,  Grumman  F6F 
Hellcat,  Navy  N3N  Trainer,  Cessna  O-lA  Bird  Dog,  Lockheed  P-38 
Lightning  and  XP-80  Shooting  Star,  North  American  P-51C  Mus- 
tang, Langley  Aerodrome,  and  Curtiss  P-40N.  Substantial  progress 
has  been  made  on  two  planes  in  particular:  The  Aeronca  C-2  and 
the  P-51  Mustang. 

The  Aeronca  was  modified  after  it  was  built,  requiring  restora- 
tion specialists  to  do  a  great  deal  of  painstaking  work  to  restore  it 
to  its  original  condition.  The  configuration  of  the  vertical  fin  had  to 

32  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

be  totally  changed.  The  restoration  of  the  P-51  Mustang  Excalibur 
was  assisted  by  the  pilot  of  the  plane  who  remembered  the  plane 
as  being  a  brighter  red  than  it  appeared  years  later  and  a  sample 
analysis  determined  that  the  original  paint  was  indeed  a  brighter 
shade  of  red. 

Staff  at  the  Center  for  Earth  and  Planetary  Studies  continued  a 
rich  scientific  research  program.  A  manuscript  on  "Astronaut  Ob- 
servations from  the  Apollo-Soyuz  Mission/'  by  Farouk  El-Baz,  the 
Center's  Director,  details  the  planning  for  and  execution  of  the 
Earth  Observations  and  Photography  Experiment.  It  also  includes 
an  account  of  how  the  astronauts  were  trained  to  collect  the  data 
in  support  of  on-going  research  in  the  fields  of  geology,  oceanog- 
raphy, hydrology,  meteorology,  and  environmental  science.  The 
manuscript  was  submitted  for  publication  to  the  Smithsonian  Insti- 
tution Press  as  the  first  volume  in  a  new  series:  Smithsonian  Studies 
in  Air  and  Space. 

The  Center  continued  to  coordinate  the  analysis  and  synthesis  of 
the  Apollo-Soyuz  photographic  results  by  several  research  groups. 
The  data-analysis  program  included  photointerpretation  and  the 
preparation  of  geologic  and  oceanic  maps. 

Lunar  scientific  research  continued  at  the  Center.  Results  of 
photogeologic  investigations  of  the  crater  Haldane  in  Mare  Smythii 
were  published  in  the  Proceedings  of  the  Seventh  Lunar  Science 
Conference.  Additional  research  was  performed  using  the  resulting 
stratigraphic  base  and  correlations  with  orbital  X-ray  data  of  the 
Smythii  basin.  Of  particular  importance  were  studies  of  the  strati- 
graphic  relations  and  origin  of  the  terra,  mare,  and  darker  materials. 

Photogeologic  studies  of  lunar  calderas,  sinuous  rilles,  and  mare 
domes  were  completed  during  the  past  year.  A  scheme  for  the  geo- 
logic evolution  of  a  possible  lunar  caldera  in  Mare  Smythii  was  pre- 
sented. This  scheme  is  of  major  importance  to  studies  of  many 
morphologically  similar  lunar  surface  features. 

Two  studies  of  lunar  volcanic  domes  were  completed  at  the  Cen- 
ter during  the  fiscal  year.  Dome  distribution  was  studied  using  six 
morphological  classes.  In  another  study,  completed  at  the  Center  in 
cooperation  with  Brown  University,  the  morphometric  properties  of 
mare  domes  were  measured  for  comparison  with  terrestrial  domes. 

Center  personnel  continued  to  cooperate  with  the  National  Aero- 
nautics and  Space  Administration  in  the  lunar  mapping  program. 
A  geologic  map  of  the  east  side  of  the  Moon  was  published  in  co- 
Science  I  33 

BJS-  '^^* 

"-»    ■! 

B      0      E 

■I  W. 

>         d 


i -if 

Facing  page,  upper:  Featured  in  the  National  Air  and  Space  Museum's  Milestones 
of  Flight  Gallery  are  the  Spirit  of  St.  Louis,  the  Pioneer  10  spacecraft,  the  Wright 
Brothers'  Flyer,  the  North  American  X-15,  and  John  Glenn's  Friendship  7.  Lower, 
Satellites  of  all  shapes  and  sizes,  including  Tiros,  Transit,  Solrad,  Lofti,  and  repre- 
sentatives of  the  Explorer,  Pioneer,  and  Vanguard,  hang  overhead  in  the  Satellite 
Gallery.  Below,  Visitors  may  walk  into  Skylab  and  see  where  astronauts  worked 
and  lived  for  as  long  as  three  months. 

Above,  The  Silver  Hill  Museum  is  an  active  preservation  and  restoration  facility, 
and  the  items  seen  here  may  change  from  month  to  month.  The  aircraft  at  the  left  is 
a  1912  Curtiss  Pusher.  Below,  Pat  Williams  concentrates  while  restoring  the  engine 
of  the  Excalibur  HI  at  the  National  Air  and  Space  Museum's  Silver  Hill  facility. 

operation  with  the  United  States  Geological  Survey.  In  addition,  a 
paper  on  the  evolution  of  the  Moon  from  the  stratigraphic  point  of 
view  has  been  submitted  for  publication.  This  paper  includes  a  syn- 
thesis of  Apollo-gathered  data  on  the  nature  of  the  lunar  crust. 

In  cooperation  with  the  International  Astronomical  Union  and 
the  United  States  Board  of  Geographic  Names,  the  computer  file  of 
lunar  nomenclature  was  completed.  Lists  of  named  features  on  the 
Moon  were  prepared  for  incorporation  in  a  book  on  planetary  top- 
onomy  to  be  published  by  the  nasa. 

A  project  entitled  "Desert  Erosion  and  Sand  Movement  in  Egypt" 
was  begun  for  joint  research  between  Center  personnel  and  the 
Geology  Department  of  Ain  Shams  University,  Cairo.  The  Center's 
Director  joined  Dr.  David  Challinor,  Assistant  Secretary  for  Sci- 
ence, in  discussing  this  and  other  Smithsonian  projects  in  Egypt 
with  President  Anwar  el-Sadat  during  his  visit  to  the  United  States 
in  April  1977. 

The  nasm  Library  remains  a  valuable  resource  for  historical  docu- 
ments on  both  famous  and  little-known  aerospace  personalities,  air 
craft  and  engine  photographs  and  drawings,  space  projects  and 
vehicles,  early  ballooning  and  rocketry,  aerospace  industry  histories, 
and  other  miscellaneous  topics  relating  to  aerospace.  All  of  this  in- 
formation is  housed  in  the  research  files  of  the  Museum  which  the 
Library  began  to  microfilm  during  the  reporting  period.  The  cata- 
loguing of  over  1,500  pieces  of  aeronautical  sheet  music  from  the 
Bella  C.  Landauer  collection  was  completed. 

In  keeping  with  Director  Michael  Collins's  stated  goal  of  estab- 
lishing the  nasm  as  an  international  center  for  the  study  of  the 
history  of  flight,  the  Charles  A.  Lindbergh  Chair  of  Aerospace 
History  was  established  and  announced  in  1977.  Charles  Harvard 
Gibbs-Smith,  aerospace  historian  and  Keeper  Emeritus  of  the  Vic- 
toria and  Albert  Museum  in  London,  will  be  the  first  occupant  of 
the  endowed  chair,  which  has  been  offered  for  one  year,  beginning 
January  1,  1978. 

The  Museum  also  developed  an  Artist-in-Residence  program  in 
1977.  In  consultation  with  the  National  Endowment  for  the  Arts, 
the  Curator  of  Art  developed  a  list  of  potential  candidates.  After 
review  by  the  directors  of  the  nasm,  the  National  Collection  of  Fine 
Arts,  and  the  Hirshhorn  Museum,  California  sculptor  Frederick 
Eversley  was  invited  to  be  the  first  Artist-in-Residence  at  the  nasm. 

Science  I  37 

Progress  was  made  during  1977  on  the  next  two  presentations 
to  be  shown  in  the  Albert  Einstein  Spacearium  and  the  Air  and 
Space  Theater.  The  Presentations  and  Education  Division  staff  be- 
gan production  of  a  new  Spacearium  show,  entitled  Worlds  of  To- 
morrow, which  will  replace  Cosmic  Awakening  and  is  expected  to 
premiere  in  1978. 

A  sponsor  was  obtained  for  nasm's  second  imax  presentation 
which  will  replace  To  Fly  in  the  Theater.  The  Living  Earth  an  over- 
view of  our  small,  fragile  planet,  will  be  sponsored  by  S.C.  Johnson 
and  Son,  Inc.,  with  Francis  Thompson,  Inc.,  producing  the  film,  and 
the  nasm  retaining  certain  exhibition  rights.  The  film  is  expected  to 
be  completed  by  the  end  of  December  1978. 

In  fiscal  year  1977,  the  nasm  sponsored  a  variety  of  free,  public 
programs  highlighted  by  the  Museum's  Lindbergh  Symposium,  held 
to  commemorate  the  fiftieth  anniversary  of  Charles  A.  Lindbergh's 
historic  flight.  Five  noted  Lindbergh  scholars  spoke  on  Lindbergh's 
life  and  accomplishments  to  a  large  crowd  gathered  in  the  Mu- 
seum's Theater. 

Two  series,  Exploring  Space  with  Astronomers  and  Monthly  Sky 
Lectures,  were  held  under  the  starry  dome  of  the  Museum's  Albert 
Einstein  Spacearium.  Speakers  included  Dr.  Frank  D.  Drake,  Director 
of  the  National  Astronomy  and  Ionosphere  Center  and  Professor  of 
Astronomy  at  Cornell  University;  Dr.  J.  McKim  Malville,  Professor 
of  Astro-Geophysics  at  the  University  of  Colorado;  and  Dr.  Joseph 
Veverka,  a  Mars  expert  who  served  as  a  member  of  the  Mariner  9 
television  team.  Two  nights  of  poetry  readings  by  Col.  Alfred  M. 
Worden,  former  Apollo  15  astronaut  and  poet,  were  held  in  the 
Spacearium.  One  noontime  series,  Air  and  Space  Forums,  and  an 
evening  series,  New  Windows  on  the  Universe,  were  conducted  in 
the  Museum's  Theater. 

Like  many  of  the  other  Smithsonian  museums,  the  nasm  marked 
the  inauguration  of  President  Jimmy  Carter  with  summer  hours  and 
free  concerts.  The  Museum  also  provided  a  day  of  fun  to  thousands 
by  sponsoring  the  first  annual  Smithsonian  Frisbee  Festival  during 
which  a  Frisbee  of  note  was  accessioned  into  the  Museum's  collection. 

Several  test  flights  of  the  Space  Shuttle  Orbiter  were  carried  live 
on  television  monitors  at  the  nasm.  Hundreds  watched  the  broad- 
casts at  the  Museum  which  was  the  only  facility  in  Washington  to 
provide  public  viewing  of  the  test  flights. 

38  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

The  Silver  Hill  facility  is  a  revamped  preservation,  storage,  and 
restoration  center  located  about  eight  miles  from  the  Mall  Museum. 
Two  hangar-like  buildings  display  air  and  space  craft,  engines,  pro- 
pellers, models,  and  other  items,  enabling  enthusiasts  to  view  much 
more  of  the  collection  than  space  permits  at  the  nasm.  Labels  pro- 
vide information  about  the  items  on  display.  Guided  tours  are  free 
and  include  a  glimpse  of  the  restoration  shop  where  wood,  fabric, 
metal,  and  other  specialists  work  on  the  aircraft. 

The  objects  available  for  viewing  at  Silver  Hill  change  as  artifacts 
are  moved  for  restoration  work,  exhibition  in  the  Mall  Museum,  or 
loaned  to  other  institutions.  The  fifty-five  display  aircraft  at  the  new 
Silver  Hill  facility  have  included  the  Hawker  Hurricane  IIC,  a  fa- 
mous World  War  II  British  fighter;  the  Messerschmitt  163B,  the 
first  operational  rocket-powered  aircraft;  a  Bell  Model  30,  the  first 
successful  two-bladed  helicopter;  and  several  significant  general 
aviation  aircraft.  Also  on  display  are  some  of  the  Chinese  kites  that 
started  the  Smithsonian's  aeronautics  collection  in  1876  when  they 
were  donated  after  the  Centennial  exhibition. 

About  thirty  astronautics  artifacts  are  displayed  including  the 
Able-Baker  missile  nose  cone  from  the  Jupiter  vehicle  which  car- 
ried two  monkeys  aloft  in  1960;  a  model  of  Surveyor,  the  space- 
craft that  soft-landed  on  the  moon  in  preparation  for  Apollo  flights; 
and  the  entrance  hatch  from  John  Glenn's  Friendship  7  Mercury 

National  Museum  of  Man,  Center  for  the  Study  of  Man 

In  October  1976  the  administration  of  the  Center  for  the  Study  of 
Man  was  turned  over  to  Dr.  Porter  M.  Kier,  who  is  also  the  Director 
of  the  National  Museum  of  Natural  History  and  the  National  Mu- 
seum of  Man.  Under  this  new  direction,  concerted  efforts  were 
made  during  1977  to  accelerate  the  preparation  and  production  of 
the  Handbook  of  North  American  Indians.  The  Handbook  is  a  com- 
prehensive encyclopedia  that,  when  completed,  will  comprise 
twenty  volumes  and  well  over  one  thousand  scholarly  articles.  It 
is  written  from  the  perspectives  of  anthropology,  history,  and 

Science  I  39 

Most  volumes  will  be  studies  of  tribal  culture  and  history  by 
area,  such  as  the  Northeast,  the  Southwest,  and  the  Plains.  Sev- 
eral other  are  thematically  organized,  such  as  language,  technol- 
ogy, and  the  visual  arts,  and  the  history  of  Indian-White  relations. 
The  editing  on  two  volumes,  Northeast  and  California,  was  com- 
pleted in  1977,  and  both  were  sent  into  mechanical  production. 
Plans  are  to  complete  the  first  of  two  Southwest  volumes  and  the 
Subarctic  volume  in  1978.  The  organization  of  the  efforts  of  hun- 
dreds of  scholars  who  are  contributors  to  the  Handbook,  and  the 
work  of  editing,  researching,  and  preparing  the  Handbook,  is  the 
responsibility  of  General  Editor  William  C.  Sturtevant,  Curator  of 
North  American  Ethnology  in  the  National  Museum  of  Natural  His- 
tory, and  a  staff  of  thirteen. 

Coordination  of  production  of  the  Handbook  is  a  major  admin- 
istrative undertaking  in  that  the  work  of  over  1,000  author-con- 
tributors must  be  solicited,  kept  track  of,  and  paid  for.  In  many 
subject  areas  there  is  only  one  person  or  at  most  a  few  people  in 
the  world  who  can  prepare  the  articles  needed,  and  it  is  frequently 
ncessary  to  adjust  to  their  tight  and  changing  schedules. 

The  extremely  high  quality  which  will  be  the  hallmark  of  the 
Handbook  when  it  is  completed  derives  principally  from  the  schol- 
arship of  the  authors  who  are  contributing  the  Handbook's  arti- 
cles. In  large  measure,  however,  the  quality  will  also  be  traceable 
to  the  care  which  is  lavished  upon  the  editing  and  preparation  of 
support  materials  such  as  illustrations  and  indexing.  Great  pains 
are  being  taken  by  the  Handbook  staff  to  assure  that  the  very  best 
and  most  appropriate  illustrations  are  found  or  created  to  supple- 
ment an  author's  text,  that  Indian  words  and  place  names  are 
checked  thoroughly,  that  an  exhaustive  index  is  prepared  to  the 
concepts  and  terms  in  the  volumes,  and  that  an  extensive  cross- 
indexed  bibliography  is  prepared  for  each  article  as  well  as  for 
each  volume.  All  of  the  effort,  on  the  part  of  authors  and  staff,  is 
meant  to  insure  that  the  Handbook  will  be  an  accurate,  reliable 
reference  work  for  many  years  to  come. 

Research  on  American  Indian  problems,  and  liaison  with  the 
Indian  community,  has  continued  during  1977  under  the  direction 
of  Dr.  Sam  Stanley.  Dr.  Stanley  administers  the  Urgent  Anthro- 
pology Program,  which,  by  means  of  small  grants,  supports  the 
timely  study  of  projects  dealing  with  the  American  Indians. 

40  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 


The  National  Anthropological  Film  Center  (nafc)  came  to  the 
Smithsonian  Institution  in  1976  under  the  direction  of  Dr.  E.  Rich- 
ard Sorenson  "as  a  means  to  forge  beyond  the  too  narrow  view  of 
the  human  condition  as  biological  organization  or  collections  of 
artifacts."  It  is  now  using  the  scholarly  potential  of  film  to  explore 
and  reveal  the  range  of  human  qualities  and  behavior  of  our  di- 
verse and  changing  world.  Bridging  science  and  humanities,  it 
draws  from  the  materials  and  methods  of  both. 

Many  distinguished  scholars  and  citizens  have  supported  the 
Center  and  its  work.  One  of  these  was  Dr.  Margaret  Mead  who 
said  on  behalf  of  the  Center's  efforts : 

Future  scholars  might  well  consider  the  loss  of  knowledge 
of  the  vanishing,  as  yet  unexamined  independent  experiments 
in  living  one  of  the  tragic  losses  of  our  time.  Some  of  these 
ways  of  life  reflect  conditions  important  in  our  behavioral 
and  cultural  evolution;  some  reveal  special  expressions  of  hu- 
man organization  potential;  many  tell  us  about  the  nature  of 
the  human  condition  elsewhere  in  our  growing  'one  world'. 

New  research  opportunities  in  third-world  nations  for  scholarship 
have  been  identified  by  Dr.  Sorenson  in  the  past  year. 

Micronesia.  Last  summer  Dr.  Sorenson  visited  Micronesia.  Tra- 
ditional culture  which  had  been  so  widespread  and  active  during 
his  last  fieldwork  in  1965  had  virtually  faded  away.  Only  three, 
out-of-the-way  islands  still  supported  a  way  of  life  which  could 
be  said  to  be  traditional.  One  of  the  team  members  was  from 
these  islands  and  had  been  in  training  for  a  year  at  the  Center. 
As  the  son  of  a  late  paramount  Chief  of  Ulithi,  he  was  able  to 
provide  rapid  entree  and  acceptance  for  the  work.  As  filmer  he 
documented  in  a  way  which  Western  eyes  would  not  permit.  As  a 
team  member  he  greatly  facilitated  the  completion  of  this  first 
phase  of  the  study. 

Brazil.  From  Micronesia  Dr.  Sorenson  went  to  one  of  the  last 
great  refuges  of  isolated,  independently  evolved  ways  of  life  in  the 
world — Brazil.  A  great  worry  had  been  that  in  recent  years  most  of 
the  isolated  Indian  regions  have  been  increasingly  barred  to  for- 
eigners. At  the  same  time,  the  Trans-Amazonia  Highway,  and  its 

Science  I  41 

feeder  roads,  have  opened  vast  regions  of  this  once  isolated  area 
to  rapid  change. 

A  summer  earlier,  he  had  been  invited  by  Dr.  William  Crocker  to 
begin  a  film  study  of  the  Canela  Indian  tribe  which  the  latter  has 
been  studying  for  eighteen  years.  Permission  was  received  to  film 
these  not-so-isolated  Indians.  The  President  of  the  National  Indian 
Foundation  of  Brazil  became  interested  in  the  Center's  techniques 
and  efforts.  Dr.  Sorenson  was  invited  to  begin  similar  film  studies 
in  Brazil  in  the  most  isolated  and  sensitive  Indian  regions. 

Among  the  Canela,  it  was  discovered,  there  is  a  culturally  pat- 
terned childhood  which  permitted  a  society  to  develop  in  which 
unusually  free  expressions  of  human  individuality  strengthened 
group  solidarity.  Indeed,  the  social  solidarity  of  the  Canela  people 
is  one  of  the  remarkable  features  of  their  kind  of  life,  a  fact  al- 
ready remarked  on  by  Dr.  Crocker.  A  quite  different  condition 
prevails  in  Western  societies,  where  individuality  and  solidarity 
are  different  kinds  of  things  which  oppose  one  another.  Thus,  the 
implications  of  the  study  not  only  touch  on  previously  unknown 
possibilities  in  psychosocial  patterning,  but  also  on  the  very  nature 
of  inquiry  itself. 

Cook  Islands.  Premier  Albert  Henry  of  the  Cook  Islands  also 
has  taken  a  personal  interest  in  nafc  efforts,  feeling  that  they  were 
useful  in  helping  him  define  a  cultural  identity  for  the  Cook 
Islands  people.  He  has  invited  nafc  to  start  studies  on  any  of  the 
dispersed  islands  and  atolls  in  a  nation  which  contains  elements  of 
all  three  of  the  major  Polynesian  groups. 

Papua  New  Guinea.  The  nafc  received  an  unprecedented  invi- 
tation to  work  directly  with  the  new  Institute  of  Papua  New 
Guinea  Studies  throughout  the  country  in  locations  the  Center 
may  select.  This  is  unusual  in  that  the  Institute  ordinarily  limits 
itself  to  determining  research  policy  for  the  nation  and  advising 
the  University  on  who  it  may  allow  into  the  country  for  research 
and  what  kinds  of  research  will  be  permitted.  That  the  Institute 
wants  to  work  directly  with  nafc  is  very  promising. 

Nepal.  Dr.  Sorenson's  visit  to  Nepal  this  year  brought  an  unus- 
ual and  unprecedented  invitation  to  work  directly  with  the  Royal 
Nepal  Academy  to  study  and  film  traditional  ways  of  life  and 
culture  across  the  entire  country. 

It  is  a  unique  region  to  which  the  nafc  may  now  go  with  its 

42  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

cameras  and  scholars.  Two  of  the  earth's  major  different  kinds  of 
people  touch  and  mix  in  Nepal:  the  Indo-Europeans  of  the  south 
and  the  Central  Asiatics  of  Tibet  and  Mongolia.  The  contact  be- 
tween East  and  West  here  was  ancient  and  persistent.  As  a  result, 
many  unique,  fascinating  approaches  to  life  have  been  spawned. 
Several  of  these  still  remain  in  the  isolated  regions  of  Nepal. 

Pakistan.  The  Minister  of  Education  has  opened  up  the  Hunza 
region,  a  part  of  Pakistan  which  was  closed  to  all  foreigners  and 
where  even  our  own  embassy  had  not  been  able  to  get  an  observer. 
In  this  isolated  and  extraordinary  region,  deep  in  the  central  Kara- 
koram  Mountains,  there  was  an  independently  evolved,  isolated, 
civilized  development  among  people  who  are  not  related  linguis- 
tically or  behaviorally  to  the  others  in  this  part  of  the  world.  Social 
harmony  was  high,  health  unusually  good;  many  individuals  lived 
to  over  one  hundred  years  of  age.  The  nafc  had  full  cooperation 
and  assistance  from  all  levels  and  was  able  not  just  to  survey  the 
Hunza  Valley,  but  north  even  to  the  Sinkiang  border,  through 
other  tribes  and  peoples.  Now  being  built  through  Hunza,  and  on 
to  China,  is  the  new  Karakoram  Highway — a  major  effort  to  link 
China  and  Pakistan  with  an  all-weather  modern  highway.  This  will 
be  opened  to  some  traffic  in  about  a  year.  Then,  the  isolation  and 
independent  life-style  of  the  people  there  will  be  quickly  altered. 

All  these  opportunities  are  remarkable.  They  are  in  those  very 
countries  which  contain  the  greatest  reserves  of  independently 
evolved  and  tribal  cultures  in  the  world.  Some  of  these  ways  of  life 
reflect  conditions  important  in  our  behavioral  and  cultural  evolu- 
tion; some  reveal  special  expressions  of  human  organizational 
capability;  many  tell  us  about  the  nature  of  human  forces  else- 
where in  our  growing  "one  world." 


The  Research  Institute  on  Immigration  and  Ethnic  Studies  (rues), 
during  fiscal  year  1977,  more  successfully  than  ever  continued  to 
carry  out  a  program  fostering  the  ongoing  study  of  the  impact  of 
contemporary  immigration  upon  and  its  discernible  implications 
for  the  future  of  the  United  States  and  the  internal  community. 

During  the  past  year,  the  rues  staff  brought  to  fruition  its  con- 
tribution to  the  commemoration  of  the  Bicentennial  of  the  Ameri- 
can Revolution.  In  November  1976  the  Institute  convened  a  three- 

Science  /  43 

day  national  conference  which  explored  the  topic  of  "The  New 
Immigration:  Implications  for  the  United  States  and  the  Interna- 
tional Community."  Participating  were  two  hundred  registered 
guests  representing  academia,  governmental  and  diplomatic  circles, 
foundations,  and  special  interest  groups,  including  participants 
from  France,  Canada,  the  Dominican  Republic,  Mexico,  England, 
Germany,  Puerto  Rico,  and  Colombia. 

In  addition  to  its  value  as  a  contribution  to  the  nation's  Bicen- 
tennial celebrations,  the  conference  was  important  because  it 
marked  a  turning  point  for  the  Research  Institute  in  its  efforts  to 
bring  together  what  had  been  (for  want  of  an  identifiable  "clear- 
ing center")  disparate  streams  of  research  and  discrete,  compart- 
mentalized foci  of  study. 

Before  the  conclusion  of  the  national  conference  rues  had  al- 
ready begun  negotiations  for  publication  of  the  conference  pro- 
ceedings, continued  research  on  topics  revealed  at  the  conference 
as  well  as  lacunae  uncovered  therein,  and  continued  development 
of  public  and  professional  information  channels. 

Rues  has  sought  to  strengthen  cooperative  relationships  with 
other  units  of  the  Smithsonian  in  order  to  utilize  the  varied  media, 
programmatic  and  educational  networks,  and  skills  available  with- 
in the  Institution.  Links  were  developed  between  rues  and  the 
Division  of  Performing  Arts  and  the  Smithsonian  Associates  for 
co-sponsorship  of  a  performance  by  an  immigrant  artist-musician, 
a  documentary  film  presentation  by  a  Cantonese-American  ethno- 
cinematographer  and  a  workshop-seminar  co-sponsored  by  the 
Office  of  Symposia  and  Seminars  on  "Re-evaluating  the  Asian- 
American  Image:  Themes  in  Sociological  Literature." 

A  number  of  small  research  projects  were  completed  this  year. 
The  projects  attempted  to  locate  sources  of  data  for  various  pop- 
ulations, including  rural  and  urban  migrant  workers  in  California, 
Vietnamese  refugees  at  Camp  Pendleton,  California,  and  Puerto 
Ricans  and  Virgin  Islanders  in  New  York  City.  Two  bibliographies 
were  completed  through  rues  funding.  One  dealt  with  immigra- 
tion to  the  United  States  since  1965,  and  the  other  with  Caribbean 
immigration,  rues  funded  research  resulting  in  a  taxonomy  of  im- 
migration theory.  Research  continued  into  the  characteristics  of 
new  immigrants  to  the  United  States  and  the  implications  of  this 
continuing  immigration. 

44  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Research  also  continued  into  sources  of  data  on  United  States 
immigration  and  immigrants,  and  the  quality  of  those  data.  The 
project  was  expanded  to  include  sources  of  international  migration 
data  and  a  consideration  of  methodologies  used  to  study  immi- 
gration. Research  on  a  bibliography  dealing  with  the  immigration 
of  women  was  initiated.  This  research  will  focus  on  the  character- 
istics and  impacts  of  the  process  upon  the  participants.  Planning  was 
completed  for  a  study  of  non-European  immigrant  families,  to  be 
carried  out  in  1978.  Preliminary  probing  was  begun  on  research  on 
the  Panama  Canal  Zone  and  the  study  of  immigration  patterns  and 
policies  in  Egypt. 

National  Museum  of  Natural  History 

The  National  Museum  of  Natural  History  opened  its  new  Natu- 
ralist Center  in  December  1976  and  put  out  a  welcome  mat  for 
a  large  group  of  amateur  naturalists.  The  Museum's  exhibits  have 
shifted  to  a  style  of  conceptual  presentation  that  requires  fewer 
specimens  and  brief  labels.  Increasingly,  visitors  find  that  looking 
at  specimens  in  glass  display  cases  is  not  adequate;  they  want  to 
touch,  examine,  and  test.  To  satisfy  their  curiosity,  they  need  study 
collections  placed  at  their  disposal.  The  Museum  reserves  its  pri- 
mary study  collections  for  the  use  of  scientists  and  scholars,  but  at 
the  Naturalist  Center  an  alternative  has  been  assembled,  a  collec- 
tion of  specimens  that  is  not  composed  of  irreplaceable  one-of-a- 
kind  objects.  Amateurs  may  handle  this  systematic  collection,  see 
how  it  is  managed,  and  be  able  to  compare  these  items  with  their 
own.  The  response  has  been  enthusiastic.  Thousands  have  visited 
the  Center's  spacious  work  area  located  on  the  second  level  of  the 
Museum's  new  West  Court  Building.  Many  have  brought  with 
them  materials  or  photographs  of  materials  that  they  want  to  have 
identified  and  learn  about.  Docents  on  duty  assist  visitors  and  ex- 
plain the  Center's  reference  facilities.  What  commences  as  mild 
curiosity  often  grows  into  fascination  and  deeper  interest.  There 
is  an  increasing  number  of  regular  users  working  on  projects  of 
special  interest. 

Science  I  45 

Scientists  recently  became  aware  that  lichen  growth  was  disfig- 
uring the  monumental  stone  tablets  left  by  the  Mayans  in  Guate- 
mala and  Honduras.  Infestations  of  these  plants  were  penetrating 
and  eroding  the  stone,  blurring  and  softening  the  sharp  details  of 
the  inscriptions  carved  by  the  Mayans. 

The  National  Museum  of  Natural  History  lichenologist,  Dr. 
Mason  E.  Hale,  was  invited  by  authorities  to  study  the  problem 
at  Quirgua,  Guatemala,  and  Copan,  Honduras.  Funding  was  pro- 
vided by  the  Smithsonian  and  the  National  Geographic  Society. 
Dr.  Hale  found  the  monuments  densely  covered  by  lichens,  the 
growth  of  which  posed  a  twofold  threat.  Rock  crystals  were  being 
broken  up  by  moisture  in  the  lichen  cover,  swelling  when  it  rained 
and  shrinking  when  it  was  dry  and,  at  the  same  time,  rock  minerals 
were  being  disintegrated  by  lichen  acid  excretions.  Asked  to  rec- 
ommend a  method  for  controlling  this,  Dr.  Hale  experimented  with 
mild  bleach,  borates,  and  phenolic  solutions  that  Europeans  have 
used  in  recent  years  to  combat  lichen  growth  on  tombstones  and 
buildings.  He  discovered  that  a  single  spraying  of  a  sodium  hypo- 
chlorite commercial  bleach  on  an  afflicted  area  killed  the  more  sensi- 
tive lichen  and  after  four  months  made  it  possible  to  brush  the 
rock  surface  clean  with  a  soft  brush.  Tougher  lichen  crusts  had  to 
be  sprayed  a  second  time.  Under  Dr.  Hale's  supervision  a  two- 
year  spraying  program  was  initiated  to  clean  the  monuments  at 
Quirgua  and  Copan.  He  is  now  looking  for  another  spray  solution 
that  will  leave  an  active  residue  and  prevent  the  airborne  lichen 
from  colonizing  the  monuments  a  second  time. 

In  August  1976,  Soufriere  Volcano  on  the  island  of  Guadeloupe 
in  the  French  West  Indies  appeared  ready  to  erupt.  Dense  clouds 
of  ash  were  spewing  from  the  volcano,  and  hundreds  of  earth- 
quakes were  recorded  each  day.  French  authorities  ordered  the 
immediate  evacuation  of  all  72,000  persons  living  on  the  flanks  of 
the  volcano.  A  French  scientific  team  was  on  the  scene  and,  at  the 
invitation  of  the  government  of  Guadeloupe,  National  Museum  of 
Natural  History  volcanologist,  Dr.  Richard  S.  Fiske,  assisted  in 
monitoring  the  volcano's  activity. 

In  the  weeks  that  followed,  Dr.  Fiske  and  his  French  colleagues 
installed  tilt-monitoring  stations  on  the  flanks  of  the  volcano.  Rods 
40  to  50  meters  apart,  forming  a  square,  triangle,  or  line,  were  set 
into  the  slopes  and  optically  surveyed  to  detect  slight  changes  in 

46  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Above,  Dr.  Robert  Gibbs  (standing),  National  Museum  of  Natural  History  ichthy- 
ologist, and  biological  team  ready  depth-sampling  gear  as  part  of  their  research  to 
determine  what  impact  industrial  chemical  wastes  are  having  on  deep-ocean  fishes 
and  other  animal  populations  in  the  Atlantic.  Below,  Dr.  Mason  Hale,  National 
Museum  of  Natural  History  lichenologist,  sprays  Mayan  monument  that  was  being 
damaged  by  lichen  growth.  Authorities  at  Quirgua,  Guatemala,  and  Copan,  Hon- 
duras, invited  Dr.  Hale  to  help  them  solve  the  problem. 












City  streets  of  the  capital  city  of  Guadeloupe  in  the  French  West  Indies  are 
deserted  following  evacuation.  The  active  Soufriere  Volcano  looms  in  the  dis- 
tance. At  the  invitation  of  the  government  of  Guadeloupe,  National  Museum 
of  Natural  History  volcanologist,  Dr.  Richard  S.  Fiske,  assisted  a  French  sci- 
entific team  in  monitoring  the  volcano's  activity.  Below:  Scientists  at  a  tilt 
station  are  checking  the  Soufriere's  volcanic  activity. 

ground  tilt.  If  tilt  occurs,  it  is  a  warning  that  the  volcano  is  being 
inflated  by  rising  magma  and  is  in  danger  of  erupting  violently. 

After  the  crisis  on  Guadeloupe  and  the  evacuation  of  mid- 
August  1976,  the  volcano  continued  to  be  restless  for  the  rest  of 
the  year.  Fifty  to  a  hundred  earthquakes  were  detected  each  day, 
and  steam  and  ash  billowed  almost  continuously  from  the  summit 
of  the  volcano;  however,  scientists  monitoring  the  tilt  stations 
were  not  able  to  detect  any  significant  swelling  of  the  volcano, 
and  the  government  began  to  allow  the  evacuated  people  to  return 
to  their  homes.  In  early  1977,  the  volcano's  tempo  of  activity  be- 
gan to  dwindle  and  by  spring  things  had  returned  to  normal. 
French  scientists  are  employing  the  tilt  stations  and  other  monitor- 
ing methods  to  keep  a  close  watch  on  Soufriere,  as  the  island  be- 
gins to  recover  from  the  serious  socioeconomic  disruption  caused 
by  the  temporary  relocation  of  one-quarter  of  its  population. 

Tilt  stations  have  been  established  now  with  Dr.  Fiske's  assist- 
ance on  the  flanks  of  three  potentially  dangerous  Lesser  Antillean 
volcanoes:  Montagne  Pelee  (Martinique),  Soufriere  (St.  Vincent), 
and  Soufriere  Hills  (Montserrat). 

A  biological  team  headed  by  the  National  Museum  of  Natural 
History  ichthyologist,  Dr.  Robert  Gibbs,  is  trying  to  find  out  what 
impact  industrial  chemical  wastes  are  having  on  deep-ocean  fishes 
and  other  animal  populations  in  the  Atlantic.  Two  research  cruises 
were  made  on  National  Oceanographic  and  Atmospheric  Admin- 
istration vessels  to  a  dump  site  for  industrial  wastes  abutting  the 
continental  slope  one-hundred  miles  off  the  coast  of  New  Jersey. 
Hundreds  of  marine  organisms  were  taken  at  different  depths  with 
an  electronically  operated  discrete-depth  sampler.  Dr.  Gibbs  was 
familiar  with  many  of  the  fish  captured  from  experience  gained 
earlier  in  project  "Ocean  Acre,"  a  survey  that  has  amassed  data 
about  the  life  histories  and  vertical  distribution  of  deep-sea  fishes 
in  a  column  of  ocean  off  the  coast  of  Bermuda. 

Much  of  this  Ocean  Acre  work — the  only  multi-season  survey 
of  the  vertical  distribution  of  Western  Atlantic  fish  ever  conducted 
— was  applicable  in  the  dump-site  study.  Because  the  pollutants 
disperse  rapidly,  dropping  into  the  ocean  depths  and  layering  out, 
Dr.  Gibbs  was  particularly  interested  in  those  fishes  that  he  knew 
stay  in  the  twilight  zone  depths  during  the  day  and  then  relocate 
nearer  the  surface  during  the  evening  hours.  Dr.  Gibbs'  thought 

Science  I  49 

was  that  these  fishes  were  prime  candidates  to  carry  the  pollutants. 
Fishes  and  other  organisms  sampled  at  the  two  cruises  are  now 
under  study.  Scientists  at  the  University  of  Rhode  Island,  Woods 
Hole  Oceanographic  Institution,  and  the  Amsterdam  Zoological 
Museum  are  also  participating  in  these  studies. 

As  the  dumping  continues,  the  data  Dr.  Gibbs'  team  has  amassed 
about  the  distribution,  abundance,  and  habits  of  these  organisms 
will  provide  a  baseline  that  will  make  it  possible  to  detect  change,  if 
any,  in  the  fish  and  animal  populations  at  the  site. 

On  the  July  1975  trip,  water  conditions  at  the  site  were  compli- 
cated because  of  the  presence  of  a  large,  warm-water  eddy,  100 
miles  in  diameter  and  600  meters  deep.  Easily  seen  and  followed 
through  satellite  photography,  the  eddies  originate  when  they  are 
pinched  off  the  Gulf  Stream  in  the  region  of  Nova  Scotia  and  New 
England.  They  move  to  the  west  and  south  parallel  to  the  conti- 
nental slope  until  they  are  sucked  back  into  the  Gulf  Stream,  some 
of  them  reaching  the  vicinity  of  Cape  Hatteras.  Apparently  the 
dump  site  is  regularly  traversed  by  these  eddies. 

Smithsonian  scientists  recovered  an  abundance  of  typical  Sar- 
gasso-sea fishes  in  the  core  of  the  eddy,  along  with  other  fishes 
characteristic  of  the  Slope  Water  that  lies  shoreward  of  the  Gulf 
Stream.  But  the  farther  west  from  the  core  they  sampled,  in  the 
direction  of  the  continental  slope,  the  fewer  fish  there  were.  Assum- 
ing that  the  ships  and  barges  carrying  wastes  are  traveling  no 
farther  away  from  land  than  is  necessary,  most  of  the  dumping  is 
probably  taking  place  along  the  western  boundary  of  the  dump  site. 
The  paucity  of  fish  in  this  area  suggests  that  the  dumping  could 
be  affecting  fish  population. 

The  National  Museum  of  Natural  History  is  the  only  major 
science  institution  in  the  United  States  where  full-time  taxonomic 
studies  are  being  conducted  on  amphipods,  tiny  shrimplike  marine 
creatures  crucial  to  monitoring  programs  that  guard  against  marine 
pollution  off  the  coast  of  southern  California.  By  understanding 
the  physiological  tolerance  of  amphipods  to  oil  and  sewage,  scien- 
tists are  able  to  determine  the  level  at  which  pollution  will  disrupt 
the  entire  marine  ecosystem. 

The  Museum's  Dr.  J.  Laurens  Barnard  has  published  120  papers 
on  amphipod  taxonomy  since  joining  the  staff  in  1964.  Because  of 

50  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Dr.  J.  Laurens  Barnard  in  his  laboratory.  Dr.  Barnard's  taxonomic  studies  of 
amphipods  have  been  invaluable  to  monitoring  programs  that  guard  against 
marine  pollution  off  the  coast  of  southern  California.  (Photo  by  Doc  Dougherty) 
Below:  Amphipod  (Uschakoviella  echinophora).  (Drawing  by  Clarence  Shoemaker) 

his  research,  the  biological  characteristics  of  California  amphipods 
are  so  well  known  that  scientists  in  that  state  are  able  to  make 
them  the  basis  of  an  important  part  of  their  pollution  safeguard 
technology.  Seven  counties  and  two  urban  areas  in  California  now 
monitor  the  water  near  sewage  outfalls.  If  variations  in  the  popu- 
lations of  amphipods  are  detected,  an  investigation  follows. 

Large  die-offs  of  amphipod  populations  mean  that  chromates  or 
other  heavy  metal  industrial  pollutants  have  probably  come  out  of 
the  sewer.  Another  sign  of  trouble  is  the  presence  of  certain  species 
of  amphipods  known  to  feed  on  harmful  sewage  pollutants. 

Amphipod  populations  also  warn  of  water-quality  deterioration 
caused  by  offshore  oil  well  and  tanker  spills,  and  Dr.  Barnard  cur- 
rently is  working  on  studies  of  amphipods  living  in  two  bays  on 
the  coast  of  southern  Australia  where  tanker  ports  are  to  be  estab- 
lished. They  are  the  only  two  large  bays  on  the  southern  Australian 
coast,  and  if  pollution  occurs  there  it  could  mean  the  death  of  all 
the  marine  and  estuarine  life  in  one  major  biological  region  of  the 
world.  Three  large  descriptive  volumes  have  been  published  on  the 
region's  amphipods  with  four  more  to  come,  and  the  Australians 
are  using  the  information  to  plan  monitoring  programs  that  will 
protect  their  waters  from  deterioration. 

Museum  geologist  Dr.  J.  W.  Pierce  has  been  studying  sediment 
discharge  into  the  Chesapeake  Bay  and  into  the  waters  off  the 
coasts  of  North  and  South  America.  One  of  his  discoveries  is  that 
much  of  the  sediment  suspended  in  water  is  included  in  aggregates, 
composed  of  mineral  grains  and  organic  matter.  Phytoplankton 
often  are  associated  with  the  aggregates,  as  are  bacteria.  The  fine 
mineral  particles  and  organic  matter  have  the  ability  to  absorb  some 
trace  metals  and  pesticides.  Thus,  the  aggregates  often  are  micro- 
environments  consisting  of  small  mineral  grains,  organic  matter, 
bacteria,  phytoplankton,  pesticides,  and  metals  that  may  bear  little 
relationship  to  the  environment  of  the  stream  or  estuary  as  a 
whole.  Fish,  decapods,  and  other  grazers  and  filter  feeders  ingest 
these  tiny  aggregates  (5  to  100  millimeters  in  diameter)  for  their 
food  value,  and  at  the  same  time,  are  exposed  to  the  metals  and 
pesticides.  Larger  mineral  grains  usually  are  not  associated  with 
organic  matter  and  phytoplankton,  and  Dr.  Pierce  sees  no  evidence 
that  these  larger  grains  provide  the  same  micro-environment  as  the 

52  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Other  sediment  studies  conducted  by  Dr.  Pierce  bear  on  the 
problems  that  can  arise  when  the  mass  of  discharged  sediment  be- 
comes so  great  that  it  causes  excessive  siltation  of  harbors,  clogs 
rivers,  overwhelms  benthic  communities,  and  degrades  the  esthetic 
value  of  recreational  water  areas.  Dr.  Pierce  has  shown  that,  for 
the  Patuxent  River  Basin  in  Maryland,  as  much  as  82  percent  of 
the  sediment  transported  by  the  streams  came  from  construction 
sites  which  occupied  only  23  percent  of  the  area  of  the  Basin.  Most 
of  this  material  is  deposited  in  the  upper  Patuxent  estuary,  result- 
ing in  a  filling  rate  of  3.7  centimeters  per  year. 

Working  with  scientists  from  the  Smithsonian's  Chesapeake  Bay 
Center,  Dr.  Pierce  is  also  attempting  to  determine  the  amount  of 
sediment  discharged  from  different  land  uses  in  the  Rhode  River 
watershed,  a  tributary  to  the  Chesapeake  Bay.  Several  small  water- 
sheds, each  with  multiple  land  uses,  are  monitored  to  determine 
how  much  sediment  is  derived  from  each  watershed.  Monitoring  is 
also  done  to  determine  how  much  is  deposited  in  tidal  marshes  and 
on  mudflats  and  how  much  is  exported  to  the  estuary  proper. 

Southwestern  Afghanistan's  Sistan  Desert,  a  5,000-square-mile 
area  the  Afghans  know  as  Dash-i  Jehanum,  "Desert  of  Hell,"  is 
a  country  that  Lord  Curzon  once  described  as  one  of  the  most  un- 
attractive, inhospitable,  and  odious  places  on  earth.  It  is  this  region 
of  solitude  and  sand  that  National  Museum  of  Natural  History 
archeologist  Dr.  William  Trousdale  has  been  investigating. 

Once  this  region  welcomed  man.  During  long  periods  from  the 
sixth  century  b.c.  until  the  fifteenth  century  a.d.,  hundreds  of  thou- 
sands of  persons  lived  there,  supported  by  such  agricultural  plenty 
that  geographers  called  this  area  the  "granary  of  the  east."  Today, 
vast  sand  dunes  have  buried  much  of  what  has  survived  of  this 
civilization,  covering  manor  houses,  villages,  dozens  of  palaces, 
temples,  forts,  vast  walled  compounds,  and  at  least  three  cities  a 
square  mile  in  extent.  The  most  spectacular  of  the  ruins  that  still 
stand  belongs  to  the  Islamic  period,  particularly  to  the  Ghaznavid 
and  Timurid  empires  which  ruled  the  major  portions  of  the  Iranian 
world  during  the  eleventh  and  fifteenth  centuries.  Part  of  the 
Trousdale  team's  work  was  to  photo-document  what  still  stands  of 
these  Islamic  ruins,  which  are  crumbling  so  rapidly  that  within 
fifty  years  more  than  half  of  what  remains  today  will  be  gone.  It  is 
probably  the  best  place  in  the  world,  and  perhaps  the  only  place, 

Science  I  53 

to  study  unaltered  fifteenth-century   sacred  and  secular   Islamic 

Dr.  Trousdale's  excavations  have  revealed  the  key  to  Sistan's 
past  prosperity — a  sophisticated  system  of  dams  and  canals  that 
controlled  the  waters  of  Afghanistan's  Helmand  River.  At  Sar-O- 
Tar,  the  Sistan's  most  remarkable  urban  complex,  water  to  supply 
the  city  and  its  neighboring  farms  traveled  fifty  miles  through  a 
huge,  high-banked  canal.  Dozens  of  smaller  canals,  some  of  them 
longer  than  the  great  trunk  itself,  watered  the  surrounding  region. 
Dr.  Trousdale's  team  mapped  the  city's  canals,  discovered  how  the 
ancient  gravity-fed  irrigation  system  had  worked  and  identified 
crops  that  the  canal  water  had  nurtured. 

Sistan's  complex  system  of  water  distribution  dates  back  to  the 
third  or  second  millennium  b.c.  Neither  the  opening  nor  the  closing 
dates  for  this  unknown  civilization  have  been  determined  yet,  but 
it  is  known  that  in  addition  to  being  superb  engineers,  these  people 
manufactured  elegant  stone  weapons  and  fine  polychrome  pottery. 

The  first  known  period  of  sanding  and  abandonment  took  place 
in  Sistan  before  the  first  century  b.c.  From  the  first  century  b.c.  to 
the  third  century  a.d.,  another  period  of  occupation  was  archeolog- 
ically  documented  by  Dr.  Trousdale  through  coins,  and  storage  jars 
stamped  with  the  insignia  of  the  third-century  Crown  Prince  Sha- 
pur  and  others.  Then  from  the  third  to  the  ninth  century  a.d.,  the 
Sistan  appears  to  have  been  deserted  again. 

The  Sistan's  last  period  of  occupation  began  in  the  ninth  century 
a.d.  Ancient  historians  record  that  Genghis  Khan's  hordes  sacked 
Sar-O-Tar  in  the  thirteenth  century  a.d.,  ending  two  centuries  of 
prosperity.  Evidence  of  this  decline  as  well  as  a  revival  that  came 
a  century  later  under  the  rule  of  Tamerlane  was  uncovered  by  Dr. 
Trousdale.  Another  political  decline  followed  a  century  later.  The 
canal  system  broke  down,  and  sand  blew  out  of  ancient  lake  beds, 
burying  the  region,  driving  out  the  population,  and  sealing  off  the 
area.  Today,  only  roving  Baluchs  and  a  few  Afghan  soldiers  sta- 
tioned at  small  military  posts  remain  in  Sistan. 

Dr.  Trousdale  hypothesizes  that  the  periodic  sanding  of  the  Sis- 
tan may  be  a  cyclical  phenomenon.  Twice,  after  periods  of  desola- 
tion and  emptiness  lasting  from  600  to  1,000  or  more  years,  the 
region  cleared  itself  of  sand  and  was  reinhabited  by  man.  It  is  not 
beyond  the  realm  of  possibility  that  someday  Sistan  may  flourish 

54  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 


Sar-O-Tar,  a  remarkable  urban  complex  in  southwestern  Afghanistan's  Sistan 
Desert;  this  region  inhabited  from  the  sixth  century  B.C.  until  the  fifteenth  century 
a.d.  is  being  investigated  by  a  team  of  scientists  headed  by  Dr.  William  Trousdale, 
National  Museum  of  Natural  History  archeologist.  Below;  Dr.  Trousdale  examines 
an  inscribed  funerary  tile  recovered  from  a  fifteenth-century  mausoleum. 

again  and  that  the  study  he  has  made  of  the  area's  ancient  and 
contemporary  hydrology  and  agriculture  may  assist  in  this  rehabili- 

Lakes  and  rivers  that  are  sources  of  drinking  water  are  being 
monitored  by  ecologists  who  rely  on  variations  in  the  density  and 
composition  of  certain  aquatic  insect  populations  to  help  warn  them 
of  the  onset  of  water  degradation.  Aquatic  insects  are  also  under 
scrutiny  by  public  health  officials  as  potential  transmitters  of  dis- 
ease. Before  studies  and  programs  based  on  this  knowledge  can  be 
fully  developed,  basic  taxonomic  keys  must  be  produced  so  that 
ecologists  and  public  health  experts  can  have  at  their  fingertips  bio- 
logical information  with  which  to  identify  aquatic  insects  through- 
out the  world. 

The  National  Museum  of  Natural  History's  Dr.  Paul  J.  Spangler 
and  Dr.  Oliver  S.  Flint,  Jr.,  are  working  on  aquatic  insect  keys 
needed  in  South  America,  but  have  found  it  very  difficult  to  acquire 
sufficient  study  material  to  solve  biosystematic  and  zoogeographic 
problems.  For  this  reason,  the  opportunity  to  train  and  work  with 
three  Peace  Corps  entomologists  in  a  five-year  comprehensive  sur- 
vey of  all  of  Ecuador's  aquatic  insect  fauna  was  welcomed  by  the 
two  Smithsonian  scientists  as  an  important  opportunity.  When  the 
study  is  completed,  it  will  mark  the  first  time  a  South  American 
country  has  ever  had  all  of  its  aquatic  insects  surveyed. 

Collecting  at  localities  throughout  Ecuador,  under  the  supervi- 
sion of  Dr.  Flint  and  Dr.  Spangler,  Peace  Corps  entomologists 
Andrea  Langley  and  Jeff  Cohen  from  1975  through  1977  shipped 
thousands  of  aquatic  insects  to  the  Museum  of  Natural  History. 
Peace  Corps  entomologist  Joseph  Anderson  is  expected  to  continue 
the  collecting  through  1979.  Specimens  are  sorted  at  the  Museum 
and  one  set  is  returned  to  the  Tumbaco  Experimental  Station  near 
Quito,  Ecuador.  The  Museum  is  distributing  its  specimens  to  inves- 
tigators who  will  publish  authoritative  studies,  banking  the  re- 
mainder of  the  material  in  its  reference  collection  where  it  can  be 
made  available  to  future  workers. 

Dr.  Spangler,  an  authority  on  water  beetles,  is  incorporating  sur- 
vey material  into  several  generic  revisions  he  has  underway  of  the 
Western  Hemisphere's  aquatic  beetles,  and  is  investigating  a  genus 
of  little-known  water  scavenger  beetles  that  were  collected  by 
Langley  and  Cohen  from  the  water-filled  pods  of  Heliconia  plants 

56  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

growing  in  the  lowland  forests  of  the  Amazon  Basin  in  eastern 
Ecuador.  He  has  made  several  trips  to  Ecuador  to  train  the  Peace 
Corps  workers  and  to  collect.  On  one  of  these  trips  Dr.  Yiau-Min 
Huang  of  the  Smithsonian's  Medical  Entomology  Project  accom- 
panied him  and  during  seven  weeks  of  field  work  reared  more  than 
2,000  mosquitoes  from  the  larval  through  the  pupal  to  the  adult 
stage,  thus  providing  the  Museum  of  Natural  History  with  one  of 
the  best  collections  of  these  aquatic  insects  available  from  South 

Dr.  Flint,  a  specialist  on  caddisflies,  is  finding  the  Ecuador  mat- 
terial  pertinent  to  studies  he  has  in  progress  on  the  fauna  of  the 
Central  Amazon  Basin  and  the  northern  coastal  ranges  of  Vene- 
zuela. In  addition  to  the  production  of  keys,  one  of  the  great  bene- 
fits of  the  Ecuador  study  is  to  further  refine  knowledge  of  the  pat- 
tern of  distribution  of  various  known  types  of  South  American 
aquatic  insects.  Dr.  Flint  is  finding  that  caddisflies  he  has  studied 
from  Costa  Rica  and  Venezuela  and  thought  were  restricted  to 
those  regions  are  also  distributed  south  along  the  Andes  slope  as 
far  as  Ecuador. 

National  Zoological  Park 

The  National  Zoological  Park  enjoyed  an  event-filled  year  in  1977. 
New  exhibits  proved  popular  with  both  visitors  and  animals.  Edu- 
cational innovations  helped  the  visitors  to  better  understand  the 
animals,  their  importance,  and  the  National  Zoo's  responsibilities. 
Attractive  and  functional  graphic  presentations  also  aided  the  vis- 
itor. Research  into  visitors'  expectations  and  subsequent  impressions 
enhanced  exhibit  construction.  For  the  first  time  in  the  Zoo's  long 
history,  all  facets  of  a  visitor's  experience  were  in  the  Zoo's  domain, 
when  the  Friends  of  the  National  Zoo  (fonz)  took  over  operation  of 
all  food  and  concession  services.  Scientific  studies  continued  to  de- 
velop new  understanding  of  the  behavior,  sociology,  communication, 
and  nutritional  needs  of  rare  and  endangered  animals.  Health  ad- 
vances were  made  and  shared  broadly  with  other  zoos  and  institu- 

Science  I  57 


Fiscal  year  1977  saw  the  first  full  year's  operation  of  a  new  big-cat 
complex,  the  Dr.  William  M.  Mann  Lion-Tiger  Exhibit.  By  the  end 
of  summer  1976,  it  was  filled  with  lions,  tigers,  leopards,  clouded 
leopards,  and  jaguars.  The  new  complex  permitted  the  important 
addition  to  the  collection  of  one  male  and  three  female  Atlas  lions 
on  loan  from  the  National  Zoo  of  Rabat,  Morocco.  These  lions  and 
the  few  remaining  in  Rabat  are  among  the  last  members — all  in  cap- 
tivity— of  the  subspecies  Panther  a  leo  leo  extinct  in  the  wild  since 
the  1930s.  The  complex  itself  was  selected  as  one  of  ten  outstanding 
examples  of  federally  sponsored  architecture  in  1976. 

The  new  Education-Administration  Building  was  occupied  in  Feb- 
ruary 1977,  by  staff  of  the  National  Zoo.  In  addition  to  offices  of 
the  Director,  Deputy  Director,  Education  and  Information,  and 
Management  Services,  it  houses  the  executive  offices  of  the  Friends 
of  the  National  Zoo.  The  building  has  a  low  profile  with  grassy, 
sloped  sides — a  visually  pleasing  and  an  energy-saving  architectural 

The  building  houses  the  Zoo  Library  which  supports  research 
and  management  activities.  It  also  contains  classrooms  and  a  300- 
seat  theater  where  weekend  visitors  enjoy  informative  wildlife  and 
zoo  films  in  air-conditioned  comfort. 

A  resources  room  is  now  being  readied  for  use  in  1978.  This 
room  will  serve  as  a  self-teaching  library  for  family  groups  and 
others  who  wish  to  know  more  about  particular  animals  they  have 
grown  fond  of  or  curious  about  during  their  Zoo  visits.  Art  ex- 
hibits and  changing  graphic  presentations  will  welcome  each  vis- 
itor to  the  Education-Administration  Building.  Information  can  be 
obtained  by  visitors  and  their  questions  answered  by  knowledge- 
able Zoo  docents,  who  will  also  be  sure  visitors  are  made  aware  of 
unique  events  taking  place  in  the  Zoo  on  the  days  of  their  visits. 

Also,  the  Bird  House  area  was  renovated.  The  crane  area  empha- 
sizes barrier-free  design  and  breeding  potential;  already  the  sarus 
crane  and  Stanley's  crane  have  produced  young.  Four  outdoor  ex- 
hibits for  hardy  bird  species  were  constructed.  A  new  Flamingo 
Exhibit  allows  year-round  exhibition  with  a  heated,  glass-fronted 
house  with  pool  and  sand  floor  for  winter.  The  front  of  the  Bird 
House  is  approached  through  three  waterfowl  ponds,  which  include 
natural  nesting  conditions.  Off-exhibit  yards  are  available  for  rais- 

58  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Atlas  lion  cub  born  to  one  of  several  Atlas  lions  on  loan  to  the  National 
Zoological  Park  from  the  National  Zoo  in  Rabat,  Morocco.  The  Atlas  lion  has 
been  extinct  in  the  wild  since  the  1930s. 

ing  young  birds.  The  interior  of  the  Bird  House  was  redone  to 
demonstrate  relationships  between  species. 

In  the  Small  Mammal  House,  old,  small  metal  cages  in  the  noc- 
turnal room  were  replaced  with  longer,  interconnecting  block 
cages.  This  allows  more  space  per  animal  and  permits  the  combina- 
tion of  areas  for  larger  or  more  active  species.  Elsewhere  in  the 
building,  natural  materials,  improved  exhibits,  and  experimental 
mixed-species  exhibits  are  featured. 

New  bear  exhibits,  one  for  polar  bears  and  another  for  grizzlies 
and  other  species,  housed  animals  by  August  1977.  These  exhibits 
provide  natural-appearing  rock  work,  large  water  moats,  and  free 
space  for  the  bears.  The  Polar  Bear  Exhibit  invites  the  visitor  to  an 
exciting  underwater  view  of  the  animals.  The  entire  polar  bear  area 
simulates  a  large  iceberg. 

In  all,  two-thirds  of  the  new  animals  added  to  the  collection  in 
fiscal  year  1977  were  born  at  the  National  Zoo.  The  gravest  loss 
was  the  death  of  the  American  black  bear,  who  had  been  the  offi- 
cial Smokey  Bear  for  twenty-six  years.  Other  losses  were  the  fe- 
male Asian  elephant  Shanthi,  the  male  African  forest  elephant, 
Dzimbo,  and  a  male  Chinese  alligator  which  had  been  added  to  the 
collection  in  1937.  Noteworthy  additions  to  the  collection  included 
markhors,  the  first  at  the  National  Zoo  in  over  twenty  years;  the 
Atlas  lions;  three  Aldabra  tortoises;  Caribbean  flamingoes  and 
kookaburras.  For  the  Zoo's  breeding  efforts  with  the  rare  kiwi,  the 
American  Association  of  Zoological  Parks  and  Aquariums  awarded 
the  National  Zoo  one  of  its  top  honors,  the  Edward  Bean  Award.  In 
addition,  the  Zoo  received  a  conservation  award  from  the  Associ- 
ation for  the  fiftieth  successful  breeding  of  the  endangered  pygmy 


Other  awards  recognized  the  National  Zoo's  emphasis  on  realizing 
the  educational  importance  of  the  collection.  Two  films  produced 
to  complement  the  new  Lion-Tiger  Exhibit  were  especially  well 
received.  The  Big  Cats  And  How  They  Came  To  Be  received  the 
Golden  Eagle  Prize  of  the  Council  on  International  Nontheatrical 
Events.  The  Zoo  was  invited  to  show  Big  Cats  during  the  Inter- 
national Week  for  Education  and  Teaching  films  in  Berlin;  at  the 
Fourteenth  Yorkton  International  Film  Festival,  Yorkton,  Saskatche- 

60  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

wan,  Canada;  and  Sixth  International  Film  Festival  in  New  Delhi 
India.  The  other  film,  Tiger,  won  the  first  prize  audiovisual  award 
at  the  American  Association  of  Zoological  Parks  and  Aquariums 
annual  convention  in  October  1976.  A  film,  Zoo,  produced  by  the 
Friends  of  the  National  Zoo  (a  service  organization  made  up  of  dedi- 
cated and  energetic  lovers  of  the  National  Zoo  has  won  over  a  dozen 
national  and  international  awards.  It  is  available  to  schools  and 
libraries  throughout  the  nation. 

Other  activities  and  products  to  enhance  a  visit  to  the  Zoo  were 
tours  for  school  groups,  including  special  guides  for  handicapped 
persons,  new  bilingual  (Spanish  and  English)  labeling  of  all  exhib- 
its; and  ZooBook,  a  guide,  of  such  quality  and  importance  that  it 
survives  the  owner's  visit  to  become  an  often-used  addition  to  home 

A  new  trail  system  has  been  developed  to  make  it  easier  for 
visitors  to  see  the  animals.  Each  trail  is  marked  by  totems  with 
attractive  pictographs  of  major  animals  to  be  seen  on  it,  as  well  as 
by  footprints  of  a  "theme"  animal  for  that  trail. 


As  the  nation's  Zoo,  the  National  Zoo  in  1977  did  more  than  ever 
before  to  disseminate  its  learning  in  animal  management,  health, 
and  basic  research  to  other  zoos  and  concerned  institutions.  Over 
forty  publications  issued  from  National  Zoo  staffers.  A  number  of 
students  and  future  zoo  careerists  were  hosted  and  trained  at  the 
National  Zoo.  Cooperative  breeding  agreements  saw  over  160  ani- 
mals belonging  to  the  National  Zoo  on  loan  to  other  zoos,  and  70 
animals  were  on  loan  from  others  to  the  National  Zoo.  Zoo  veter- 
inarians conducted  seminars  for  professionals  of  other  zoos  on 
health  issues. 

Zoo  scientists  made  presentations  before  such  organizations 
as  the  American  Association  of  Zoological  Parks  and  Aquariums, 
Animal  Behavior  Society,  Ornithologists'  Union,  Wilson  Ornitho- 
logical Society,  American  Association  for  the  Advancement  of  Sci- 
ence, and  a  London  symposium  on  breeding  rare  and  endangered 
species.  On  matters  of  such  common  interest  as  the  breeding  of 
exotic  animals  and  diseases  affecting  them,  the  National  Zoo  spon- 
sored two  symposia  at  which  national  authorities  considered  ways 
to  improve  Zoo  performance.  The  Front  Royal  Conservation  and 

Science  I  61 

Research  Center  of  the  National  Zoo,  in  the  short  space  of  its  three 
years'  existence,  is  on  the  road  to  becoming  one  of  the  nation's 
focal  points  in  the  cooperative  breeding  of  irreplaceable  animals 
and  field  research  into  their  behavior. 

In  basic  research,  the  National  Zoo  continued  its  diverse  activi- 
ties to  improve  awareness  of  the  influences  on  rare  and  endangered 
animals.  Studies  in  Venezuela  have  determined  the  carrying  capac- 
ity of  the  habitat  for  howler  monkeys,  Alouatta  seniculus;  that 
patterns  of  competition  and  coexistence  among  cebids  and  calli- 
trichids  are  functions  of  habit  and  feeding  strategies;  and  that  fox 
pairs  forage  together,  but  do  not  hunt  cooperatively.  Vocal  reper- 
toires of  bird  species  in  different  habitats  are  being  studied,  as  are 
the  thermal  ecology  of  South  American  pond  turtles  and  the  pop- 
ulation dynamics  of  the  caiman.  In  other  field  studies,  a  Zoo  re- 
searcher developed  a  framework  for  understanding  how  the  physi- 
cal structure  of  sound  relates  to  motivation  and  to  information 
communicated  by  vocalizations  of  mammals  and  birds. 

Also  studied  were  the  maternal  care  and  juvenile  behavior  of 
harbor  seals,  which  led  to  techniques  for  the  care  and  manage- 
ment of  harbor  seals.  Eastern  blue  birds  were  studied  to  determine 
clutch  size  and  reproductive  success.  Studies  in  Panama  seek  to 
understand  the  sources  of  natural  selection  acting  upon  vocal  com- 
munication in  congeneric  wrens.  A  Zoo  research  associate  in  Java 
undertook  a  study  to  see  if  the  number  of  Javan  tigers  at  the  Meru 
Betiri  Reserve  warranted  a  management  plan  for  their  future  pro- 
tection. Many  other  studies  yielded  basic  scientific  data  and  critical 
information  about  the  complex  web  of  interactions  between  exotic 
animals  and  their  natural  habitats.  Many  health  studies  were  de- 
veloped to  improve  the  clinical  care  of  exotic  animals. 


During  the  past  year,  expanded  Zoo  support  programs  character- 
ized efforts  of  the  Friends  of  the  National  Zoo  (fonz),  a  not-for- 
profit  organization  established  to  augment  the  Zoo's  programs.  A 
new,  diversified  educational  campaign  utilized  50  volunteer  guides 
and  many  printed  and  visual  materials  to  impart  a  wider  under- 
standing of  zoology  to  more  than  30,000  touring  school  children. 
Bimonthly  publications,  year-round  classes,  lectures,  films,  trips, 
and  other  special  events  continued  to  be  offered  to  the  12,000  fonz 

62  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

members.  The  FONZ-managed  restaurant,  gift  shop,  trackless  train, 
and  parking  lot  offered  improved  services  to  the  public. 

Additionally,  approximately  300  fonz  volunteers  assisted  Na- 
tional Zoological  Park  scientists  in  animal  behavior  studies,  and  50 
Junior  members  staged  animal-themed  puppet  shows  daily  through 
the  summer. 

The  great  majority  of  net  revenue  generated  by  fonz  activities 
this  past  year  has  been  used  in  furtherance  of  Zoo  education  pro- 
grams. In  particular,  a  $52,000  grant  program  supported  a  National 
Zoo  summer  intern  program  along  with  various  symposia  and 
conferences  conducted  at  the  Zoo  and  the  Front  Royal  Conserva- 
tion Center. 

Further  detail  of  fonz's  financial  operations  for  calendar  year 
1976  (its  fiscal  year)  is  shown  below.  In  addition,  a  percentage  of 
the  restaurant  and  parking  concessions  are  available  directly  to  the 
Smithsonian  for  the  benefit  of  the  Zoo  and  are  reported  as  income 
in  the  Financial  Report  of  the  Smithsonian. 


Financial  Report  for  the  Period 

January  1-December  31,  1976 

[In  $1,0005] 

Net  increase/ 

(decrease)  to 

Revenue         Expense  fund  balance 

FUND  BALANCE  @  1/1/76 $431 


Membership     $      81 

Publications   47 

Education 1     28 

Zoo  Services  2   1,040 

Totals    $1,196 

FUND  BALANCE  @  12/31/76 

1  Excludes  an  estimated  $55,000  in  contributed  volunteer  services. 

2  Includes  gift  shop,  balloon  shop,  sightseeing  trains,  parking  service,  and  food 

3  Includes  $120,690  paid  during  this  period  to  the  Smithsonian  under  contrac- 
tual arrangement. 

4  Funds  retained  for  program  activities  of  the  Zoo. 

Science  I  63 

$   90 
828  3 

$  (9) 




Office  of  International  Programs 

The  Office  of  International  Programs  fosters  and  coordinates  the 
international  aspects  of  Smithsonian  programs  and  also  provides 
support  to  United  States  institutions  of  research  and  higher  learn- 
ing, including  the  Smithsonian,  through  Special  Foreign  Currency 
Program  grants.  Its  functions  are  carried  out  by  sections  designated 
as  the  Smithsonian  Foreign  Currency  Program  and  the  Interna- 
tional Liaison  Section. 


The  Smithsonian  Foreign  Currency  Program  (sfcp)  awards  grants 
to  support  the  research  interests  of  American  institutions,  includ- 
ing the  Smithsonian,  in  those  countries  where  the  United  States 
holds  blocked  currencies  derived  largely  from  past  sales  of  surplus 
agricultural  commodities  under  Public  Law  480.  The  Program  is 
active  in  countries  where  the  Treasury  Department  deems  United 
States  holdings  of  these  currencies  to  be  in  excess  of  normal  federal 
requirements,  including  in  1978  Burma,  Egypt,  Guinea,  India,  and 
Pakistan.  Research  projects  are  continuing  to  conclusion  under 
Program  support  in  the  former  excess-currency  countries  of  Israel, 
Morocco,  Poland,  Sri  Lanka,  Tunisia  and  Yugoslavia. 

The  Smithsonian  has  received  a  fiscal  year  1978  appropriation 
of  $4  million  in  "excess"  currencies,  which  will  be  used  to  support 
projects  in  the  anthropological  sciences,  systematic  and  environ- 
mental biology,  astrophysics  and  earth  sciences,  and  museum  pro- 
fessional fields.  The  Smithsonian  received  a  fiscal  year  1977  appro- 
priation of  $3.5  million  in  "excess"  currencies  that  is  being  used  to 
support  over  fifty  projects  in  these  disciplines.  From  its  inception 
in  fiscal  year  1966,  through  fiscal  year  J  977,  the  sfcp  has  awarded 
about  $30  million  in  foreign  currency  grants  to  some  191  institu- 
tions in  32  states  and  the  District  of  Columbia.  Within  the  frame- 
work of  the  Program,  the  Smithsonian  will  make  a  fourth  and  final 
contribution  of  $1  million  in  Egyptian  pounds  in  support  of  Egypt's 
effort  to  save  the  submerged  temples  of  Philae  in  Nubia. 

The  International  Liaison  Section  (ils)  provides  foreign  affairs  liai- 

64  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

son  and  assistance  for  Smithsonian  activities  abroad,  and  for  for- 
eign nationals  participating  in  Smithsonian  programs  in  the  United 
States.  In  addition  to  its  liaison  responsibilities  with  the  Department 
of  State,  United  States  missions  abroad,  and  foreign  governments, 
ils  is  responsible  for  the  administrations  of  foreign  students  and  ex- 
change-visitor programs  at  the  Smithsonian,  foreign  travel  docu- 
mentation for  official  Smithsonian  travelers,  and  programming  for 
foreign  official  visitors  to  the  Smithsonian.  Foreign  visitors  to  the 
Smithsonian  during  the  year  have  included  those  from  the  People's 
Republic  of  China  Institute  for  Foreign  Affairs  and  His  Holiness, 
the  Karmapa  Lama  from  Sikkim. 

Radiation  Biology  Laboratory 

Plants  and  animals  exist  in  a  sea  of  energy.  This  energy  is  avail- 
able in  numerous  forms,  but  the  most  significant  for  plants  is  sun- 
light, from  which  they  are  capable  of  producing  their  own  food 
through  photosynthetic  reactions.  This  photosynthetic  food  is  used 
for  the  growth  and  development  of  the  plants,  and  they  in  turn  are 
ingested  as  a  concentrated  form  of  energy  by  animals. 

In  addition,  because  the  environment  is  exposed  at  regular,  pe- 
riodic intervals  to  sunlight  as  the  earth  rotates  daily,  both  plants 
and  animals  have  evolved  elaborate  molecular  mechanisms  for 
using  light  signals  to  control  their  growth  and  development.  These 
mechanisms  do  not  depend  upon  trapping  large  amounts  of  energy 
from  sunlight,  as  is  needed  in  photosynthesis.  Rather,  they  depend 
upon  measuring  such  variables  as  the  length  of  the  day,  or  changes 
in  the  color  of  the  light  during  the  day.  From  such  signals,  the  rate 
of  flow  of  energy  through  the  organism  or  through  whole  popula- 
tions may  be  regulated.  The  ability  to  detect  these  light  signals 
confers  upon  these  organisms  a  large  survival  advantage. 

The  Radiation  Biology  Laboratory  has  continued  its  research  em- 
phasis during  the  last  year  in  several  major  areas.  These  are:  (1) 
regulatory  processes  of  plants,  such  as  membrane  synthesis  and 
pigment  synthesis;  (2)  environmental  processes  and  energy  flow  in 
biological  systems,  such  as  photosynthesis  and  phosphorus  me- 
tabolism; (3)  the  measurement  of  the  amount,  duration,  and  color 
quality  of  sunlight  present  in  the  environment;  and  (4)  the  age 

Science  I  65 

estimation  of  biological  artifacts  based  upon  their  radioactive  car- 
bon content. 


Algae  grow  at  varying  depths  in  the  ocean.  Depending  upon  the 
depth  and  the  presence  of  absorbing  materials  in  the  water,  the 
color  of  the  light  varies  with  depth.  Algae  have  evolved  special 
protein  structures  on  membranes  within  the  cells  which  have  ac- 
cessory pigments  that  enable  the  algae  to  absorb  the  light  more 
efficiently  for  photosynthesis.  These  phycobiliproteins,  the  major 
light-harvesting  pigments  in  red  and  blue-green  algae,  were  isolated 
in  their  in  vivo  state  as  phycobilisomes  from  eight  species.  All 
were  energetically  tightly  coupled  as  reflected  by  the  energy  mi- 
gration to  the  pigment  allophycocyanin,  low  fluorescence  polariza- 
tion, and  high  quantum  yield. 

The  energy  transfer  efficiency  from  phycoerythrin  — >  phycocy- 
anin  -»  allophycocyanin  was  slightly  smaller  at  -196°C  than  at 
20°C,  indicating  that  a  resonance  type  of  energy  migration  occurs 
in  the  phycobilisomes  as  previously  proposed.  The  fluorescence 
quantum  yield  of  phycobilisomes  was  0.60  (Porphyridium  omen- 
tum) and  0.68  (Nostoc  sp.)  similar  to  that  of  allophycocyanin, 
0.68.  The  fluorescence  quantum  yield  remained  essentially  un- 
changed when  the  ratios  of  the  phycobiliproteins  were  varied  by 
growing  cells  under  different  spectral  quality  of  light.  In  Nostoc 
and  Fremyella,  where  phycoerythrin  was  greatly  decreased  in  red 
light,  the  quantum  yields  only  varied  from  0.68  to  0.60.  Allophyco- 
cyanin is  not  rate-limiting  in  transferring  the  excitation  energy  to 
chlorophyll,  because  its  rate  of  de-excitation  is  much  faster  than 
the  rate  of  quantum  absorption. 

The  synthesis  of  the  proteins  needed  for  the  chloroplasts  which 
are  the  site  of  photosynthesis  in  both  algae  and  higher  plants  is 
controlled  by  an  interaction  between  the  cytoplasm  of  the  cell  and 
other  organelles.  Ribosomes  are  the  organelles  at  which  protein  is 

The  relationship  between  chloroplast,  cytoplasm,  and  prokary- 
ote  ribosomes  was  investigated.  Chloroplast  ribosomes  of  the  green 
alga  Chlamydomonas  reinhardtii  have  a  buoyant  density  distinctly 
different  from  reported  values  for  prokaryote  ribosomes,  but  indis- 
tinguishable    from     cytoplasm     ribosomes     of     Chlamydomonas. 

66  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Chloroplast  ribosomes  sediment  more  rapidly  during  centrifuga- 
tion  on  sucrose  density  gradients  than  has  previously  been  re- 
ported, and  thus  behave  differently  than  ribosomes  of  prokaryotes. 
The  slower  rates  of  sedimentation  which  have  been  reported  earlier 
appear  to  be  artifacts  due  to  the  dissociation  of  the  ribosomes  in 
the  gradients  during  centrifugation. 

Chloroplasts  and  mitochondria  in  Chlamydomonas  and  bean 
seedlings  (Phaseolus)  have  been  examined  by  electron  microscopy 
for  the  presence  of  cytoplasm  ribosomes  bound  to  the  envelopes  of 
these  organelles.  Cells  were  first  treated  with  cycloheximide  to  pre- 
serve any  attachment  of  the  ribosomes  to  the  membranes.  Ribo- 
somes of  the  cytoplasm  were  not  closely  associated  with  the  orga- 
nelle envelopes.  Thus,  it  appears  that  the  mechanism  for  transfer 
of  cytoplasm-synthesized  organelle  proteins  into  mitochondria  and 
chloroplasts  does  not  operate  in  green  plants  by  the  secretory 
process  postulated  for  yeast  cells. 

The  carotenoid  pigments  and  their  oxygenated  derivatives,  the 
xanthophylls,  are  responsible  for  many  of  the  yellow,  orange,  and 
red  colors  observed  in  both  plants  and  animals.  Many  of  these 
compounds  act  as  accessory  pigments  in  photosynthesis,  ^-carotene 
is  an  important  carotenoid  in  the  diet  of  animals,  because  it  is  a 
precursor  of  vitamin  A.  In  many  organisms,  the  carotenoids  have 
been  shown  to  protect  against  adverse  effects  of  visible  light. 

In  the  fungus  Neurospora  crassa,  blue  light  is  required  to  initiate 
the  biosynthesis  of  at  least  eight  different  carotenoid  pigments. 
Inhibitor  studies  indicate  that  one  or  more  enzyme  activities  in  the 
carotenoid  pathway  are  absent  or  at  low  levels  in  dark-grown 
Neurospora  cultures  and  that  these  activities  increase  following  the 
light  treatment. 

Phytoene,  a  40-carbon  colorless  compound,  is  a  precursor  of  the 
carotenoid  pigments,  and  phytoene  is  synthesized  from  a  5-carbon 
compound,  isopentenyl-pyrophosphate  (ipp).  The  enzyme  system 
which  catalyzes  the  biosynthesis  of  phytoene  from  ipp  is  being 
investigated.  This  activity,  which  is  undoubtedly  due  to  more  than 
one  enzyme,  has  been  partially  purified  by  differential  centrifuga- 
tion and  ammonium  sulfate  precipitation.  Light  induces  a  9-fold 
increase  in  this  enzyme  activity,  and  this  increase  is  blocked  if 
cycloheximide,  an  inhibitor  of  protein  synthesis,  is  added  to  Neuro- 
spora cultures  immediately  after  the  light  treatment.  These  results 

Science  I  67 

support  the  hypothesis  that  the  de  novo  production  of  one  or  more 
of  the  enzymes  required  for  the  conversion  of  ipp  to  phytoene  is 
regulated  by  light. 

This  enzyme  system  has  been  studied  in  several  Neurospora 
albino  mutants  which  produce  little  or  no  carotenoids.  The  enzyme 
system  is  present  in  albino-1  mutants,  and  as  with  wild  type,  light 
was  shown  to  induce  an  increase  in  the  level.  The  albino-1  strains 
are  not  blocked  in  the  synthesis  of  phytoene,  but  in  the  conversion 
of  this  compound  to  the  carotenoid  pigments. 

The  same  blue  light  photoreceptor  which  is  involved  in  the  in- 
duction of  carotenoid  synthesis  in  fungi  is  also  believed  to  be  in- 
volved in  the  phototropic  responses  of  higher  plants.  If  barley 
seedlings  are  grown  in  the  presence  of  the  herbicide  Sandoz,  the 
seedlings  do  not  develop  the  yellow  carotenoid  pigments  nor  the 
green  chlorophylls.  Such  white-grown  seedlings,  if  then  exposed 
from  one  side  to  a  dim  blue  light,  bend  toward  the  blue  light 
source.  The  rate  of  bending  is  almost  identical  to  the  bending  rate 
for  untreated  dark-grown  seedlings.  The  conclusion  is  drawn  that 
the  phototropic  pigment  is  unaffected  by  the  herbicide  treatment 
and  is  probably  a  flavin  molecule,  since  the  carotenoid  pigments 
are  greatly  reduced  by  the  herbicide. 

The  process  of  spore  germination  in  the  sensitive  fern  Onoclea 
sensibilis  is  inhibited  by  the  presence  of  small  amounts  of  ethylene. 
If  ethylene-inhibited  spores  are  exposed  to  light,  the  ethylene  in- 
hibition can  be  overcome.  It  has  not  been  known  if  this  effect  of 
light  is  through  photosynthesis  or  through  the  regulatory  plant 
pigment  phytochrome.  One  of  the  ways  of  testing  this  hypothesis 
is  to  determine  an  action  spectrum  for  the  sensitivity  of  the  process 
to  various  spectral  regions  of  light.  Such  an  action  spectrum  has 
been  determined,  and  the  light  release  of  ethylene  inhibition  has 
been  shown  to  be  a  high  irradiance  response  with  an  action  spec- 
trum maximum  at  711  nanometers.  The  response  differs  from  the 
normal  phytochrome-mediated  high  irradiance  response  in  that 
there  is  no  activity  by  blue  light.  Such  high  irradiance  responses 
are  believed  to  function  through  the  phytochrome  pigment  system. 

The  phytochrome  molecule  also  acts  as  the  receptor  molecule 
for  the  control  of  reproductive  development.  When  light  signals 
are  received  from  the  environment,  either  inhibition  or  promotion 
of  reproductive  development  occurs  that  is  dependent  upon  both 

68  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

the  species  of  plant  and  the  time  in  the  development  cycle  during 
which  the  signal  is  received.  Normally,  the  red  portion  of  sunlight 
predominates  during  the  day,  with  marked  increases  in  the  far  red 
portion  near  sunrise  and  sunset.  Plants  apparently  respond  to  the 
length  of  time  between  these  two  far  red  signals.  In  order  to  do 
this,  the  signal  must  be  received  at  a  time  when  the  plant's  internal 
clock  reaches  maximum  sensitivity.  When  the  timing  of  the  clock 
and  the  signal  are  in  synchrony,  some  as  yet  unknown  biochemical 
change  takes  place  which  leads  to  flowering. 

Experiments  with  barley,  a  plant  that  requires  long  daylengths 
to  flower,  have  shown  that  a  far  red  signal  must  be  present  eight- 
een hours  after  the  light  comes  on,  and  that  if  the  signal  comes 
either  before  or  after  this  point,  flowering  is  reduced.  A  method 
has  been  developed  to  measure  directly  the  changes  in  the  phyto- 
chrome  molecule  in  the  light  during  the  time  when  the  signal  is 
present.  This  was  previously  impossible  due  to  the  presence  of 
chlorophyll.  The  technique  removes  the  chlorophyll  by  adding  the 
herbicide  Sandoz  allowing  direct  determination.  Also,  it  has  been 
found  that  a  second  process  is  involved,  beyond  that  which  occurs 
at  eighteen  hours,  which  is  required  for  continued  development  of 
the  flower.  This  second  process  is  similarly  dependent  on  a  far  red 
signal  and  occurs  several  hours  after  the  first  signal.  It  is  possible 
that  the  sunset  signal  starts  the  first  process  and  the  sunrise  signal 
the  second. 

The  phytochrome  molecule  which  absorbs  these  light  signals  is 
a  photoreversible  chromoprotein  and  is  present  in  all  photosyn- 
thetic  plants.  Physiological  processes  such  as  seed  germination, 
flowering,  dormancy,  and  pigmentation  are  also  controlled  by  phy- 
tochrome. Sunlight  converts  the  protein  from  its  inactive  form  to 
its  active  form.  The  active  form  can  then  revert  slowly  to  the  in- 
active form  in  darkness,  be  converted  to  the  inactive  form  by  light, 
or  be  destroyed  by  normal  protein  turnover  processes  in  the  cell. 

This  year  a  comparison  was  made  of  the  properties  of  the  iso- 
lated, purified  molecule  to  those  in  the  undisturbed  plant  cell.  It 
has  been  found  that  the  relative  state  of  aggregation  of  phyto- 
chrome in  solution  is  dependent  on  the  nature  of  the  buffer  in 
which  it  is  dissolved.  It  has  also  been  observed  that  the  rate  of 
interconversion  of  the  active  and  inactive  forms,  as  well  as  the 
spectral  properties  of  the  two  forms,  are  affected  by  the  solution 

Science  I  69 

environment.  The  same  conditions  which  promote  the  formation  of 
higher  aggregates  in  solution  appear  to  favor  spectral  properties 
closer  to  those  observed  in  intact  plants. 

Flowering  in  plants  is  regulated  by  the  length  of  the  night.  When 
the  light  is  absorbed  in  the  leaves  it  induces  formation  of  a  flow- 
ering substance.  From  the  leaves  there  is  transmission  of  this 
flowering  substance  to  the  apex,  where  this  substance  induces 
flower  formation.  Salicylic  acid  has  been  identified  as  one  of  the 
naturally  occurring  substances  which  will  affect  flowering.  In  short- 
day  plants  of  Lemna  perpusilla  6746  salicyclic  acid  has  been  found 
to  extend  the  critical  daylength  by  about  two  hours.  Cobalt  is  the 
only  other  known  substance  which  will  affect  the  critical  daylength 
in  more  than  two  plant  species. 


Photosynthetic  utilization  of  incident  light  energy  provides  the 
earth  with  renewable  fuels,  namely,  the  carbohydrates  comprising 
the  bulk  of  plants.  As  early  as  1905,  it  was  noted  that  light  energy 
delivered  in  flashes  rather  than  continuously  caused  apparent 
changes  in  the  photosynthetic  utilization  of  the  incident  light  en- 
ergy. The  Radiation  Biology  Laboratory  has  been  testing  the  effects 
of  flashing  light  on  plant  growth.  Using  an  electronically  controlled 
fluorescent-lamp  flashing  system,  plants  have  been  grown  under 
different  light  and  dark  times. 

Previous  work  using  mechanically  operated  flash  units  had  indi- 
cated a  minimal  light  utilization  with  light  and  dark  periods  of 
about  one  minute  duration.  Current  work  has  dramatically  shown 
this  to  be  the  case.  The  major  focus  of  this  work,  however,  has 
been  in  the  region  of  the  very  short  flashes  where  light  energy 
utilization  increases  and  may  surpass  the  utilization  found  with 
continuous  lighting. 

Salt  marshes  are  believed  to  be  among  the  most  productive  eco- 
systems; that  is,  measurements  of  the  amount  of  green  biomass 
that  accumulates  in  some  low  latitude  marshes  during  the  growing 
season  is  equal  to  or  greater  than  that  accumulated  by  agricultural 
crops  or  tropical  rain  forests.  In  order  to  document  this  observa- 
tion in  a  way  that  would  lend  itself  to  a  study  of  the  relationship 
between  productivity  and  solar  radiation,  the  capacity  for  CO2  as- 
similation has  been  measured  on  a  daily  basis  in  communities  of 

70  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

salt  marsh  along  the  Chesapeake  Bay.  The  specific  question  is: 
how  much  C02  is  assimilated  by  plant  communities  for  each  unit 
of  photosynthetically  active  radiation  available  to  the  community 
for  this  process  each  day?  Measurements  have  been  made  during 
three  field  seasons.  Efficiency  for  the  daily  assimilation  of  COz 
declines  throughout  the  growing  season.  On  a  daily  basis,  the  plant 
communities  which  have  been  studied  have  the  capacity  to  convert 
from  0.4  to  4.0  percent  of  the  portion  of  solar  radiation  that  can 
be  used  by  photosynthesis  (the  photosynthetically  active  radia- 
tion, about  50  percent  of  total  incident  solar  radiation)  from  ra- 
diant into  chemical  energy. 

The  measurement  of  the  amount  of  sunlight  and  the  spectral 
quality  of  daylight  in  100-nanometer  (nm)  bands  from  400  nm  to 
800  nm  is  still  in  progress  along  with  the  monitoring  of  the  total 
irradiance  and  total  IR  to  2800  nm.  The  three  monitoring  sites, 
Barrow,  Rockville,  and  Panama,  are  yielding  much-needed  data  that 
are  being  disseminated  to  the  scientific  community  for  biological  re- 
search, as  well  as  to  local  and  federal  governments  for  baseline 
data  applied  to  solar  energy  utilization.  The  Barrow  site  is  still 
serving  as  a  clean-air  reference  for  spectral  quality  comparison. 
Panama  is  particularly  interesting.  Because  of  its  location  (9°N 
latitude),  it  exhibits  all  of  the  influences  tropical  climate  has  on 
the  spectral  quality  of  daylight,  and,  therefore,  is  yielding  valu- 
able information  on  "local"  disturbances.  The  variabilities  from 
place  to  place,  and  even  within  the  same  geographical  location,  are 
so  great  that  even  an  eight-year  data  base  in  the  Washington- 
Rockville  area  is  not  sufficient  to  determine  trends  or  periodicities. 
New  normal  incident  pyrheliometers  (nip)  and  trackers  have  been 
installed  at  Rockville,  and  the  data,  along  with  a  shadow-band  de- 
vice that  permits  measurement  of  skylight  alone,  will  help  to  sort 
out  the  various  factors  that  influence  the  spectral  quality  of  day- 
light in  an  urbanized  area.  The  largest  areas  of  variability  are  in 
the  blue  and  red  areas  of  the  spectrum.  These  are  the  two  areas 
which  are  important  in  photosynthesis  and  plant  morphology. 

A  year  of  uvb  data  has  been  collected  starting  November  1975 
using  the  analog  version  of  the  scanning  radiometer  developed  at  the 
Radiation  Biology  Laboratory.  The  prototype  of  a  digital  model,  with 
selectable  integrating  periods,  has  been  completed  and  will  replace 
the  units  now  in  the  field  at  Barrow,  Rockville,  and  Panama. 

Science  I  71 

The  present  data  have  been  collected  by  sampling  every  three 
minutes  from  before  sunrise  to  after  sunset.  The  integrated  values 
are  computed  for  each  hour  and  each  day.  The  bands  are  5  nm 
wide  at  the  halfpower  points  and  centered  at  285  nm,  290  nm,  295 
nm,  300,  nm,  305  nm,  310  nm,  320  nm,  covering  the  erythemal 
band.  Comparisons  about  solar  noon  on  clear  days  using  the  same 
kind  of  instrument,  one  measuring  global  uvb  and  the  other  nor- 
mal incident  uvb,  show  that  only  about  40  percent  of  uvb  is  con- 
tained in  the  direct  beam  and  60  percent  in  diffuse  radiation. 

Since  only  one  year  of  data  is  available,  the  main  trends  are 
annual  and  are  clearly  shown  in  the  average  daily  values  for  each 
month.  The  outstanding  feature  is  the  large  variation  in  uvb  energy 
found  at  Barrow  and  Panama  at  sec  z  =  2.5.  These  variations  in- 
dicate changes  of  as  much  as  20:1.  This  type  of  phenomenon  indi- 
cates that  ozone  absorption  may  be  the  principal  determinant  of 
the  short  wavelength  transmission  of  the  atmosphere,  but  the 
amount  of  energy  received  at  the  earth's  surface  is  strongly  influ- 
enced by  meteorological  conditions.  If  the  ozone  level  were  to 
change  by  100  percent  from  .24  cm  to  .48  cm,  the  global  irradiance 
at  305  nm  would  decrease  from  7.37  /«.w  cm2  nm1  to  2.76  fiw  cm2 
nm1,  a  factor  of  about  3  and  not  20  as  occurs.  Measured  values  of 
ozone  in  the  Panama  area  show  small  variations  occurring,  but  no 
changes  in  ozone  that  would  produce  such  drastic  change  in  uv 
irradiance.  The  data  can  be  used  to  determine  and  follow  changes 
in  ozone,  but  ozone  values  cannot  be  used  to  predict  uvb  values, 
except  on  clear  days. 

Sunlight  can  also  be  utilized  directly  as  a  source  of  house  heat- 
ing and  hot-water  heating.  Three  solar  collector  panels  with  selec- 
tive black  surfaces  were  installed  for  testing  on  the  laboratory 
roof.  One  system  uses  a  copper  black,  one  a  chrome  black  and,  the 
third  an  evacuated  tubular  collector. 

Instrumentation  using  a  bank  of  six  Eppley  precision  pyranom- 
eters,  each  with  a  different  outer  dome,  provides  measurement  of 
spectral  irradiance  in  hundred-nanometer  bands,  as  well  as  total 
insolation.  Such  a  pyranometer  bank  installed  parallel  with  the  sur- 
face of  the  collector  provides  a  measure  of  the  incident  solar  radi- 
ation. Correlation  of  these  data  with  the  Radiation  Biology  Labora- 
tory's solar  radiation  measurements  on  a  horizontal  surface  over 
the  past  eight  years  has  provided  a  basis  for  evaluation  of  the  flat 

72  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

plate  collectors.  In  addition,  the  other  parameters  have  been  meas- 
ured directly. 

Preliminary  test  data  from  these  three  flat  plate  collectors  indi- 
cate that  the  critical  insolation  values  range  from  180  Wmz  to  620 
Wm2.  Critical  insolation  values  differ  between  the  test  collectors 
as  much  as  40  percent.  The  weighted  efficiencies  based  on  these 
critical  insolations  show  that  a  collector  having  low  efficiency  under 
steady-state  tests  and  a  low  critical  insolation  has  a  higher  system 
efficiency,  based  on  a  long-term  evaluation. 

The  Carbon  Dating  Laboratory  has  begun  a  detailed  investiga- 
tion of  the  recent  geological  history  of  the  upper  Chesapeake  Bay. 
Dating  of  materials  cored  from  the  Rhode  River  estuary  and  the 
coast  of  Kent  County  on  the  Eastern  Shore  is  underway.  Since  the 
Bay  was  practically  nonexistent  as  recently  as  9,000  years  ago,  this 
study,  and  associated  analyses  of  the  sediment  and  pollen,  docu- 
ments the  flooding  of  the  upper  Bay  with  rise  in  sea  level,  and 
provides  a  history  of  the  vegetation  and  climate  regimes  of  the 
area  for  archeologists  and  geologists,  as  well  as  scientists  of  the 
Chesapeake  Bay  Center  for  Environmental  Studies. 

The  Mediterranean  program  continues  with  the  dating  of  sam- 
ples cored  from  the  Hellenic  Trench  in  order  to  confirm  and  refine 
the  details  of  drastic  changes  some  10,000  years  ago  in  climate  and 
current  already  outlined  for  other  areas  of  the  Mediterranean. 

Smithsonian  Astrophysical  Observatory 

At  an  international  scientific  meeting  in  early  1977,  a  Smithsonian 
delegate  presented  data  apparently  linking  periods  of  solar  varia- 
bility with  terrestrial  climate  change.  Although  of  intrinsic  interest, 
the  findings  had  particular  relevance  for  the  Institution,  because 
they  resulted  from  studies  combining  modern  satellite  data  with 
historical  records  of  solar  observation,  including  observations  made 
in  the  early  part  of  this  century  by  two  former  Smithsonian  Secre- 
taries, Samuel  Pierpont  Langley  and  Charles  Greeley  Abbot. 

This  continuity  in  scientific  research  at  the  Smithsonian  Astro- 
physical  Observatory  (sao)  is  no  mere  coincidence.  Indeed,  sao 
was  founded  in  1890  by  Langley  as  a  center  for  what  he  called  the 

Science  I  73 

"new  astronomy,"  an  Observatory  devoted  to  the  study  of  the 
physical  characteristics  of  celestial  bodies,  rather  than  merely  to 
their  motions.  Langley  was  most  concerned  with  the  study  of  the 
Sun,  but  his  innovative  approach  to  research  laid  the  foundations 
for  the  modern  astrophysics  now  pursued  by  his  successors. 

As  in  almost  every  branch  of  science,  astrophysics  has  experi- 
enced an  explosion  of  ideas  during  recent  decades.  New  windows 
on  the  universe  have  been  opened  by  the  discovery  of  radiation 
in  unexpected  bands  of  the  electromagnetic  spectrum.  The  expanded 
use  of  rocket,  balloon,  and  satellite  experiments  has  allowed  ob- 
servation of  this  radiation  from  above  the  Earth's  obscuring  atmos- 
phere. Gamma  rays,  X  rays,  ultraviolet  light,  radio  emissions,  and 
infrared  radiation  are  all  now  observed  by  Smithsonian  scientists 
almost  as  routinely  as  Langley  and  Abbot  once  observed  optical 
radiation  from  the  Sun.  More  importantly,  however,  scientists  in- 
vestigating a  particular  problem  may  now  gain  a  considerable  ad- 
vantage by  drawing  on  this  variety  of  observing  resources — by 
looking  through  a  variety  of  "windows"  at  the  same  phenomena. 
For  example,  in  the  study  of  the  vast  gas  and  dust  clouds  found 
between  the  stars,  radio  astronomers  may  "listen"  to  radio-fre- 
quency emissions  from  the  molecular  constituents  of  the  galaxy; 
infrared  astronomers  may  in  turn  measure  the  intensity  of  the 
thermal  radiation  from  the  same  region;  optical  astronomers  may 
count  the  populations  of  various  chemical  species  through  spectro- 
scopy; and,  finally,  theorists  may  bring  together  the  various  pieces 
of  evidence  to  describe  the  complicated  process  by  which  stars  are 

Naturally,  only  those  organizations  with  a  broad  research  pro- 
gram encompassing  many  subdisciplines  of  astronomy  are  capable 
of  pursuing  such  a  multi-faceted  approach.  Recognizing  the  need 
for  such  an  organization,  sao  joined  in  1973  with  Harvard  College 
Observatory  (hco)  to  form,  under  a  single  director,  the  Center  for 
Astrophysics  for  the  pursuit  of  "excellence  in  astrophysical  re- 
search." By  developing  the  potential  of  both  organizations,  the 
Center  has  assembled  the  scientific  and  technical  expertise  to  ex- 
plore and  exploit  the  full  wavelength  range  of  the  electromagnetic 
spectrum,  from  radio  waves  to  gamma  rays.  Today,  this  joint  ven- 
ture is  represented  by  more  than  125  scientists  and  350  supporting 
staff  members,  both  in  Cambridge,  Massachusetts,  and  at  field 

74  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Laser  tracking  system  at  Arequipa,  Peru,  part  of  the  worldwide  network 
operated  by  the  Smithsonian  Astrophysical  Observatory.  (SAO  photograph) 

The  High  Energy  Astrophysics  Division  of  the  Smithsonian  Astrophysical  Observa- 
tory has  published  the  Fourth  UHURU  Catalog  containing  an  analysis  of  observa- 
tions by  the  uhuru  satellite.  An  artist's  conception  of  the  uhuru  satellite  is  shown 
above.  (NASA  illustration)  Below:  Fish-eye  lens  view  of  the  Multiple  Mirror  Tele- 
scope (MMT)  facility  during  construction  in  late  1976  at  the  Mount  Hopkins  Ob- 
servatory, Amado,  Arizona.  (University  of  Arizona  photograph) 




if     TO! 

^"J&  ratals 

i^t    >.         o*    jI^/Pb* 



*"™^™^^^^                                                                                 -^^^^           ■*  ^ 

fir  i 

^  ; 

^fmmrnm                                                 ^^^^ 

w    ' 



stations  around  the  world.  Harvard  members  are  supported  by  uni- 
versity funds  and  by  contracts  and  grants  from  agencies  such  as 
the  National  Aeronautics  and  Space  Administration,  the  United 
States  Air  Force,  and  the  National  Science  Foundation;  Smithsonian 
members  are  supported  by  federal  appropriations  and  trust  funds 
from  the  Institution  and  by  contracts  and  grants  from  government 
agencies  such  as  the  National  Aeronautics  and  Space  Administra- 
tion and  the  Office  of  Naval  Research.  Investigators  are  grouped 
roughly  by  specialties  in  eight  divisions,  each  headed  by  an  asso- 
ciate director. 

The  Center  for  Astrophysics  may  be  considered  the  largest  sin- 
gle enterprise  dedicated  to  astronomical  research  in  the  nation,  if 
not  the  world.  While  the  "new  astrophysics"  may  seem  far  re- 
moved from  Langley's  "new  astronomy,"  the  goals  of  the  Smith- 
sonian Astrophysical  Observatory  remain  essentially  unchanged 
from  those  established  by  him  nearly  a  century  ago:  to  understand 
the  basic  physical  processes  determining  the  nature  of  the  universe. 


The  research  program  in  the  Atomic  and  Molecular  Physics  Divi- 
sion is  designed  to  provide  the  basic  parameters  of  atomic  and 
molecular  physics  required  in  the  interpretation  of  observational 
data.  This  work  is  carried  out  by  both  experimentalists  and  theo- 
rists. The  experimental  work  includes  the  measurement  of  photo- 
ionization  cross  sections  and  oscillator  strengths  for  species  of 
astrophysical  interest.  Theoretical  work  involves  calculations  of 
atomic  and  molecular  structures  and  of  cross  sections  of  the  inter- 
action with  radiation,  by  use  of  a  variety  of  techniques.  A  wide 
range  of  collision  processes  is  also  studied. 

The  theoretical  studies  concentrated  on  the  development  of 
model-potential  methods  for  the  accurate  calculation  of  properties 
of  complex  atoms  and  the  construction  of  a  relativistic  generaliza- 
tion of  the  random-phase  approximation  for  studying  the  proper- 
ties of  highly  stripped  atomic  species. 

In  the  field  of  molecular  structure  and  processes,  progress  was 
made  in  large-scale  ab  initio  calculations  of  potential  energy  curves, 
methods  for  including  electronic  continuum  functions  in  molecular 
calculations,  and  the  use  of  model-potential  and  random-phase- 
approximation  methods  in  molecular  physics. 

Science  I  77 

Theoretical  studies  of  the  thermosphere  of  the  Earth  were  carried 
out  in  which  a  comparison  was  made  with  in  situ  measurements 
obtained  by  nasa's  Atmospheric  Explorer  Satellite  Series,  in  order 
to  obtain  a  quantitative  understanding  of  the  physical  and  chem- 
ical processes.  The  absorption  of  solar  euv  radiation  and  photoelec- 
trons  in  the  atmosphere  and  the  photochemical  equilibrium  in  con- 
centrations were  calculated.  By  use  of  the  satellite  observations, 
information  on  the  02  concentration,  the  total  ionization  rate  due 
to  the  solar  ultraviolet  flux,  and  the  thermal  budget  of  the  iono- 
sphere can  be  obtained. 

In  the  laboratory,  measurements  continued  to  be  made  of  atomic 
and  molecular  transition  probabilities  and  autoionization  and  photo- 
ionization  cross  sections.  For  example,  measurements  were  com- 
pleted of  the  absolute  cross  section  for  the  photoionization  of 
atomic  oxygen.  Emphasis  is  placed  on  species  that  contribute  to 
discrete  and  continuous  sources  of  opacity  and  to  abundance  deter- 
minations in  the  Sun.  These  measurements  are  made  and  used  in 
close  collaboration  with  observational  programs  from  the  ground, 
and  from  solar  rocket  and  satellite  missions.  One  such  close  col- 
laboration has  resulted  in  the  first  positive  evidence  for  the  pres- 
ence of  boron  in  the  Sun.  This  was  done  by  photoelectric  measure- 
ments of  the  solar  spectrum  near  2500  A.  The  derived  abundance 
of  boron  is  in  agreement  with  predictions  of  the  light  nuclide  for- 
mation by  galactic  cosmic-ray  spallation  in  the  interstellar  medium. 


The  efforts  of  the  Geoastronomy  Division  are  directed  toward  the 
study  of  the  Earth  as  a  planet.  Among  ongoing  activities  are  the 
development  of  techniques  for  measuring  the  motions  of  the  Earth 
and  its  crust,  satellite-borne  instrumentation  for  studying  the 
Earth,  and  large-scale  computer  software  for  modeling  geophysical 

A  major  activity  was  the  production  of  the  fourth  and  final  edi- 
tion of  the  Smithsonian  Standard  Earth.  First  published  in  1966, 
the  Standard  Earth  was  revised  and  improved  in  1969  and  1973. 
The  final  version  contains  parameters  of  the  Earth's  gravity  field 
to  degree  and  order  30,  a  significant  advance  from  the  previous 
solutions  and  entailing  over  50  percent  more  coefficients.  In  a  re- 
lated effort,  the  translocation  method  for  determining  station  posi- 

78  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

tions  on  the  Earth's  surface  was  developed,  thus  making  possible 
determination  of  long-baseline  distances  from  satellite  observations 
with  an  accuracy  of  a  few  centimeters. 

A  model  of  the  thermal  structure  deep  in  the  Earth's  crust  was 
developed  to  describe  the  driving  mechanisms  for  crustal  plate 
motions.  For  the  first  time,  this  model  shows  the  long-suspected 
relationship  between  material  buoyancy  and  the  driving  force  that 
propels  the  subducted  slab  downward  in  regions  where  crustal 
plates  impinge. 

Analysis  of  data  from  the  gravitational  Redshift  Experiment  con- 
tinued in  an  effort  to  test  the  equivalence  principle  of  Einstein's 
Theory  of  General  Relativity.  Accurate  geometrical  position  is  used 
in  the  method  of  trajectory  solution;  and  trajectory-data-reduction 
requirements  have  been  modified  to  produce  the  required  accuracy. 
At  present,  the  accuracy  of  the  experiment  is  at  the  200-parts-per- 
million  level. 

During  the  last  year,  the  sao  laser  tracking  network  and  its  over- 
seas cooperating  stations  provided  routine  tracking  data  to  support 
ongoing  programs  in  geodesy  and  geophysics.  Precision  orbital 
tracking  to  support  the  ocean-surface  altimeter  experiment  aboard 
the  Geos-3  satellite  and  the  Earth  dynamics  measurements  on  the 
Lageos  satellite  were  top  priority.  The  network  also  provided  in- 
tensive laser  tracking  coverage  of  several  low-orbit  satellites  for 
the  improvement  of  gravity-field  models  and  the  study  of  Earth 
and  ocean  tides. 


The  principal  activities  of  the  High  Energy  Astrophysics  Division 
are  grouped  in  three  main  areas:  planning  and  development  of  in- 
strumentation for  future  space  missions  for  orbiting  observatories; 
analysis  of  data  obtained  in  current  or  previous  missions;  and 
continuing  research  on  energetic  phenomena  in  the  universe. 

The  analysis  of  observations  by  the  uhuru  satellite  culminated 
in  the  publication  of  the  Fourth  UHURU  Catalog,  which  lists  339 
sources  of  X-ray  emission,  or  nearly  twice  the  number  previously 
known.  These  sources  include  objects  within  the  Milky  Way  as 
well  as  many  outside  our  galaxy.  Several  of  the  X-ray  sources  in 
our  galaxy  are  associated  with  neutron  stars  and  black  holes; 
others  are  in  double  star  systems  in  which  one  star  can  be  observed 

Science  I  79 

optically  while  the  neutron  star  or  black  hole  is  optically  invisible 
and  can  only  be  seen  in  the  X-ray  band.  Other  galactic  X-ray 
sources  are  associated  with  supernova  remnants,  such  as  the  Crab 
Nebula,  which  are  produced  by  the  explosion  and  death  of  a  star. 
Other  sources  are  found  in  globular  star  clusters — conglomerates 
of  several  hundred  thousand  stars. 

Outside  the  Milky  Way,  X  rays  are  observed  from  galaxies 
much  like  our  own,  including  the  giant  spiral  in  Andromeda.  Other 
systems,  such  as  the  Seyfert  galaxies,  quasars,  and  clusters  of  gal- 
axies, also  emit  much  of  their  energy  at  X-ray  wavelengths.  The 
observations  of  Seyfert  galaxies  from  the  uhuru  satellite,  combined 
with  those  from  the  Ariel  5  satellite,  have  been  used  to  show  that 
the  Seyferts  account  for  a  significant  fraction  of  the  all-sky  diffuse 
X-ray  background,  the  origin  of  which  has  remained  a  mystery. 

The  Catalog  also  lists  fifty-three  clusters  of  galaxies,  the  largest 
single  class  of  extragalactic  X-ray  sources,  and  correlations  between 
X-ray  and  optical  properties  of  clusters  have  been  found.  These 
clusters,  themselves  the  building  blocks  of  so-called  "superclusters  of 
galaxies,"  may  each  contain  as  many  as  1,000  galaxies,  which,  like 
our  own  Milky  Way,  are  composed  of  100  billion  stars.  In  the 
early  1970s,  observations  from  the  uhuru  satellite  showed  that  the 
X-ray  emission  from  clusters  came  from  an  extended  region  about 
a  million  light  years  across.  More  recent  observations  confirm  these 
results  and  show  that,  like  the  superclusters,  the  emission  is  pro- 
duced by  a  hot  gas  in  between  the  galaxies. 

Observations  of  extragalactic  X-ray  sources  with  the  SA5-3 
X-ray  observatory,  produced  the  discovery  of  several  X-ray  objects 
including  the  nucleus  of  a  Seyfert  galaxy  and  a  cD  galaxy  in  the 
rich  cluster  of  galaxies  Abell  478. 

Studies  on  the  origin,  detection,  and  identification  of  gamma-ray 
bursts  proceeded  with  the  10-m  high-energy  gamma-ray  reflector 
at  the  Mount  Hopkins  Observatory.  A  program  of  observations  on 
the  100-Mev  gamma-ray  sources  was  carried  out  using  the  atmos- 
pheric Cerenkov  technique.  Data  analysis  on  the  Mount  Hopkins 
Observatory  High  Energy  Sky  Survey  was  completed,  and  a  sec- 
ond generation  gamma-ray  experiment  was  designed  for  the  10-  to 
100-GeV  energy  region.  An  experiment  to  detect  hard  bursts  of 
gamma  rays  from  primordial  black  holes  was  completed,  as  was  an 
experiment  to  measure  the  primary  spectrum  of  cosmic  rays. 

80  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Instrumentation  was  completed  and  calibrated  for  flight  on  the 
heao-a  satellite,  the  first  in  a  series  of  X-ray  observations  planned 
for  space  flight  by  nasa  before  the  end  of  this  decade.  The  experi- 
ment (a  collaborative  sao-mit  effort)  consists  of  a  scanning  modu- 
lation collimator  of  high  sensitivity  (1  ufu)  and  spatial  resolution 
(5  arc  sec).  The  spacecraft  was  successfully  launched  on  August 
12,  1977.  Initial  data  indicate  the  experiment  is  functioning  prop- 
erly and  is  producing  highly  precise  positions  for  X-ray  sources. 

The  hardware  for  the  heao-b  experiment,  scheduled  for  flight  in 
1978,  was  completed  and  delivered  to  nasa.  The  experiment,  a 
high-resolution  X-ray  telescope,  is  expected  to  produce  the  first  de- 
tailed images  of  X-ray  sources.  Studies  continued  on  other  new 
experiments  including  observatory  class  instruments,  such  as  the 
1.2-m  X-ray  telescope  and  the  large-area  modular  array,  as  well  as 
individual  experiments,  such  as  ultra-soft  X-ray  telescopes,  X-ray 
spectrometers,  and  gamma-ray-burst  detectors. 


The  research  in  the  Optical  and  Infrared  Division  underwent  sig- 
nificant changes  during  this  year.  The  Division  began  new  pro- 
grams of  extragalactic  observations  centered  on  the  study  of  the 
distribution  and  dynamics  of  individual  and  groups  of  galaxies. 
These  programs  are  expected  to  expand  in  the  future  with  the  de- 
velopment of  new  instruments  and  the  Multiple  Mirror  Telscope 

Research  in  infrared  astronomy  is  also  expected  to  expand  fol- 
lowing nasa's  announcement  that  a  Smithsonian-directed  telescope 
project  had  been  approved  as  an  experiment  on  Spacelab  II,  which 
is  scheduled  for  flight  aboard  the  Space  Shuttle  in  1981.  The  small 
helium-cooled  telescope  will  be  operated  in  cooperation  with  the 
Marshall  Space  Flight  Center  and  the  University  of  Arizona. 

The  telescope  will  make  the  first  complete  map  of  extended 
regions  of  low-level  infrared  emission  from  the  entire  Milky  Way. 
The  experiment  will  also  observe  the  zodiacal  emission  in  the 
solar  system  and  make  the  first  all-sky  survey  of  the  extended 
infrared  emission  from  intergalactic  matter,  distant  galaxies,  and 
quasi-stellar  objects. 

During  the  spring  of  1977,  the  ninth  and  tenth  flights  of  the 
102-cm  balloon-borne  far-infrared  telescope  took  place  under  the 

Science  I  81 

sponsorship  of  nasa.  The  April  26  flight  was  very  successful, 
yielding  7.7  hours  of  observation  with  the  broad-band  (40-250 
micron)  photometer  of  the  planets  Venus,  Saturn,  Uranus,  and 
Neptune;  the  supernovae  remnants  Crab  Nebula  and  Cas  A;  the 
asteroid  Ceres;  the  H  II  regions  W42  and  RCW  126;  and  the  mo- 
lecular cloud  Ml 7  SW.  The  data  from  this  flight  are  currently 
being  reduced.  The  pointing  stability  of  the  telescope  was  the  best 
ever  achieved  during  flight.  The  June  2  flight  was  aborted  when 
the  balloon  burst  just  as  it  approached  float  altitude.  This  flight 
was  equipped  to  use  a  four-color  photometer  built  by  the  Univer- 
sity of  Palermo.  The  telescope  was  recovered  in  excellent  condition. 

Data  reduction  continued  on  the  1975  and  1976  balloon  flights. 
Six  of  the  ten  flights  have  produced  useful  astronomical  data,  re- 
sulting in  a  total  observing  time  of  more  than  forty  hours.  Results 
on  the  H  II  regions  M20,  M8,  and  W31  have  led  to  a  better  under- 
standing of  dust  and  gas  distribution  in  these  regions,  by  the  iden- 
tification of  previously  unresolved  complex  sources  and  the  deter- 
mination of  the  total  luminosity  of  the  sources  in  these  clouds.  A 
strong,  compact  far-infrared  source  has  been  identified  near  W31, 
coincident  with  a  compact  H  II  region  and  with  OH  and  H20 
masers,  giving  new  insight  into  the  role  of  these  objects  in  the 
evolution  of  massive  protostars.  In  the  M8  region,  a  new  far- 
infrared  source  was  discovered  that  was  later  associated  with  an 
extensive  molecular  cloud. 

Construction  of  the  joint  Smithsonian-University  of  Arizona 
Multiple  Mirror  Telescope  (mmt)  has  progressed  to  the  point  where 
the  dedication  can  be  tentatively  scheduled  for  the  fall  of  1978. 
All  scheduled  sao  tasks  on  the  mmt  were  completed.  During  this 
year,  the  optical  systems  were  completed  by  the  University.  The 
telescope  mount  was  constructed  and  all  major  components  in- 
stalled. The  steel  frame  of  the  telescope  housing  was  erected  on 
the  site  at  the  summit  of  Mount  Hopkins,  Arizona,  and  its  floors 
and  the  outer  metal  siding  also  were  installed. 

The  division  has  embarked  on  a  vigorous  program  of  instru- 
ment development,  including  a  ccd  camera  and  an  InSb  infrared 
detector  array.  These  and  other  instruments,  used  on  various  tele- 
scopes, will  give  center  scientists  a  capability  for  astronomical 
research  as  good  as  is  available  anywhere  in  the  world.  Another 
aspect  of  the  improved  observational  capability  is  the  development 

82  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

of  a  new  style — remote  observing — in  which  research  scientists 
can  arrange  to  obtain  high-quality  astronomical  data  without  their 
presence  at  the  telescope.  This  technique  has  been  successfully  im- 
plemented in  the  echelles  spectroscopy  program  at  Mount  Hopkins. 


The  work  of  the  Planetary  Science  Division  ranges  across  a  wide 
variety  of  solar  system  objects,  excluding  the  Sun  and  emphasiz- 
ing smaller  bodies. 

Theoretical  studies  on  the  origin  and  early  history  of  the  solar 
system  continued,  concentrating  on  the  determination  of  the  prop- 
erties of  giant  gaseous  protoplanets  and  on  the  development  of  the 
impact  theory  of  lunar  origin. 

A  program  of  redetermining  the  orbits  of  old  single-apparition 
comets  in  order  to  acquire  uniform  and  definitive  information  about 
the  structure  of  the  Oort  cloud  was  essentially  completed.  The 
determination  of  orbits  and  the  checking  of  observations  of  comets 
and  minor  planets  were  done  in  connection  with  various  astro- 
metric  programs,  notably  the  one  at  the  Agassiz  Station  in  which 
over  400  observations  of  20  comets  and  150  minor  planets  were 
obtained.  Instrumentation  is  under  construction  for  a  new  program 
to  determine  asteroid  diameters  by  lunar  occultations. 

The  division  continued  its  responsibility  for  operating  the  iau 
Central  Telegram  Bureau,  which  issued  some  120  iau  Circulars 
during  the  fiscal  year.  The  Bureau  Director  also  made  predictions 
of  various  planetary  occultations,  including  a  detailed  analysis  of 
the  structure  of  the  recently  discovered  Uranian  rings. 

Division  members  directed  the  activities  of  the  Imbrium  Con- 
sortium, a  group  of  lunar  scientists  from  several  institutions,  which 
is  collaborating  on  the  study  of  a  suite  of  particularly  informative 
breccia  samples  from  the  highlands  of  the  Moon.  Petrologic  studies 
of  the  lunar  samples  addressed  by  the  Imbrium  Consortium  were 
completed  and  a  crustal  model  for  the  Moon  was  developed,  based 
on  the  properties  and  distribution  of  samples  collected  by  the 
Apollo  missions. 

Other  petrologic  studies  of  lunar  samples  focused  mainly  on  two 
problems :  the  source  of  exceptionally  Ti-rich  particles  in  the  Apollo 
12  soils,  and  the  analysis  of  materials  from  seven  levels  in  the 
core  recently  returned  from  Mare  Crisium  by  the  ussr's  Luna  24 

Science  I  83 

space  probe.  The  dominant  rock  type  in  the  Crisium  samples  is  a 
variety  of  ferrobasalt,  very  poor  in  Ti02  and  MgO,  unlike  any 
previously  recognized  on  the  Moon. 

Work  on  neutrinos  conducted  with  special  detectors  placed  in 
deep  mines  has  shown  the  37Ar  production  rate  at  an  1100-foot 
depth  is  4  times  higher  than  theoretically  estimated.  This  experi- 
mental result,  if  extrapolated  to  the  4850-foot  depth,  requires  that 
the  previous  solar  neutrino  value  of  1.5  snu  be  reduced  by  a  factor 
of  2 — thus  making  the  solar  neutrino  puzzle  even  more  puzzling. 
The  present  limit  of  the  37Ar  production  rate  at  4850-foot  depth 
gives  a  lower  limit  of  2.2  X  1026  years  for  the  lifetime  of  baryons 
(protons  and  neutrons). 


The  Radio  Astronomy  Division's  objectives  concentrate  on  micro- 
wave atomic  and  molecular  spectroscopy  of  the  interstellar  medium 
and  the  Earth's  atmosphere.  Laboratory  and  theoretical  research 
supplements  the  interpretation  of  observations  made  with  ground- 
based  radio  telescopes. 

Multiple  molecular  mapping  of  dense  interstellar  gas  and  dust 
regions  continued  with  a  view  toward  understanding  the  informa- 
tion and  evolution  of  massive  stars  as  well  as  physical  conditions 
within  the  nebulae. 

By  use  of  antennas  with  intercontinental  separations,  very  long- 
baseline  interferometry  (vlbi)  investigations  of  interstellar  masers 
revealed  a  number  of  new  H20  maser  sources  in  directions 
toward  the  galactic  center. 

A  new  18-cm  radiometric  system  was  added  to  the  vlbi  equip- 
ment at  the  Harvard  Radio  Astronomy  Station  in  Fort  Davis, 
Texas.  The  instrumentation  should  increase  the  station's  participa- 
tion in  network  vlbi  research  on  interstellar  oh  masers;  initial  ex- 
periments have  been  successful.  Continuous  observations  were 
maintained  at  this  site  to  monitor  the  radio  behavior  of  the  Sun. 
Planning  was  completed  to  expand  this  research  during  the  forth- 
coming solar  maximum  period. 

vlbi  observations  of  variable  extragalactic  sources  were  also  con- 
tinued at  the  Harvard  Station  in  cooperation  with  other  radio  ob- 
servatories. Plans  are  now  being  made  to  extend  this  work,  to  ac- 
quire new  vlbi  equipment,  and  to  upgrade  the  85-foot  antenna  at 
the  station. 

84  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Interstellar  maser  studies,  together  with  millimeter-wave  molec- 
ular observations  of  SiO  in  the  direction  of  long-period  variable 
stars,  provided  a  solution  for  determining  the  true  radial  velocity 
of  the  long-period  variable. 

A  new  millimeter-wave  atmospheric  molecular  spectrometer  was 
completed  and  made  successful  observations  of  ozone  and  carbon 
monoxide.  A  mathematical  model  was  developed  to  obtain  the 
molecular  altitude  distribution  from  the  spectrometer  observations. 
Laboratory  measurements  of  pressure  broadening,  including  tem- 
perature dependence  for  carbon  monoxide  and  ozone,  were  begun. 

Design,  construction,  and  testing  of  a  384-channel  filter  bank  was 
completed  to  improve  millimeter-wave  observations  of  interstellar 


The  principle  activities  of  the  Solar  and  Stellar  Physics  Division 
focus  on  the  Sun  as  it  relates  to  the  solar-terrestrial  environment, 
to  other  stars,  and  to  astrophysical  processes. 

Analysis  of  extreme  ultraviolet  and  X-ray  solar  data  from  the 
Skylab  experiment  continued.  Efforts  were  concentrated  in  active 
regions  and  flares,  in  connection  with  nasa's  year-long  Flare  Work- 
shop. Considerable  progress  was  made  in  determining  mass  mo- 
tions in  flares  and  flare  loops,  and  in  determining  the  energy  re- 
leased in  different  levels  of  the  atmosphere  during  flares.  In  addi- 
tion, observational  and  theoretical  studies  have  shown  that  the  heat- 
ing of  magnetically  confined  structures  in  the  corona  (and  perhaps 
heating  of  the  entire  corona)  may  well  be  produced  by  in  situ  dissi- 
pation of  electric  currents,  rather  than  by  shock  waves  as  is  com- 
monly supposed. 

Development  of  an  extreme-ultraviolet  spectrometer  for  the  Solar 
Maximum  Mission,  being  readied  by  Harvard  scientists  for  launch 
in  1979,  continued  as  did  development  of  an  ultraviolet  corona- 
graph  for  rocket  observations  of  Lyman  alpha  emission  from  the 
solar  corona. 

Theoretical  and  observational  solar  and  solar-terrestrial  research 
was  conducted  as  part  of  Smithsonian's  new  Langley-Abbott  Pro- 
gram of  solar  research.  Work  included  measuring  the  relative  rate 
of  rotation  of  photospheric  magnetic  fields  and  plasma  with  the 
inference  that  strong  field  concentrations  are  magnetically  tied  to  a 

Science  I  85 

more  rapidly  rotating  subsurface  field  structure.  The  present  con- 
stancy of  the  solar  visual  luminosity  was  established  to  the  0.3 
percent  level.  The  long-term  sunspot  rotation  rate  was  examined  in 
relation  to  overall  magnetic  activity. 

Observational  studies  of  chromospheres  and  coronas  of  other 
stars  progressed  mainly  by  use  of  data  from  the  Copernicus  satel- 
lite. Concurrently,  work  continued  on  modeling  solar  and  stellar 
chromospheres  and  predicting  the  emergent  spectrum  for  compari- 
son with  Copernicus,  atm,  and  other  space  and  ground  observations. 

Studies  of  the  scientific  parameters  and  detailed  instrument  de- 
sign for  a  faint  object  spectrograph  for  the  Space  Telescope  were 
conducted  to  obtain  spatially  resolved  spectra  of  galactic  and  extra- 
galactic  objects. 


The  Theoretical  Astrophysics  Division  carries  out  research  on  a 
diverse  range  of  astrophysical  phenomena,  with  theoretical  studies 
often  applied  to  the  support  and  interpretation  of  observational 
data.  Division  members  frequently  work  in  collaboration  with 
members  of  other  divisions  as  well  as  with  scientists  in  other  insti- 
tutions. In  addition,  they  contribute  significantly  to  the  educational 
programs  of  the  Observatory. 

By  an  association  of  theoretical  and  observational  studies  sub- 
stantial progress  was  made  in  the  understanding  of  molecular 
clouds  and  star  formation.  An  interesting  suggestion  was  made 
that  interstellar  graphite  particles  originate  in  carbon-rich  planetary 
nebulae  with  the  consequence  that  the  abundance  of  13C  in  the 
interstellar  gas  should  be  1/40  that  of  12C. 

Studies  of  stellar  evolution  advanced  and  significant  research 
was  accomplished  in  basic  aspects  of  gravitational  theory,  of  fluid 
mechanics  and  kinetic  theory,  and  of  quantum  mechanics. 

Detailed  modeling  of  planetary  atmospheres  and  interstellar 
clouds  provided  new  insight  into  their  physics  and  chemistry  and 
led  to  quantitative  measures  of  the  ionizing  radiation  to  which  they 
are  subjected. 

86  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Smithsonian  Tropical  Research  Institute 

For  the  last  twenty  years  the  Smithsonian  Tropical  Research  Insti- 
tute (stri)  had  placed  a  high  priority  on  the  goal  of  building  up 
a  resident  staff  of  experts  in  various  aspects  of  tropical  biology. 
A  great  variety  of  problems  concerning  the  adaptations  of  life  to 
the  tropics  can  best  be  approached  by  long-term,  in  situ,  studies 
which  cannot  be  conveniently  accomplished  by  scientists  on  sum- 
mer leave  from  temperate  zone  universities. 

During  fiscal  year  1977,  scientific  visitors  using  the  marine  and 
terrestrial  facilities  at  stri  represented  seventy-nine  universities 
from  thirty-one  countries  and  thirty  states  including  the  District  of 
Columbia  and  Puerto  Rico.  These  scientists  published  over  one 
hundred  papers  in  international  journals.  Many  university  scien- 
tists are  conducting  their  research  on  the  isthmus  with  financial 
support  from  the  National  Science  Foundation  and  the  National 
Institutes  of  Health  in  the  United  States  and  the  National  Research 
Council  in  Canada. 

Professor  George  Bartholomew  from  the  University  of  Califor- 
nia at  Los  Angeles  (ucla)  has  been  making  annual  trips  to  Barro 
Colorado  Island  in  recent  years  to  examine  the  energetics  of  hetero- 
thermic  insects.  Professors  Gorman  and  Rosenblatt  from  ucla  and 
the  University  of  California  in  San  Diego,  respectively,  are  studying 
the  biochemical  genetics  of  Panamanian  fishes. 

Professor  Arnold  Kluge  from  the  University  of  Michigan  is  ex- 
amining the  reproductive  strategies  of  tropical  hylid  frogs.  Profes- 
sors Jane  Lubchenco  and  Bruce  Menge  from  Oregon  State  Univer- 
sity are  looking  at  the  role  of  predators  in  the  diversity  of  inter- 
tidal  tropical  organisms — an  attempt  to  quantify  events  in  a  high- 
energy,  high-diversity  zone  of  the  ocean.  Professor  Roy  Caldwell 
of  the  University  of  California  at  Berkeley  is  examining  the  beha- 
vior of  stomatopods  and  comparing  his  Panamanian  results  to  his 
previous  observations  of  this  group  in  the  Indo  Pacific.  Professor 
Gordon  Moodie,  who  is  taking  his  sabbatical  year  here  from  the 
University  of  Winnipeg,  is  studying  comparative  diversity  patterns 
of  fresh-water  fishes  from  the  temperate  and  tropical  regions.  Drs. 
Patricia  Brown  and  Alan  Grinnell  from  the  University  of  California 
at  Los  Angeles  are  examining  the  ontogenetic  changes  in  behavior, 

Science  I  87 

neurophysiology  and  neuroanatomy  in  developing  young  of  the 
moustache  bat  Pteronotus  parnelli. 

Since  a  considerable  part  of  the  research  effort,  particularly  on 
Barro  Colorado  Island,  is  conducted  by  visiting  scientists  and  stu- 
dents, the  work  being  performed  is  often  not  a  uniform  or  random 
selection  of  the  scientific  disciplines  available  for  study.  Last  year, 
plant  ecologists  were  the  dominant  scientific  group.  This  year 
mammalogists  appear  to  dominate,  although  they  spread  their  at- 
tention over  a  variety  of  the  97  species  of  mammals  that  inhabit 
Barro  Colorado  Island. 

Katharine  Milton,  supported  by  a  Smithsonian  postdoctoral  fel- 
lowship, continues  her  observations  of  howler  monkeys  that  were 
the  subject  of  her  doctoral  dissertation.  She  is  interested  in  the 
ecological  and  physiological  correlates  of  the  animals'  diets,  and 
has  been  studying  the  energetics  and  metabolic  rates  of  both  free- 
ranging  and  captive  monkeys.  In  April,  25  helpers  were  marshalled 
in  an  extensive  effort  to  census  the  howler  monkey  populations  of 
the  island.  This  census  revealed  a  total  of  65  howler  monkey  troops 
which  ranged  in  size  from  9  to  32  individuals,  with  an  average  of 
20,  giving  a  total  population  of  approximately  1,300  animals. 

Howler  monkeys  were  also  the  object  of  study  of  Christina  Du- 
bov,  a  stri  short-term  fellow,  who  studied  intraspecific  variation  in 
feeding  patterns.  Jeff  Otis  conducted  further  observations  in  con- 
nection with  a  long-term  study  of  Jeff  Froelich  of  the  University 
of  New  Mexico,  and  Richard  Thorington  of  the  National  Museum 
of  Natural  History,  on  the  micro-population  genetics  of  howlers. 
They  are  attempting  to  discover  whether  genetic  differences  exist 
between  individual  howler  monkey  troops  by  measuring  small  dif- 
ferences such  as  the  structure  of  their  dentation  and  hand  prints. 

Roy  Fontaine  from  the  University  of  Georgia  is  testing  predic- 
tions derived  from  morphological  studies  of  the  positions  monkeys 
assume  when  they  are  free  in  their  natural  habitat.  He  believes  that 
differences  in  the  pelvic  and  shoulder  girdles  and  long-bones  reflect 
ecological  differences  in  the  feeding  sites  of  howler,  spider,  and 
white-faced  monkeys. 

All  this  attention  to  howler  monkeys  serves  a  particularly  im- 
portant practical  function  in  addition  to  the  fundamental  biological 
data  derived  from  them.  Howler  monkeys  are  particularly  suscep- 
tible to  yellow  fever,  and  the  large  population  of  this  species  acts 

88  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

as  a  sentinel  to  the  periodic  northward  spread  of  this  disease  out  of 
the  Darien  forests. 

Regarding  the  non-primates,  James  Russell  of  the  University  of 
North  Carolina,  supported  by  a  National  Science  Foundation  Doc- 
toral Dissertation  Grant,  is  in  the  middle  of  a  two  and  one-half 
year  study  of  the  social  dynamics  of  coatimundi  groups.  He  has 
marked  fifty  individual  animals  by  freeze-branding  and  has  at- 
tached radio  transmitters  to  members  of  three  different  bands.  He 
is  thus  able  to  relocate  a  band  by  their  radio  signals  and  to  observe 
the  behavior  of  individuals.  He  is  particularly  interested  in  the 
degree  to  which  females  in  the  groups  interact  with  juveniles,  and 
has  found  that  a  considerable  amount  of  care  may  be  expended  on 
young  animals  to  which  they  are  not  necessarily  closely  related. 
Deedra  McClearn,  a  Harvard  graduate  student,  was  able  to  use 
these  same  habituated  and  radio-marked  coatis  in  her  observations 
of  locomotive  patterns. 

William  Glanz,  a  Smithsonian  postdoctoral  fellow,  is  studying 
patterns  of  habitat  use  among  tropical  mammals,  particularly  arbo- 
real rodents.  Using  the  recently  completed  (42-meter)  tower  in  the 
forest  at  the  Lutz  watershed,  he  has  been  able  to  observe  eighteen 
species  of  mammals;  eleven  of  these,  particularly  difficult  to  observe, 
were  nocturnal  species. 

Gene  Montgomery  and  Yael  Lubin  have  been  studying  the  ecol- 
ogy and  behavior  of  anteaters.  They  have  recently  been  concentrat- 
ing their  work  on  the  tiny,  nocturnal,  arboreal  silky  anteater 
Cyclopes  didactyla,  about  which  almost  nothing  is  known.  This 
animal  is  very  seldom  seen,  but  they  have  been  fortunate  in  being 
able  to  take  advantage  of  the  extraordinary  observational  abilities 
of  Bonifacio  DeLeon,  a  technician  with  the  Environmental  Sciences 
Program.  He  has  found  fifteen  silky  anteaters  and  these  have  been 
fitted  with  small  radio  transmitters.  The  ability  to  relocate  the  ant- 
eaters  has  produced  a  variety  of  new  data.  The  silky  anteaters  feed 
exclusively  on  small  ants  (up  to  6,000  a  day)  which  they  extract 
with  a  long  sticky  tongue  after  splitting  open  small  twigs  and  vines 
with  their  claws.  Females  have  one  offspring  at  a  time  which  re- 
mains with  them  for  at  least  three  months.  Each  night  the  mother 
leaves  her  young  and  goes  out  to  forage  on  her  own.  In  the  morn- 
ing, she  returns,  picks  up  her  baby  and  moves  to  a  new  sleeping 
place.  Silky  anteaters  are  essentially  solitary  animals.  The  females 

Science  I  89 

have  non-overlapping  home  ranges,  and  the  males  have  a  home 
range  that  may  include  several  females.  The  home  ranges  are  rela- 
tively large  for  a  small  (about  200  gm)  mammal,  and  this  may  be 
due  to  the  dispersed  nature  of  the  food  supply. 

Charles  Handley  and  his  colleagues  from  the  National  Museum 
of  Natural  History  have  continued  their  study  of  the  population 
dynamics  of  bats,  particularly  of  the  fruit  bat  Artibeus  jamaicensis. 
With  mist  nets  they  have  caught  and  marked  nearly  3,000  bats 
belonging  to  39  of  the  46  species  known  to  exist  on  Barro  Colorado. 

A  study  of  frugivorous  mammals,  the  agouti  and  paca,  was  be- 
gun by  Nicholas  Smythe  in  1971.  Almost  200  animals  have  been 
caught,  marked  and  released,  providing  much  data  on  the  breeding 
patterns,  mortality,  and  use  of  space  by  these  animals. 

Our  knowledge  of  the  population  dynamics  of  tropical  wild 
mammals  is  extremely  scant.  Even  fundamental  facts  such  as  the 
average  life  span  are  not  known  for  any  free-living  neotropical 
mammals.  Studies  to  determine  such  data  are  only  possible  at  es- 
tablished scientific  reserves  such  as  Barro  Colorado  Island,  where 
a  researcher  can  be  reasonably  confident  that  he  can  initiate  long- 
term  observations  or  experiments  on  natural  populations  without 
fear  of  human  interference  with  the  habitat  or  the  animals. 

The  Environmental  Sciences  Program  continues  in  its  task  of 
monitoring  long-term  change  in  tropical  ecosystems  on  Barro  Colo- 
rado and  at  the  Galeta  Point  Marine  Laboratory.  The  analysis  and 
display  of  data  obtained  by  this  program,  long  subject  to  consid- 
erable delay  because  of  its  sheer  volume,  is  now  being  expedited 
by  a  mini-computer.  An  example  of  the  product  of  this  system  is 
illustrated  by  the  tree  phenology  data.  Over  33,000  individual  obser- 
vations of  tree  phenology  taken  over  a  period  of  80  weeks  were  read 
and  analyzed  in  a  single  day.  The  series  of  bar  graphs  on  leafing 
behavior  well  illustrates  the  dramatic  seasonal  difference  in  the 
availability  of  young  leaves,  which  is  the  preferred  food  of  prac- 
tically all  leaf-eating  animals.  These  seasonal  differences  are 
thought  to  underlie  many  of  the  fluctuations  in  animal  abundance 
and  behavior  which  are  being  investigated  on  Barro  Colorado. 

Barro  Colorado  remains  a  principal  focus  for  much  of  the  re- 
search performed  by  the  stri  staff  and  visitors;  however,  a  contin- 
uous and  increasing  effort  is  being  devoted  to  other  areas  in  both 
the  New  and  Old  World  Tropics. 

90  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Silky  anteater — the  smallest  and  least  frequently  seen  of  the  neotropical  anteaters 
is  being  radio  tracked  on  Barro  Colorado  Island  by  Smithsonian  Tropical  Research 
Institute  scientists. 

This  42  m  tower  in  the  Lutz  Watershed  on  Barro  Colorado  Island  permits  obser- 
vations of  the  forest  canopy  and  a  platform  for  solar  radiation  measurements. 
Its  operation  is  supervised  by  the  Smithsonian  Tropical  Research  Institute's  Envi- 
ronmental Sciences  Program.  Below:  Salvage  archeology  excavations  of  a  cemetery 
(300  B.C.  to  A.D.  1)  in  Code,  Panama,  are  under  the  auspices  of  Smithsonian 
Tropical  Research  Institute  scientists.  The  individual  in  the  foreground  was  an 
axe-maker  or  woodworker  and  was  buried  with  the  earliest  dated  sample  of  corn 
(Zea  mays)  from  Central  Panama. 



Alan  Smith  has  pursued  his  studies  of  plant  ecology  in  the  Vene- 
zuela paramo  and  the  alpine  region  on  Mount  Wilhelm  in  Papua, 
New  Guinea.  This  year,  he  began  a  three-year  study  of  the  alpine 
zone  of  Mount  Kenya  as  well  as  continuing  a  genetic  analysis  of 
the  variegated  and  plain  phenotypes  of  Byttneria  aculeata  on  Barro 
Colorado.  The  study  of  Espeletia  in  Venezuela  has  produced  the 
unexpected  observation  that  these  plants  become  larger  as  eleva- 
tion increases,  the  opposite  of  the  normal  trend  in  alpine  regions. 
Apparently,  with  increasing  altitude,  there  is  a  reduction  in  both 
interspecific  and  intraspecific  competition,  lowering  adult  mortality 
and  allowing  older  and  consequently  taller  plants  to  survive. 

Olga  Linares  returned  to  West  Africa  to  complete  her  studies, 
begun  in  1961,  of  the  ecology  and  social  organization  of  the  Diola 
peoples  of  southern  Senegal.  She  has  concentrated  on  questions  of 
what  aspects  of  the  Diola  agro-ecosystems  help  maintain  the  egali- 
tarian fabric  of  their  society;  what  is  the  relationship  between 
large  irrigation  work  and  the  lack  of  Diola  social  stratification;  and 
how  wet-rice  cultivation  adapts  to  different  ecological  conditions. 
Her  studies  indicate  that  political  decentralization,  shallow  lineages, 
territoriality-based  kin  units,  and  wide-ranging  filiation  with  uter- 
ine kin  lend  flexibility  to  Diola  wet-rice  cultivation.  That  this  flexi- 
bility is  ecologically  advantageous  is  demonstrated  by  the  fact  that 
the  Diola  were  the  only  Senegalese  group  able  to  feed  itself  with- 
out government  assistance  during  the  early  1970s  drought. 

Work  on  the  behavior  and  evolution  of  wasps  continues  in  the 
Colombian  Andes.  M.  J.  West  Eberhard  is  examining  Microstigmus 
a  genus  of  tiny  wasps  about  the  size  of  mosquitos.  More  than  fifty 
species  are  known,  many  of  which  are  endemic  to  small  isolated 
cloud  forests  on  the  sides  of  mountains.  Their  study  is  producing 
information  on  the  process  of  species  formation  in  the  tropics  and 
the  nature  of  primitive  social  organization.  This  work  is  particu- 
larly urgent,  since  the  montane  forest  habitats  are  in  danger  of 
disappearing  due  to  human  activities.  She  is  also  collaborating 
with  medical  researchers  on  methods  of  desensitizing  patients  al- 
lergic to  wasp  venoms. 

Martin  Moynihan  began  a  long-term  behavioral  study  of  tropical 
birds  of  the  order  Coraciiformes.  This  ecologically  important  group 
includes  the  hornbills,  rollers,  kingfishers,  hoopoes,  and  wood- 
hoopoes  in  Senegal,  the  Ivory  Coast,  and  Gabon.  Many  of  the 

Science  I  93 

species  have  remarkably  unequal  sex  ratios  and  other  peculiar  intra 
and  interspecific  social  organizations. 

Studies  on  coral  reefs  in  the  eastern  Pacific  have  revealed  a 
variety  of  interactions  between  the  corals  and  their  associated  in- 
vertebrate fauna.  Some  of  these  organisms  confer  a  degree  of  pro- 
tection to  their  coral  hosts  by  warding  off  predators,  whereas 
others  are  clearly  destructive  to  coral  growth  and  interfere  with 
long-term  reef  accretion. 

In  the  first  category  is  the  symbiotic  relationship  between  crabs 
of  the  genus  Trapezia  and  the  snapping  shrimp  Alpheus,  which  live 
as  obligate  commensals  on  a  branching  coral  Pocillopora.  Labora- 
tory studies  conducted  by  Peter  Glynn  have  shown  that  the  coral 
without  the  crabs  and  shrimps,  is  a  favored  food  item  of  Acan- 
thaster,  the  infamous  Crown-of-Thorns  seastar.  However,  if  the 
commensals  are  present  on  the  branching  coral,  as  is  usually  the 
case  on  healthy  reefs,  a  Crown-of-Thorns  attempting  to  feed  on  the 
coral  is  vigorously  bitten  and  snapped  at  until  it  moves  away. 
Another  invertebrate  that  protects  corals  is  the  Painted  Shrimp 
(Hymenocera).  The  Painted  Shrimp  attacks  the  Crown-of-Thorns 
seastar,  driving  it  way  from  the  coral  or  riding  on  it  until  it  even- 
tually kills  the  much  larger  seastar. 

In  other  studies,  Glynn  found  that  a  small  molluscan  gastropod 
(Jenneria)  with  a  voracious  appetite  for  coral,  can  kill  up  to  5  per- 
cent of  the  standing  crop  of  coral  on  a  reef  every  year.  Recent 
studies  in  the  Galapagos  archipelago  have  disclosed  that  the  slate- 
pencil  sea  urchin  Eucidaris  is  also  capable  of  prodigious  destruc- 
tion of  live  corals.  These  studies  indicate  that  reef  corals  in  the 
Galapagos  Islands,  long  suspected  of  being  limited  by  cool  waters, 
must  also  contend  with  significant  attrition  due  to  an  abundant 
invertebrate  browzer. 

Last  year  saw  an  increased  use  of  the  San  Bias  Islands  on  the 
north  coast  of  Panama  by  biologists  studying  aspects  of  fish  be- 
havior, from  the  intra  and  interspecific  competition  of  diurnal  fishes 
for  sleeping  sites  by  D.  Ross  Robertson,  to  continued  studies  of 
sequential  and  simultaneous  hermaphroditism  in  a  variety  of  spe- 
cies by  Steve  Hoffman  and  Eric  Fischer. 

Political  and  economic  events  such  as  the  completion  of  nego- 
tiations of  a  new  canal  treaty  between  Panama  and  the  United 
States  and  the  requirement  to  transport  Alaskan  oil  to  Gulf  Coast 
refineries  have  interacted  to  reactivate  the  idea  of  building  a  sea- 

94  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

level  canal.  In  August,  Peter  Glynn  and  Ira  Rubinoff  were  appointed 
to  a  National  Research  Council  Committee  with  the  responsibility 
of  updating  the  National  Academy's  1970  report  on  the  "Ecological 
Consequences  of  a  Sea-Level  Canal." 

Our  marine  program  has  grown  significantly  since  1970,  and 
stri  will  be  in  a  better  position  to  participate  significantly  in  new 
canal  studies,  should  they  develop. 

On  January  5,  1977,  a  contract  was  signed  by  the  Minister  of 
Health  of  the  Republic  of  Panama  and  the  Director  of  stri,  author- 
izing stri  to  pursue  its  research  and  conservation  interests  through- 
out the  Isthmus  of  Panama.  This  contract  also  authorizes  the  estab- 
lishment of  field  stations  whenever  they  may  be  of  particular  re- 
search interest. 

Dr.  Pedro  Galindo  retired  in  1976  as  Director  of  the  Gorgas  Me- 
morial Laboratory  and  joined  stri  as  a  part-time  consultant  to  help 
in  developing  the  establishment  of  wildlife  sanctuaries  in  the  Re- 
public of  Panama. 

Rapidly  developed  interest  in  tropical  ecology  was  illustrated  by 
the  success  of  the  IV  International  Symposium  of  Tropical  Ecology 
held  in  Panama,  March  7-11,  1977.  stri  co-sponsored  this  sympo- 
sium with  several  Panamanian  organizations,  and  over  400  scien- 
tists representing  36  countries  attended. 

A  number  of  improvements  to  stri  physical  plants  were  com- 
pleted this  fiscal  year.  The  ancient  wooden  launches  serving  Barro 
Colorado  Island  were  retired  and  replaced  by  two  40-foot  fiberglass 
boats  obtained  surplus  from  the  Navy.  Rechristened  Megalops  and 
Brycon,  they  are  providing  speedier  service  to  the  island.  Without 
the  worry  of  dry  rot  they  should  represent  a  considerable  reduc- 
tion in  maintenance  time  and  expenses.  A  dial  telephone  system  has 
been  installed  on  the  island,  greatly  facilitating  communications  and 
the  ability  to  react  to  island  emergencies. 

The  final  phase  of  the  Tivoli  Administration/Laboratory  build- 
ing has  been  completed  and  a  move  is  planned  later  this  year. 

In  1977,  short-term  fellowships  financed  by  the  Exxon  Corpo- 
ration, the  Noble  Foundation,  and  the  Henry  B.  and  Grace  Doherty 
Foundation  supported  twenty-eight  fellowships  and  assistantships. 
The  assistantship  program  was  initiated  in  1977  to  provide  trop- 
ical experience  to  promising  young  students  who  had  not  yet 
developed  sufficient  background  to  initiate  independent  research 

Science  I  95 

Alexander  Calder  (1898-1976),  America's  best  known  sculptor,  is  well  represented 
by  documentation  in  the  Archives  of  American  Art. 

Smithsonian  Year  •  1977 

Archives  of  American  Art 

As  the  Smithsonian's  repository  for  original  source  material  on  the 
visual  arts  in  America,  the  Archives  of  American  Art  continued  its 
pursuit  of  individual  and  institutional  records  reflecting  the  history 
of  painting  and  sculpture  in  the  United  States.  Through  its  five 
regional  centers  and  interlibrary  loan  arrangements,  it  makes  the 
documentation  it  assembles  available  to  scholars  on  a  national 

The  personal  and  professional  papers  of  artists  represent  the 
majority  of  collections  acquired  by  the  Archives,  but  an  unusual 
amount  of  rich  material  from  curators,  collectors,  dealers,  and  crit- 
ics was  received  during  the  past  year.  Two  groups  of  gallery  rec- 
ords worthy  of  note  are  a  collection  of  letters  written  to  the  New 
York  dealer  Curt  Valentin  by,  among  others,  Alexander  Calder, 
Lyonel  Feininger,  Henry  Moore,  and  David  Smith;  and  business 
records  of  Doll  and  Richards,  a  Boston  firm  that  has  handled  the 
work  of  American  artists  since  the  late  nineteenth  century.  The 
papers  of  Katharine  Kuh,  reflecting  her  career  as  curator  and  critic 
as  well  as  dealer,  include  correspondence  with  such  leading  figures 
as  Joseph  Albers,  Alfred  Barr,  Naum  Gabo,  Hans  Hofmann,  and 
Mark  Tobey.  William  Milliken's  papers  cover  his  position  as  Di- 
rector of  the  Cleveland  Museum  of  Art  for  more  than  thirty  years 
and  contain  information  about  that  museum  as  well  as  the  profes- 
sional organizations  he  served  as  president.  The  correspondence  of 
William  M.  Ivins,  Curator  of  Prints  at  the  Metropolitan  Museum 
of  Art  from  1916  to  the  1940s,  includes  a  long  series  of  letters 
from  Bernard  Berenson. 

Edwin  Shaw,  an  Akron,  Ohio,  collector  of  American  art  in  the 
late  nineteenth  and  early  twentieth  centuries,  corresponded  with 


George  Inness,  Frank  Duveneck,  William  Merritt  Chase,  and  other 
major  painters  of  the  period.  The  extensive  research  material  gath- 
ered by  art  historian  Alfred  Frankenstein  for  his  books  on  Ameri- 
can still-life  painting  and  on  William  S.  Mount  was  also  turned 
over  to  the  Archives. 

Among  significant  artists'  papers  received  in  1977  were  those  of 
the  painters  Fairfield  Porter,  Paul  Sample,  Allyn  Cox,  Karl  Knaths, 
and  Harold  C.  Davies;  diaries  kept  by  Max  Beckman;  and  corre- 
spondence, notes,  and  other  records  of  the  sculptors  Chaim  Gross, 
Walker  Hancock,  Robert  Laurent,  Richard  Lippold,  and  John  Storrs. 

Three  collections  in  particular  throw  light  on  aspects  of  govern- 
ment involvement  in  the  arts  under  the  New  Deal.  The  records  of 
the  Early  American  Portrait  Survey  for  the  Northeastern  United 
States,  a  cataloguing  project  conducted  under  the  Work  Projects 
Administration  (wpa),  were  lent  for  microfilming.  Some  newly  do- 
nated Ben  Shahn  papers  provide  thorough  documentation  on  his 
mural  painted  for  the  Society  Security  (now  hew)  Building  in  1942. 
The  papers  of  Chicago  sculptor  Milton  Horn  offer  both  manuscript 
and  painted  material  from  the  modernists'  side  of  a  sharp  contro- 
versy over  the  design  for  the  Jefferson  Memorial. 

The  Archives  Oral  History  Program  has  since  1958  been  conduct- 
ing and  acquiring  tape-recorded  interviews  with  artists  and  others 
involved  in  the  arts.  This  useful  method  of  documentation  from  the 
source  was  expanded  in  1977  with  fifty-six  interviews,  the  majority 
of  them  held  in  the  Midwest  and  New  England.  The  reminiscences 
and  observations  of  Philip  Adams,  retired  Director  of  the  Cincinnati 
Art  Museum,  of  Joseph  Butler  III,  Director  of  the  Butler  Institute  of 
American  Art  in  Youngstown,  Ohio,  of  Joseph  H.  Hirshhorn,  col- 
lector and  art  patron,  and  of  Robert  Graham  of  the  Graham  Gallery 
in  New  York  are  particularly  valuable. 

The  use  of  microfilm  enables  the  Archives  to  duplicate  its  hold- 
ings for  each  of  its  regional  offices.  Films  of  112  collections  of 
papers  were  made  and  distributed  in  1977,  together  with  more  than 
2,000  catalogue  cards  describing  and  indexing  their  contents. 

Scholarly  use  of  the  Archives  continues  to  grow.  Over  2,300  re- 
search visits  from  graduate  students,  curators,  faculty  members, 
and  independent  scholars  were  made  to  all  Archives  offices  during 
the  course  of  the  year,  and  1,085  rolls  of  film,  a  50  percent  increase 
over  the  number  for  1976,  were  sent  out  through  interlibrary  loans 

98  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

to  researchers  throughout  the  country.  Books,  articles,  disserta- 
tions, and  exhibition  catalogues  are  the  end  product  of  this  activity. 
Among  those  depending  on  Archives  resources  published  during 
the  year  were  a  catalogue  raisonne  of  the  works  of  David  Smith;  a 
survey  of  highlights  of  American  painting  and  sculpture  since 
1776;  a  large  volume  on  Alexander  Calder;  major  exhibition  cata- 
logues on  California  art,  Daniel  Chester  French,  New  Deal  paint- 
ing, and  the  Collection  of  the  Rhode  Island  School  of  Design; 
and  articles  on  Henry  Inman,  Maurice  Prendergast,  and  collector 
Thomas  B.  Clarke. 

In  an  effort  to  reach  out  to  the  general  as  well  as  the  scholarly 
public,  the  Archives  organized  and  participated  in  several  exhibi- 
tions in  1977.  "Artists  and  Writers  in  America,"  held  in  the  gallery 
made  available  to  the  Archives  by  the  National  Portrait  Gallery, 
presented  letters,  sketches,  and  photographs  reflecting  relationships 
between  the  art  and  literary  worlds  over  the  past  century.  "Artists 
and  their  Studios,"  a  display  of  photographs  of  painters  and  sculp- 
tors at  work,  traveled  to  Detroit,  Minneapolis,  and  Portland  Ore- 
gon, under  the  auspices  of  the  Smithsonian  National  Associates' 
Program.  Documents  from  the  Archives  were  shown  in  connection 
with  fifteen  exhibitions  of  American  art  in  museums  in  New  York, 
Baltimore,  Los  Angeles,  San  Francisco,  Boston,  and  other  cities. 
Members  of  the  Archives  staff  delivered  twenty-five  lectures  and 
participated  in  six  symposia  concerned  with  American  art  and  with 
the  archival  profession. 

The  Archives  continued  to  publish  its  quarterly  Journal,  a  maga- 
zine devoted  to  articles  based  on  Archives  resources  and  informa- 
tion on  recent  acquisitions.  A  new  edition  of  the  Checklist  of  the 
Collection,  a  comprehensive  listing  of  Archives  holdings,  was  pre- 
pared during  the  year  for  publication  in  1978. 

Cooper-Hewitt  Museum 

of  Design  and  Decorative  Arts 

The  Cooper-Hewitt  Museum  reopened  to  the  public  on  October 
7,  1976,  to  rave  reviews  by  the  press.  Visitors  lined  up  around  the 
block  to  attend  the  opening  exhibition,  "MAN  transFORMS,"  and 

History  and  Art  I  99 

during  the  first  few  months  the  Museum's  attendance  was  more 
than  5,000  per  week.  This  exploration  of  the  design  process 
through  the  ages  and  in  different  cultures  closed  in  February  and 
was  followed  by  "The  Royal  Pavilion  at  Brighton,"  an  exhibition 
honoring  the  Silver  Jubilee  of  Queen  Elizabeth  II.  Objects  from 
the  Cooper-Hewitt,  the  Royal  Pavilion,  and  nine  items  especially 
chosen  by  the  Queen  were  included  in  this  exhibition,  which  also 
received  great  acclaim  and  is  now  beginning  a  two-year  tour  of 
the  United  States. 

Two  architectural  exhibitions,  "Andrea  Palladio"  and  "200 
Years  of  American  Architectural  Drawing,"  followed.  Because  of 
extensive  coverage  of  these  exhibitions  in  the  design,  architecture, 
and  general  press,  the  Museum  was  able  to  sustain  the  visitor 
count  begun  with  the  opening  exhibition,  so  that  at  the  end  of  the 
first  year  a  total  of  250,000  visitors  was  recorded.  There  is  every 
reason  to  believe  that  this  number  of  visitors  can  be  maintained 
and  increased  as  the  popularity  of  the  Museum  grows. 

Five  exhibitions  were  held  in  the  Contemporary  Design  Gallery: 
"Drawings  of  19th  Century  Berlin,"  "The  Carnegie  Mansion," 
"Henry  Mercer,"  "Palaces  for  the  People,"  and  "Drawing  Toward 
a  More  Modern  Architecture."  These  were  responsive  to  particular 
interests  of  the  Museum  and  explored  different  facets  of  the  design 

A  membership  program  was  begun  in  October  1976  with  an 
appeal  to  the  greater  New  York  metropolitan  area.  More  than 
4,000  members  have  enrolled,  an  extraordinary  achievement  con- 
sidering that  the  Cooper-Hewitt  was  then  virtually  unknown  to  the 
public.  A  series  of  educational  programs  coinciding  with  the  open- 
ing have  reflected  the  special  interests  of  the  Museum — design, 
architecture,  decorative  arts.  There  were  more  than  ninety  programs, 
including  tours  to  underground  New  York;  homes  in  the  Hamp- 
tons, Olana,  and  Williamsburg;  weekend  seminars  on  the  age  of 
Louis  XVI;  craft  workshops  on  quilting  and  bookbinding;  lectures 
on  American  decorative  arts,  carpets  and  silver;  luncheon  talks  on 
interior  design  and  antiques;  and  children's  classes  for  ages  three 
to  twelve.  More  than  3,000  people  participated  in  these  events. 

The  volunteer  and  internship  program  became  more  important 
than  ever  before.  One  hundred  volunteers  are  now  assisting  the 
Museum's  curators,  librarian,  registrar,  information  desk,  and  pub- 

100  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

A  view  of  the  Loggias  of  the  Palazzo  Delia  Ragione,  a  model  prepared  by  Ballico 
Pietro,  and  part  of  the  Cooper-Hewitt  Museum  of  Design  and  Decorative  Arts' 
exhibition  of  the  works  of  Andrea  Palladio.  Below:  Angel  cage  in  Bird  Room,  a 
contribution  of  Arata  Isozaki  to  the  Cooper-Hewitt  Museum's  exhibition  "MAN 
transFORMS,  Aspects  of  Design,"  which  celebrated  the  reopening  of  the  Museum  on 
October  7,  1976. 

/     /   TT   I 


lie  affairs  office  in  a  variety  of  tasks.  Trained  docents  take  visitors 
on  special  tours  of  the  building  and  the  exhibitions.  Interns  have 
been  assigned  to  individual  curators  and  work  on  projects  for 
which  they  receive  credit  at  their  institutions. 

An  important  project  is  under  way  with  the  Book-of-the-Month 
Club,  which  will  print  a  twelve-part  series,  Smithsonian  Illustrated 
Library  of  Antiques,  to  be  offered  to  its  members  and  to  the  Smith- 
sonian Associates.  The  first  volume  will  appear  in  the  winter  of 

During  the  year,  the  drawings  and  prints  collection  was  in- 
stalled in  the  Drue  Heinz  Study  Center  and  the  library  in  the 
Doris  and  Henry  Dreyfuss  Memorial  Study  Center.  A  textile  con- 
servation laboratory  was  established  thanks  to  the  Samuel  Kress 
Foundation,  and  a  special  storage  center  for  the  Museum's  ce- 
ramics collection  was  created.  One  hundred  and  ten  individuals 
have  donated  612  objects  to  the  Museum's  collections,  responding 
to  special  appeals  from  the  different  departments. 

The  Museum  looks  forward  to  continued  growth  and  to  the 
opportunity  of  enriching  the  cultural  life  of  New  York  and  the 
nation  with  its  public  programs  and  activities,  its  remarkable 
collections  that  only  now  are  being  made  accessible  to  the  visitor, 
its  exhibitions,  and  its  scholarship. 

Freer  Gallery  of  Art 

Dr.  Harold  P.  Stern,  Director  of  the  Freer  Gallery  of  Art  since 
1971,  died  after  a  long  illness  on  April  3,  1977.  His  premature 
death  at  the  age  of  fifty-four  is  a  serious  loss  to  specialists  in  the 
field  of  Oriental  art  as  well  as  to  the  Gallery.  Dr.  Stern's  entire 
professional  career  was  spent  at  the  Freer  Gallery  of  Art.  He  came 
to  the  Gallery  as  a  graduate  student  from  the  University  of  Michi- 
gan in  1949.  Appointed  to  the  curatorial  staff  of  the  Gallery  in 
1950,  he  became  Assistant  Director  in  1962.  Dr.  Stern  was  an 
internationally  recognized  scholar  in  the  field  of  Japanese  art.  His 
wit  and  erudition  are  embodied  in  his  publications,  just  as  his  many 
contributions  to  the  Freer  Gallery  of  Art  are  an  indelible  part  of 
the  history  of  that  institution. 

102  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Japanese  wood  sculpture;  Kamakura  period,  1185-1333;  Komokuten  (one  of  the  set 
of  four  Shitenno).  Height  is  26  inches;  width  at  base  is  13  inches.  Freer  Gallery  of 
Art,  76.12. 

Chinese  calligraphy;  Ch'ing  dynasty,  1644-1912;  Wang  Shih-min  (1592-1680);  panel; 
ink  on  paper.  Its  height  is  28V2  inches;  width  19%  inches.  Freer  Gallery  of  Art,  77.1. 

While  Director  of  the  Freer  Gallery  of  Art,  Dr.  Stern  was  re- 
sponsible for  the  acquisition  of  a  number  of  important  objects  for 
the  collection.  Some  of  his  favorite  Japanese  objects,  all  of  which 
were  acquired  during  his  tenure  as  Director,  were  displayed  in  a 
memorial  exhibition  held  at  the  Gallery  throughout  the  summer. 
The  Harold  P.  Stern  Memorial  Fund  has  been  established  to  fur- 
ther Dr.  Stern's  lifelong  interest  in  Japanese  art.  Income  from  the 
Memorial  Fund  will  be  used  to  increase  the  understanding  and 
appreciation  of  Japanese  art  through  lectures,  symposia,  and  publi- 
cations; teaching  activities;  conservation  training  and  apprentice- 
ship programs;  and  the  acquisition  of  Japanese  art  of  the  highest 

Several  special  exhibitions  were  held  at  the  Freer  Gallery  of  Art 
during  the  past  year,  all  of  them  designed  to  highlight  relatively 
unexplored  areas  of  the  collections.  A  select  showing  of  Japanese 
objects  was  included  in  "Shinto  Art."  Long  considered  too  esoteric 
a  subject  for  Western  audiences,  the  carved  and  painted  images  of 
tutelary  deities  proved  to  have  great  appeal  for  Gallery  visitors. 
Most  of  the  Freer's  major  American  paintings  were  included  in  a 
large  exhibition  entitled  "A  Connoisseur's  Vision:  Selections  from 
Charles  Lang  Freer's  American  Art  Collection."  Many  of  the  Ameri- 
can paintings  included  in  the  exhibition  were  newly  cleaned,  and 
a  number  of  the  original  frames  were  refurbished  before  being 
shown.  The  emphasis  upon  American  artists  who  were  patronized 
by  Charles  Lang  Freer  reflects  a  growing  scholarly  interest  in  this 
comparatively  unstudied  period  of  American  cultural  history. 

Oriental  calligraphy  has  never  enjoyed  the  same  prestige  in  the 
West  that  it  has  traditionally  received  in  the  Far  East,  but  the  suc- 
cess of  the  Gallery's  "Oriental  Calligraphy"  exhibition  clearly  in- 
dicated increasing  Western  awareness  of  the  importance  of  callig- 
raphy for  an  understanding  of  Far  Eastern  cultures.  Rubbings  of 
ancient  Chinese  calligraphic  monuments,  shown  for  the  first  time, 
were  especially  noteworthy  highlights  of  this  exhibition. 

The  fall  season  of  1977  was  highlighted  by  two  exhibitions. 
"The  Four  Seasons  in  Japanese  Art,"  which  occupied  four  separate 
galleries,   presented   a   selection   of   handscrolls,   hanging    scrolls, 

History  and  Art  I  105 

screens,  and  larger  artifacts.  All  of  the  objects  illustrated  the 
theme  of  birds,  flowers,  and  animals  of  the  four  seasons.  Original 
planning  was  begun  by  Dr.  Stern,  and  the  opening  date  was  sched- 
uled to  coincide  with  a  loan  exhibition  entitled  "Birds,  Bees,  Blos- 
soms and  Bugs,"  which  he  had  organized  for  the  Asia  Society  in 
New  York  City.  Unexpectedly,  the  exhibition  at  the  Freer  and  the 
one  at  the  Asia  Society  became  memorial  exhibitions  for  Dr.  Stern. 
A  slightly  smaller  exhibition,  "Chinese  Album  Leaves  and  Fan 
Paintings,"  provided  unusual  insights  into  Chinese  painting  of 
relatively  small  scale.  In  spite  of  their  size,  however,  the  fan  paint- 
ings and  album  leaves  provided  exciting  glimpses  into  traditional 
Chinese  representations  of  landscapes,  figures,  birds,  and  flowers. 

Academic  appointments  to  the  Freer  were  Richard  Edwards  and 
Calvin  French,  University  of  Michigan  professors,  who  are  serving 
as  honorary  associates. 

For  the  twenty-fourth  season,  the  Gallery  offered  a  series  of 
illustrated  lectures  on  Oriental  Art.  The  November  lecture,  spon- 
sored jointly  by  the  Freer  Gallery  of  Art  and  the  Embassy  of  Japan, 
was  given  by  Robert  Moes  of  the  Brooklyn  Museum.  Mr.  Moes 
spoke  on  "Important  Developments  in  the  History  of  Japanese 
Ceramics."  In  March  the  Rutherford  J.  Gettens  Memorial  Lecture 
was  delivered  by  Professor  Kazuo  Yamasaki.  The  topic  of  his  lec- 
ture, "The  History  of  Japanese  Paintings  as  Seen  from  Pigment 
Studies,"  provided  new  insights  into  an  area  of  research  that  has 
special  importance  to  the  Conservation  Laboratory  of  the  Freer 
Gallery.  A  generous  contribution  by  John  S.  Thatcher  supported 
Professor  Yamasaki's  lecture. 

Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden 

As  the  Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden  completed  its 
second  full  year  of  operation,  a  remarkable  change  had  taken 
place.  The  building  had  become  a  familiar  Washington  landmark, 
and  the  Museum,  through  its  collection  and  exhibition  programs, 
had  established  itself  as  one  of  the  nation's  most  popular  museums 
of  contemporary  art. 

106  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Newly  acquired  by  the  Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden:  The  Rooster  (Le 
Coq),  1916,  a  painted  bronze  relief  by  the  pioneer  Cubist  sculptor,  Raymond  Du- 
champ- Villon.  Below:  In  opening  ceremonies  at  the  Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture 
Garden  on  November  18,  1976,  Mexican  Ambassador  Jose  Juan  de  Olloqui  and  a 
guest  view  the  celebrated  Chac-Mool  from  Chichen-Itza.  The  Mesoamerican  sculp- 
ture, part  of  the  collection  of  the  National  Museum  of  Anthropology  in  Mexico  City 
and  dating  from  the  tenth  to  the  twelfth  centuries  a.d.,  was  loaned  to  the  Smithsonian 
by  the  people  of  Mexico  in  celebration  of  the  Bicentennial  of  the  United  States. 

In  1977  more  than  a  million  visitors  were  again  recorded.  Sam- 
plings of  their  written  comments — submitted  on  forms  provided 
at  the  Hirshhorn's  lobby  Information  Desk — suggest  their  diver- 
sity. They  range  from  those  making  their  initial  contact  with 
contemporary  art  (most  like  it,  a  few  do  not)  to  experienced  mu- 
seumgoers  suggesting  greater  representation  of  one  or  another  of 
their  favorite  artists. 

Central  to  the  Museum's  diversified  1977  program  was  a  series 
of  special  exhibitions  and  installations  utilizing  both  works  of  art 
drawn  from  its  own  collection  and  those  borrowed  from  other 
sources.  Two  exhibitions — "Chac-Mool:  A  Bicentennial  Loan  from 
Mexico"  and  "14  Canadians:  A  Critic's  Choice,"  guest  curated  by 
Andrew  Hudson — saluted  the  nation's  neighbors  south  and  north. 

The  installation  of  the  "Chac-Mool,"  one  of  Mexico's  great 
treasures — never  before  seen  outside  of  its  permanent  home  in  the 
National  Museum  of  Anthropology  in  Mexico  City — was  aug- 
mented by  a  selection  of  Pre-Columbian  sculpture  from  the  Mu- 
seum's own  collection. 

Another  exhibition,  "Winslow  Homer  Drawings,"  celebrated  the 
opening  of  the  Smithsonian's  Cooper-Hewitt  Museum  of  Design 
and  Decorative  Arts  in  New  York  and  included  thirty-two  works 
drawn  from  the  latter's  extensive  collection  of  Homer's  works.  "Kin 
and  Communities,"  a  special  installation  of  works  on  the  theme  of 
the  family,  was  mounted  to  mark  the  occasion  of  the  Smithsonian's 
international  symposium  on  that  topic. 

Besides  Winslow  Homer,  eight  other  Americans  served  as  sub- 
jects for  solo  exhibitions.  Largest  in  scope  were  "Hans  Hofmann" 
— a  retrospective  loan  exhibition  organized  jointly  with  the  Mu- 
seum of  Fine  Arts,  Houston,  and  selected  by  the  noted  painter  and 
critic  Walter  Darby  Bannard — and  "The  Thomas  Eakins  Collection 
of  the  Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden,"  the  first  exten- 
sive showing  of  this  collection,  one  of  the  largest  in  the  United 
States.  Also  drawn  from  the  Museum's  permanent  collection  were 
"E.  E.  Cummings:  The  Poet  as  Artist,"  an  exhibition  of  sixty-six 
works  by  the  well-known  poet  shown  in  connection  with  a  Wash- 
ington-wide project  celebrating  the  collaboration  of  poetry  and  the 
visual  arts,  and  "Arthur  B.  Carles,"  a  smaller  exhibition  of  the 
Museum's  holdings  of  the  paintings  of  the  Philadelphia  artist  who 
died  in  1952. 

108  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

"Summer  Sculpture  '77:  Jules  Olitski"  consisted  of  five  monu- 
mental steel  sculptures  by  this  outstanding  abstract  painter.  It  was 
the  Museum's  first  outdoor  sculpture  loan  exhibition,  and  was  orig- 
inally organized  by  the  Museum  of  Fine  Arts,  Boston.  From  this 
same  source  came  an  exhibition  of  large-scale  figure  paintings,  land- 
scapes, and  allegories  by  the  realist  painter  Alfred  Leslie.  Complet- 
ing the  roster  of  one-man  exhibitions  were  showings  of  the  work  of 
two  California  artists:  "Peter  Plagens:  Works  on  Paper,"  which  in- 
cluded works  drawn  from  eighteen  private  and  public  collections, 
and  "The  Photography  of  Leland  Rice,"  the  Museum's  first  exhibi- 
tion of  contemporary  photography. 

In  one  sense,  however,  the  most  significant  exhibition  presented 
during  1977  was  "Acquisitions:  1974-1977."  It  included  more  than 
130  works  of  art  by  96  American  and  foreign  artists.  In  the  ac- 
companying checklist,  the  exhibition's  scope  and  the  Museum's 
assessment  of  its  significance  were  described  this  way: 

All  of  the  paintings,  sculptures,  prints,  and  drawings  in  this 
exhibition  have  been  acquired  since  the  opening  of  the  Mu- 
seum on  October  1,  1974.  As  a  group,  they  testify  to  the 
Museum's  continuing  commitment  to  contemporary  art  and  to 
the  enrichment  of  other  aspects  of  its  permanent  collection. 

When  Joseph  H.  Hirshhorn  presented  to  the  Nation  the  ap- 
proximately 6,000  works  of  art  with  which  the  Museum 
opened,  he  intended  that  the  collection  should  be  a  living — 
not  a  static — one.  During  the  past  two  and  one  half  years  the 
Museum  has  continued  to  acquire  works  of  art  both  through 
purchase  and  gift,  including  a  number  of  additional  gifts 
from  Mr.  Hirshhorn.  To  him,  and  to  the  other  34  donors 
whose  generosity  this  exhibition  reflects,  the  Museum  is  deeply 

Supplementing  the  Hirshhorn's  exhibition  schedule  was  an  audi- 
torium program  of  lectures,  films,  and  symposia.  Two  of  the  latter, 
the  most  ambitious  the  Museum  has  yet  undertaken,  were  of  par- 
ticular note.  Organized  in  conjunction  with  the  Museum's  exhibition 
of  contemporary  Canadian  painting  and  sculpture,  "20th  Century 
Canadian  Culture,"  was  an  eleven-week  series  devoted  to  the  liter- 
ature, drama,  and  visual  arts  of  Canada.  Panel  discussions  and 
other  events  were  presented  both  at  the  Museum  and  The  Phillips 

History  and  Art  I  109 

Collection  under  the  sponsorship  of  the  Association  for  Canadian 
Studies  in  the  United  States,  and  were  made  possible  by  a  grant  to 
the  Association  from  the  National  Endowment  for  the  Humanities. 
The  keynote  address  at  the  opening  ceremony,  attended  by  Mrs. 
Joan  Mondale  and  Mrs.  Margaret  Trudeau,  together  with  members 
of  the  American  and  Canadian  Diplomatic  Corps,  was  delivered  by 
Professor  Northrop  Frye  of  the  University  of  Toronto. 

In  conjunction  with  the  opening  of  its  "Thomas  Eakins"  exhibi- 
tion, the  Museum  organized  a  one-day  symposium  at  which  four 
of  the  nation's  leading  Eakins  scholars  presented  papers  that  dealt 
with  various  aspects  of  the  artist's  career  and  work.  Participating 
were  Lloyd  Goodrich,  Evan  Turner,  Gordon  Hendricks,  and  Maria 
Chamberlin-Hellman.  On  a  separate  evening,  the  eminent  West 
Coast  critic  and  art  historian,  Alfred  Frankenstein,  gave  his  own 
estimate  of  the  artist  in  a  lecture  entitled  "Eakins:  A  Dissenting 

Other  speakers  during  the  year  included  the  artists  Alfred  Leslie 
and  Yaacov  Agam;  critics  John  Canaday,  Walter  Darby  Bannard, 
and  John  Bernard  Myers;  and  scholars  Eugenia  Parry  Janis,  Mi- 
chael Klein,  and  Barbara  Wolanin.  A  series  of  lectures — given  in 
conjunction  with  the  Museum's  ongoing  film  program — included 
talks  by  filmmakers  Jonas  Mekas,  Chuck  Henry,  Tony  Bannon, 
Nancy  Baer,  and  Doris  Chase.  The  film  program  itself,  which  in- 
cluded special  Saturday  showings  for  children,  continued  its  dual 
emphasis  on  films  about  art  and  film  as  art  with  showings  each 
Tuesday  and  Thursday. 

A  series  of  Museum  publications  also  supplemented  the  exhibi- 
tion program.  Outstanding  was  the  240-page  catalogue  of  the 
Eakins  exhibition.  Nearly  three  years  in  preparation,  under  the  su- 
pervision of  curatorial  assistant  Phyllis  Rosenzweig  and  incorpo- 
rating the  research  efforts  of  graduate  art-history  students  at  the 
University  of  Delaware,  it  was  widely  hailed  within  weeks  of  its 
publication  as  a  significant  contribution  to  American  art  historical 

Through  funds  appropriated  specifically  for  the  purpose,  as  well 
as  gifts  received  from  a  growing  body  of  individual  donors,  the 
Museum  was  able  to  continue  the  important  tasks  of  building  its 
collection.  In  so  doing,  two  areas  were  emphasized:  the  extension 
of  the  collection  forward  in  time,  in  order  that  it  should  continue 

110  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

to  reflect  ongoing  developments  in  contemporary  art;  and  the  si- 
multaneous enhancement  of  those  areas  — such  as  American  and 
European  sculpture  of  the  past  one  hundred  years — where  it  is 
possible  to  build  upon  its  original  strengths.  From  all  sources,  the 
Museum  acquired  108  works  of  art  during  the  year. 

Since  its  opening,  the  Museum  has  continued  to  respond  as  gen- 
erously as  the  prudent  care  of  the  collection  will  permit  to  requests 
for  loans  by  other  institutions.  During  the  year,  107  loans  were 
made  to  38  museums  and  other  organizations  throughout  the 
United  States  and  abroad.  Works  of  art  borrowed  from  the  Hirsh- 
horn  Museum  were  seen  by  the  public  in  cities  as  far  apart  as 
Indianapolis  and  Zurich,  Providence  and  Paris,  and  Houston  and 

The  Museum  also  continued  to  explore  other  means  by  which 
its  collection  might  be  shared  with  a  larger  public  than  that  able 
to  see  it  in  Washington.  Most  recently,  it  has  organized  an  exhi- 
bition which  includes  one  sculpture  and  one  drawing  by  twenty- 
four  major  American  and  European  artists  of  the  past  one  hundred 
years  to  travel  to  three  South  Carolina  art  museums  during  1977- 
1978.  Other  traveling  exhibitions  drawn  from  the  permanent  col- 
lection are  being  considered  for  later  years  with  one — a  national 
tour  of  paintings  from  the  Museum's  collection  of  the  works  of 
Louis  B.  Elshemius — now  firmly  scheduled  to  begin  in  1979. 

For  those  who  were  able  to  visit  the  Museum  itself  during  the 
year,  there  was  a  wide  range  of  educational  activities.  For  many 
exhibitions,  the  staff  prepared — in  addition  to  catalogues — one-  to 
five-page  handouts,  brochures,  or  checklists  that  were  distributed 
to  the  public  without  charge.  The  Telesonic  self-tour  guide  system 
was  expanded  by  the  creation  of  fifty-nine  new  tapes  and  the  in- 
corporation of  a  number  of  new  or  improved  stations.  And  the 
Museum's  docents,  who  contributed  approximately  4,458  hours  of 
volunteer  time  during  the  year,  provided  more  than  28,317  visitors 
with  general  and  special  tours  of  the  galleries. 

One  new  program  was  developed  specifically  for  children:  "A 
Hirshhorn  Holiday:  An  Adventure  in  Art  and  Illusion."  Staged 
shortly  before  Christmas,  this  was  a  four-hour  blend  of  continuous 
live  performances,  gallery  tours,  music,  and  animated  films.  It  was 
made  possible  through  the  generosity  and  cooperation  of  the 
Women's  Committee  of  the  Smithsonian  Associates  and  brought 

History  and  Art  I  111 

more  than  3,600  children  to  the  Museum  for  a  festive  morning. 

Underlying  the  year's  ambitious  public  program  was  the  effec- 
tive behind-the-scenes  work  of  many  departments.  The  Depart- 
ment of  Painting  and  Sculpture  not  only  organized  the  Museum's 
exhibitions  schedule  but  continued  its  long-term  project  of  cata- 
loguing and  documenting  the  more  than  6,000  works  of  art  received 
when  the  Museum  first  opened  in  1974,  and  also  answered  more 
than  290  research  inquiries.  The  Department  of  Education  was 
responsible  for  the  ongoing  training  of  docents,  the  supervision  of 
the  auditorium  and  tour  programs,  and  the  preparation  of  hand- 
outs, brochures,  labels,  and  Telesonic  tapes. 

In  addition,  the  Department  of  Education — working  closely  with 
the  Department  of  Painting  and  Sculpture  and  other  departments 
— administered  the  Museum's  intern  programs,  which  provide 
training  to  future  museum  professionals.  During  the  year,  the  Mu- 
seum trained  interns,  at  both  the  graduate  and  undergraduate  lev- 
els, from  George  Washington  University,  Brandeis  University,  Uni- 
versity of  California  at  Berkeley,  New  York  University,  and  Trin- 
ity College  of  Hartford.  A  special  intern  was  accepted  from  the 
Australian  Gallery's  Directors'  Council.  The  Museum  also  pro- 
vided facilities  for  two  Smithsonian  predoctoral  fellows  working  in 
the  field  of  American  art  history. 

Also  contributing  importantly  both  to  the  care  of  the  permanent 
collection  and  to  the  mounting  of  exhibitions  were: 

The  Conservation  Department  which,  in  its  newly  completed 
laboratory,  provided  treatment  for  some  680  works  of  art,  per- 
formed routine  examinations,  and  prepared  condition  reports. 

The  Office  of  the  Registrar,  which  supervised  the  movement  of 
works  of  art  both  to  and  from  the  Museum  as  well  as  within  the 
building  itself,  continued  its  project  of  translating  the  Museum's 
catalogue  data  into  machine-retrievable  forms. 

The  Department  of  Exhibits  and  Design,  which  was  responsible 
for  the  design,  construction,  and  installation  of  thirteen  exhibi- 
tions, as  well  as  for  continuing  changes  in  the  installation  of  the 
permanent  collection  and  the  general  design  and  appearance  of  the 
galleries,  plaza,  and  Sculpture  Garden. 

Special  note  should  be  made  of  the  retirement  of  the  Adminis- 
trative Officer,  Joseph  Sefekar,  on  May  7,  1977.  Mr.  Sefekar,  who 
spent  more  than  thirty-five  years  in  government  service,  was  one 

112  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

of  the  Museum's  first  employees,  having  joined  the  staff  in  1970, 
and  contributed  greatly  to  the  Museum's  growth. 

Theodore  E.  Cummings,  one  of  the  Museum's  original  Trustees, 
resigned  from  the  Board  of  Trustees  on  November  24, 1976,  because 
of  pressure  of  other  obligations.  To  succeed  him,  the  Trustees 
elected  Jerome  Greene,  Esq.,  of  New  York  City. 

Joseph  Henry  Papers 

Research  and  editing  for  Volume  3  of  The  Papers  of  Joseph  Henry 
neared  completion  during  the  year,  and  the  manuscript  was  sched- 
uled to  go  to  press.  The  centerpiece  of  the  volume,  covering 
Henry's  career  in  1836  and  1837,  is  a  series  of  diary  entries  docu- 
menting his  eight-month  European  sojourn.  Complemented  by 
sprightly  diary  entries  by  his  American  friend  A.  D.  Bache,  who 
accompanied  Henry  part  of  the  way,  the  diaries  constitute  a  mine 
of  information  for  transatlantic  scientific  awareness  and  influence. 
An  unexpected  but  equally  important  by-product  of  annotating 
these  difficult  entries  has  been  the  development  of  an  unusual  per- 
spective on  the  European  scientific  scene,  including  features  often 
neglected  in  conventional  histories.  It  is  very  much  a  "living"  his- 
tory told  through  the  eyes  of  participants.  The  result  is  expected  to 
be  a  volume  of  interest  not  only  to  Americanists  but  to  specialists  in 
French,  English,  and  Scottish  science  as  well.  The  project  continues  to 
search  repositories  for  further  Henry  documentation.  Major  finds 
have  been  made  in  recent  additions  to  the  James  Hall  papers  at  the 
New  York  State  Library. 

The  Joseph  Henry-Alexander  Graham  Bell  Library  was  installed 
in  the  project's  new  quarters.  These  rare-book  libraries,  the  proj- 
ect's other  great  historical  resource,  are  now  under  proper  tem- 
perature and  security  conditions.  In  addition,  a  major  first  step  has 
been  taken  toward  the  renovation  of  the  Joseph  Henry  Library, 
resulting  in  the  rebinding  of  about  700  books  during  the  past  fiscal 

The  Henry  Papers  project,  in  addition  to  publishing  its  volumes, 
is  increasingly  recognized  for  its  function  as  a  central  scholarly  re- 
source for  science  in  America.  It  received  inquiries  and  researchers 

History  and  Art  I  113 

on  a  wide  diversity  of  topics,  including  the  history  of  research  on 
sunspots,  early  United  States-Japanese  contacts  on  education  and 
science,  ideas  of  forest  ecology,  and  the  early  years  of  the  Smith- 
sonian. The  appearance  of  the  Henry  volumes  has  publicized  to 
outside  scholars  the  wide  range  of  materials  on  hand  at  the  project. 
The  staff  was  also  consulted  by  representatives  of  other  existing 
and  prospective  historical  editing  projects  (e.g.,  the  Edison  and 
Henry  Laurens  Papers),  interested  in  applying  its  procedures,  espe- 
cially the  computer  index  system.  Over  the  fiscal  year,  the  Henry 
Papers  took  on  its  usual  complement  of  Smithsonian  fellows,  from 
visiting  senior  scholars  to  undergraduates.  It  has  also  welcomed 
two  predoctoral  fellows  for  the  current  and  next  fiscal  year. 

The  Nineteenth-Century  Seminar,  under  Nathan  Reingold,  con- 
tinued to  feature  monthly  presentations  on  an  eclectic  array  of 
nineteenth-century  subjects,  including  historic  preservation,  aero- 
nautical history,  photography,  and  art  history. 

National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts 

The  final  presentations  in  the  Museum's  ambitious  Bicentennial 
program  were  the  stimulating  exhibition  of  works  by  Robert  Raus- 
chenberg,  one  of  the  few  major  Bicentennial  exhibitions  accorded 
a  living  American  artist,  and  the  Renwick's  colorful  "Americas: 
The  Decorative  Arts  in  Latin  America  in  the  Era  of  the  Revolu- 
tion." The  Rauschenberg  exhibition,  made  up  of  some  two  hundred 
works  representing  all  aspects  of  the  artist's  career  borrowed  from 
collections  here  and  abroad,  opened  on  October  28.  The  most  com- 
prehensive exhibition  ever  held  of  Rauschenberg's  work,  it  was 
widely  reviewed  in  the  national  press.  After  its  closing  in  Wash- 
ington, the  exhibition  was  shown  at  the  Museum  of  Modern  Art 
in  New  York  and  then  was  scheduled  to  go  on  to  San  Francisco, 
Buffalo,  and  Chicago.  The  extensive  catalogue  accompanying  the 
exhibition,  published  by  the  Smithsonian  Institution  Press,  pro- 
vides a  thorough  documentation  of  the  artist's  career,  and  remains 
of  permanent  value. 

In  the  throes  of  Bicentennial  enthusiasm,  it  was  easy  to  lose 
sight  of  the  fact  that  the  new  United  States  were  not  alone  in  the 

114  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Americas  at  the  time  they  achieved  their  independence.  As  a  reminder 
of  the  contemporary  cultural  scene,  the  Renwick  Gallery  gathered 
together  a  dazzling  collection  of  treasures  from  ten  Latin  American 
countries,  created  during  the  period  of  the  American  Revolution, 
to  present  a  rich  and  decorative  complement  to  the  more  austere 
northern  taste.  The  exhibition,  "Americas,"  which  later  was  shown 
in  New  York,  was  supplemented  with  lectures  by  scholars  from 
Brazil,  Venezuela,  Mexico,  Peru,  Ecuador,  and  the  United  States, 
and  with  musical  programs,  all  made  possible  through  the  cooper- 
ation of  the  Organization  of  American  States,  embassies,  and  the 
Smithsonian  Associates.  The  handsome  publication  accompanying 
the  exhibition  included  an  informative  text  by  Elizabeth  Wilder 

The  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts'  (ncfa)  exhibition  program 
for  the  year  was  one  of  the  largest  and  most  varied  in  its  history. 
Of  the  twenty-six  exhibitions  presented,  eighteen  were  produced 
by  the  Museum,  four  were  produced  in  close  collaboration  with 
other  institutions,  and  three  were  produced  elsewhere. 

Renwick  Gallery  exhibitions  ranged  from  "Paint  on  Wood,"  a 
historical  survey  of  painted  furniture  that  provided  a  provocative 
contrast  to  the  purist  side  of  modern  taste,  to  the  delightful  em- 
broidered pictures  by  Ethel  Mohamed.  As  usual,  most  exhibitions 
were  accompanied  by  special  programs  and  films. 

Even  larger  than  the  Rauschenberg  exhibition  was  "Painting 
and  Sculpture  in  California:  The  Modern  Era"  with  some  250 
works.  Produced  in  association  with  the  San  Francisco  Museum  of 
Modern  Art,  where  it  was  first  shown  (the  selection  was  made  by 
the  Director,  Henry  Hopkins,  in  collaboration  with  ncfa  curator 
Walter  Hopps),  the  exhibition  continued  ncfa's  policy  of  studying 
the  art  of  different  areas  of  the  United  States  in  depth,  begun  with 
"Art  of  the  Pacific  Northwest"  in  1974.  The  California  exhibition 
was  concerned  with  modern  works  from  1900  to  the  present  and, 
although  it  made  no  effort  to  define  a  local  style,  did  suggest  the 
extraordinary  vitality  that  has  characterized  art  throughout  the 

As  a  moment  of  classical  calm  between  the  Rauschenberg  and 
California  showings,  an  exhibition  of  works  by  the  sculptor  Dan- 
iel Chester  French  (1850-1931),  who  executed  so  many  well-known 
monuments  in  Washington,  was  produced  in  association  with  the 

History  and  Art  I  115 

National  Trust  for  Historic  Preservation.  Of  like  calm  was  the 
small  exhibition  of  paintings  and  drawings  by  John  White  Alexan- 
der, French's  contemporary. 

In  conjunction  with  a  Washington-wide  festival  of  art  and  po- 
etry, "Inscapes,"  ncfa  celebrated  the  association  of  the  two  arts  in 
a  pair  of  highly  original  exhibitions:  Peter  Bermingham's  "The  Art 
of  Poetry"  in  the  Department  of  Education's  Discover  Gallery,  and 
Lloyd  Herman's  "The  Object  as  Poet"  at  the  Renwick.  Many  of 
the  works  in  "The  Object  as  Poet"  were  created  through  collabo- 
ration by  craftsmen  and  poets,  some  expressly  for  this  showing. 
The  major  portion  of  this  exhibition  was  later  shown  at  the  Mu- 
seum of  Contemporary  Crafts  in  New  York  City. 

No  less  poetic,  in  their  way,  were  the  prints  of  Jacob  Kainen, 
displayed  in  an  impressive  retrospective  exhibition  by  the  Depart- 
ment of  Prints  and  Drawings  in  November.  On  the  occasion  of 
the  exhibition,  which  was  later  shown  in  Baltimore,  the  Museum 
published  a  complete  catalogue  of  Kainen's  prints.  The  galleries 
devoted  to  a  selection  of  prints  and  drawings  from  the  permanent 
collection  were  redesigned  to  allow  more  hanging  space,  and  some 
large  exhibitions,  notably  the  prints  of  Mauricio  Lasansky  and  the 
"25th  National  Exhibition  of  Prints,"  sponsored  jointly  with  the 
Library  of  Congress,  extended  well  into  the  newly  organized  areas. 

An  exhibition  of  particular  interest  was  of  the  works  of  Arthur 
Wesley  Dow  (1857-1922),  an  influential  teacher  whose  Japanese- 
inspired  theories  revolutionized  art  instruction  throughout  the 
country.  This  was  the  first  representative  showing  of  his  own 
works.  A  major  publication  on  Dow  accompanied  the  exhibition. 

The  most  spectacular  addition  to  the  permanent  galleries  was  the 
Gellatly  Gallery,  opened  in  October.  Named  in  honor  of  John 
Gellatly,  who  presented  his  large  and  varied  collection  to  the  Insti- 
tution in  1929,  its  objects  range  from  Greek  gold  and  ancient  Chi- 
nese jade  and  glass  to  medieval  ivories,  fine  Renaissance  jewelry, 
and  intricately  blown  eighteenth-century  glass  reliefs.  Mr.  Gellatly, 
who  also  gave  the  collection  most  of  its  paintings  by  Albert  Pinkham 
Ryder,  wished  to  show  that  American  art  of  his  period  was  the  equal 
of  the  fine  European  and  Asiatic  art  of  the  past.  Now,  some  of  the 
treasures  he  collected  for  comparison  can  again  be  seen  in  context. 

Since  John  Gellatly  presented  his  gift,  the  ncfa  collection  has 
grown  enormously.  It  now  consists  of  some  6,500  paintings  and 

116  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Maurice  Prendergast,  Summer,  New  England,  1912,  oil  on  canvas,  19  x  27  inches.  A 
recent  gift  to  the  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts.  Below:  Francis  W.  Edmonds,  The 
Speculator,  circa  1852,  oil  on  canvas,  25  x  39  inches.  A  recent  acquisition  by  the 
National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts,  gift  of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Kevin  McCann. 

Adelyn  Breeskin,  Consultant  for  Twentieth-Century  Painting  and 
Sculpture  at  the  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts.  Below:  Young 
participants  in  Kaleidoscope  Day  in  the  National  Collection  of 
Fine  Arts  courtyard,  June  4,  1977. 

sculptures,  almost  13,000  prints  and  drawings,  and  2,000  works  of 
decorative  art.  Among  the  carefully  selected  1,000  new  works  ac- 
cessioned this  year  were  many  of  notable  quality.  Outstanding 
among  the  gifts  were  a  superb  1912  painting  by  Maurice  Prender- 
gast,  two  especially  fine  early  paintings  by  Milton  Avery,  an  im- 
portant large  panel  by  Bob  Thompson,  whom  the  Museum  re- 
membered with  an  exhibition  in  1975,  and  a  large  and  lively  paint- 
ing by  Stanley  William  Hayter,  best  known  for  his  contributions 
to  printmaking. 

The  Speculator,  an  expertly  painted  and  amusing  work  by  the 
nineteenth-century  genre  painter  Francis  W.  Edmonds  was  a  major 
gift  in  that  area.  A  group  of  ninety-five  works  by  Morris  Kantor 
and  a  series  of  works  by  Charles  Pollock  and  studies  by  Abraham 
Rattner  add  much  to  our  understanding  of  these  artists.  For  the 
nineteenth-century  collection,  major  purchases  included  Castle 
Rock,  Marblehead  by  Alfred  Bricher,  William  Beard's  amusing 
The  Darwinian,  and  a  luminous,  early  landscape  by  Elihu  Vedder, 
for  whom  an  extensive  retrospective  exhibition  will  be  mounted  in 
the  fall  of  1978.  Two  of  the  major  twentieth-century  works  pur- 
chased were  a  large  sculpture  by  Saul  Baizerman  and  Ralston  Craw- 
ford's precise  and  elegant  Buffalo  Grain  Elevator  of  1937. 

In  order  to  document  the  collection  better  and  provide  more  ma- 
terial for  the  public  and  scholars,  all  matters  pertaining  to  slides 
and  photography  were  recently  organized  under  a  single  office. 
This  includes  not  only  the  photography  laboratory  and  office  of 
rights  and  reproductions,  but  the  collection  of  30,000  slides,  15,000 
photographs,  and  127,000  negatives  of  the  Peter  Juley  and  Son 
archives.  The  slide  and  photograph  collection  is  now  indexed  on 
computer  by  artist  and  subject.  An  additional  help  to  scholars  has 
been  the  ncfa's  continuing  project  of  indexing  works  of  artistic 
interest  throughout  the  Smithsonian.  In  less  than  a  year  and  a  half 
more  than  82,000  works  have  been  listed. 

The  Museum  published  six  books  and  major  catalogues,  five 
small  catalogues,  and  various  informational  folders  during  the 
year.  Research  carried  on  by  its  fellows,  who  came  from  seven 
universities,  ranged  from  the  iconography  of  the  West  in  the  nine- 
teenth century  to  the  paintings  of  David  Smith.  Regular  seminars 
were  held  for  visiting  scholars  and  the  staff,  and  the  intern  pro- 
grams in  museum  training  continued  successfully. 

History  and  Art  I  119 

Each  spring  ncfa's  resourceful  docents  (there  are  eighty-five  in- 
cluding those  at  the  Renwick)  hold  a  special  day-long  event  in  the 
courtyard  and  galleries  featuring  artists,  musicians,  many  things 
to  do,  and  much  gallery  activity.  Once  called  Children's  Day,  it 
has  now  become  a  day  for  all  members  of  the  family.  It  is  now 
called  Kaleidoscope,  and  the  approximately  2,800  people,  young 
and  old,  who  came  this  year  thoroughly  enjoyed  the  experience. 
Families  also  came  to  the  fifth  high-school  graphics  exhibition, 
"Through  the  Eyes  of  New  Printmakers,"  for  which  much  of  the 
planning  and  the  catalogue  were  done  by  students.  Still  an  addi- 
tional audience  celebrated  the  opening  in  the  Discover  Gallery  of 
"Raices  y  Visiones/Roots  and  Visions,"  which  was  a  vital  and 
colorful  exhibition  of  works  by  American  artists  of  Hispanic  or 
Latin  American  origin  who  have  consciously  used  their  distinctive 
cultural  background  in  developing  their  art. 

National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology 

The  year  following  the  American  Revolution  Bicentennial  has  per- 
mitted the  return  to  a  more  normal  pattern  and  breadth  of  museum 
activity.  Two  of  the  nine  Bicentennial  exhibits  were  actually  com- 
pleted in  1977:  "Belgian  Gunmaking  and  American  History"  and 
"Person  to  Person,"  and  new  exhibits  continued  to  be  produced. 
Most  staff  members,  however,  were  able  to  devote  more  of  their 
time  to  research  and  professional  activities,  and  to  participation  in 
public  service  responsibilities.  A  major  effort  has  been  applied  to 
improving  control  of  collections  and  to  planning  directions  of  mu- 
seum development. 

Improved  control  of  collections  has  been  substantially  advanced. 
Thousands  of  objects  borrowed  from  other  museums  and  indi- 
viduals to  supplement  the  Museum's  holdings  for  producing  its 
major  Bicentennial  exhibitions,  and  the  large  number  of  objects 
loaned  to  other  museums  and  institutions  of  learning  for  use  in 
their  Bicentennial  exhibits,  left  a  great  wake  of  registrarial  work 
involving  staff  at  all  levels  in  various  aspects  of  collections  man- 

120  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Secretary  Ripley  speaks  on  a  vintage  telephone,  while  Bernard  S.  Finn,  organizer  of 
the  "Person  to  Person"  exhibit,  watches.  Dr.  Finn  is  Curator  of  Electricity  and  Nuclear 
Energy  at  the  Museum  of  History  and  Technology. 

During  the  same  period  and  as  part  of  the  same  effort,  a  new 
project  was  initiated  to  place  accession  and  registration  informa- 
tion into  a  central  computer  file.  A  total  of  some  15,000  objects 
has  been  added  to  this  master  file,  and  cataloguing  for  a  great  part 
of  this  total  has  been  completed  by  Museum  staff.  This  conversion 
will  continue  with  each  new  object  added  to  the  collections. 

The  assignment  of  an  expert  member  of  the  staff  of  the  Office  of 
the  Registrar  to  each  new  exhibition  project  to  manage  the  intri- 
cate registration  procedures  has  proved  to  be  extremely  productive, 
and  provides  for  the  most  efficient  accountability  of  the  multitude 
of  objects  involved  in  the  process.  The  Office  of  the  Registrar  has 
now  established  control  over  current  accessions  and  loans,  and 
reports  a  total  of  more  than  14,957,598  accessioned  objects  in  our 

A  recently  implemented  major  resource  contributing  to  the  con- 
trol of  collections  is  the  addition  of  a  central  processing  facility 
operated  by  Kenneth  Bush  assisted  by  Larry  Bird,  under  the  super- 
vision of  the  Office  of  the  Registrar.  All  objects  coming  into  and 
being  sent  out  of  the  Museum  are  handled  through  this  facility, 
with  carefully  recorded  condition  reports  for  all  items,  utilizing  the 
most  advanced  scientifically  developed  methods  of  packing  and 

The  new  emphasis  upon  collections  management  is  a  part  of  a 
planning  program  currently  in  progress,  that  will  reorganize  the 
Museum  into  more  rationally  related  departments  within  which 
both  research  and  collecting  activity  can  be  multiplied  in  their  ef- 
fectiveness. Technicians  and  specialists  have  been  given  new  en- 
couragement to  participate  with  curators  in  the  development  of 
policies  and  specific  programs  for  collecting  and  for  exhibits. 

Substantial  additions  to  the  collections  were  made  during  the 
year.  Perhaps  the  largest  item  was  a  portion  of  a  "balloon  frame" 
house  installed  in  the  Hall  of  Everyday  Life  in  the  American  Past. 
Built  in  Illinois  in  about  1855  for  a  farmer,  John  C.  Cowing,  the 
house  was  a  gift  of  Patrick  Murray,  and  its  transfer  to  and  instal- 
lation in  the  Museum  were  made  possible  by  a  grant  from  Certain- 
Teed  Corporation.  The  dwelling  was  disassembled  and  reassembled 
by  Charles  H.  Rowell,  specialist  in  period  construction,  with  the  co- 
operation of  Curator  Rodris  Roth,  in  an  exhibit  designed  by  Deborah 
Bretzfelder.  This  type  of  innovative  construction,  common  today, 

122  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

employed  thin  presawn  wood  held  together  with  mass-produced  cut 
nails.  Originating  in  Chicago  in  the  early  1830s,  it  contributed  to 
the  rapid  settlement  of  the  West.  The  opening  of  the  exhibit  was 
marked  with  a  special  display  on  "Going  to  Housekeeping"  and 
an  illustrated  lecture  on  "The  Cowing  House  and  Balloon-Frame 
Construction"  by  research  consultant  Paul  E.  Sprague,  sponsored 
by  the  Latrobe  Chapter  of  the  Society  of  Architectural  Historians 
and  the  Greater  Washington  Area  Chapter  of  the  Victorian  Society 
in  America. 

Notable  also  was  an  underwriter  duplex-type  steam  fire  pump  of 
about  1900,  of  the  type  manufactured  by  many  builders  to  an 
absolutely  standard  design  formulated  by  the  Factory  Mutual  In- 
surance Companies  and  other  underwriters,  required  to  be  installed 
in  all  industrial  plants  covered  by  the  associated  underwriters. 
Once  found  in  almost  every  American  mill,  these  machines  saw 
almost  universal  service  until  their  role  was  taken  over  by  elec- 
tricity-driven centrifugal  pumps. 

Contrasting  in  size  are  acquisitions  of  two  clocks  that  are  sig- 
nificant additions  to  the  National  Collections.  A  Seth  Thomas 
pillar-and-scroll  shelf  clock  dating  from  about  1820  is  the  only 
known  example  of  the  second  of  five  models  believed  to  have  been 
constructed  by  Thomas  in  his  efforts  to  produce  a  standard  shelf- 
clock  style  suitable  for  mass  production.  The  pillar-and-scroll,  the 
design  of  which  is  credited  to  Thomas's  contemporary,  Eli  Terry, 
was  the  first  American  mass-produced  shelf  clock. 

Another  horological  acquisition  was  a  tall-case  clock  made  and 
signed  by  Peter  Hill,  the  first  black  American  clockmaker.  Born  a 
slave,  Hill  was  trained  in  clockmaking  by  his  owner,  Joseph  Hol- 
linshead,  Jr.,  of  Burlington  and  Mount  Holly,  New  Jersey.  Subse- 
quently achieving  freedom,  and  later  permitted  to  purchase  the 
freedom  of  a  slave  girl  who  became  his  wife,  Hill  repaired  and 
made  clocks  in  Burlington  and  Mount  Holly  until  1820.  He  died 
bankrupt  and  is  buried  in  the  Friends  Meeting  House  burial  ground 
in  Burlington.  This  signed,  eight-day,  brass-movement  striking  clock 
is  one  of  only  two  known  surviving  signed  examples  of  Hill's  work. 

The  collections  of  the  Department  of  Cultural  History  were  sig- 
nificantly enriched  by  the  gift  from  John  Paul  Remensnyder  of  his 
notable  collection  of  American  pottery,  consisting  of  approximately 
300  pieces  illustrating  the  history  of  stoneware  manufacture  in  the 

History  and  Art  I  123 

Northeastern  and  Middle  Atlantic  states  from  the  eighteenth  to 
the  middle  of  the  nineteenth  century.  A  fine  silver  teapot  made 
by  Barent  Ten  Eyck  (1714-1795)  of  Albany  for  his  cousin  on  the 
occasion  of  her  marriage  in  1734  was  presented  to  the  Museum 
by  a  descendant  of  that  marriage.  Among  other  acquisitions  were 
an  eighteenth-century  violin  from  the  workshop  of  Amati  in  Cre- 
mona, and  a  chamber  organ  made  by  Eben.  Goodrich  of  Boston. 
Two  important  nineteenth-century  grand  pianos  made  by  Steinway 
Sons  were  formally  presented  by  the  Steinway  family  at  a  cere- 
mony that  included  music  played  by  Van  Cliburn  on  the  1892 
Steinway  grand  used  by  Ignace  Jan  Paderewski  during  his  1892- 
1893  American  concert  tour.  Related  to  the  presentation,  Cynthia 
Adams  Hoover  presented  an  illustrated  lecture  on  "The  Steinways 
and  their  Pianos  in  the  Nineteenth  Century." 

The  Department  of  Applied  Arts  received  the  gift  of  an  exten- 
sive collection  of  postage  stamps  formed  by  Mr.  and  Mrs.  H.  Earl 
Hoover  of  Glencoe,  Illinois,  as  well  as  highly  specialized  collections 
of  postal  emissions  of  the  Saar,  nineteenth-century  postage  stamps 
and  covers  of  Venezuela,  and  vintage  stamp-printing  apparatus. 
Among  significant  additions  to  the  Department  of  National  and  Mili- 
tary History  were  a  Collier  flintlock  revolver  of  about  1818;  a  collec- 
tion of  letters,  sketchbooks,  and  gifts  of  Thomas  Cochrane  Dudley, 
who  was  assistant  purser  aboard  the  S.S.  Powhatan  during  Commo- 
dore Perry's  expedition  to  Japan;  a  handsome  Chinese  export  bowl 
decorated  with  the  insignia  of  the  Order  of  the  Cincinnati,  from 
the  service  owned  by  George  Washington;  a  handsome  collection 
of  jewelry  owned  by  Mrs.  Jefferson  Davis;  the  television  stage 
furnishings  used  in  the  1976  presidential  campaign  debates;  the 
two  chairs  used  by  presidential  candidates  John  F.  Kennedy  and 
Richard  M.  Nixon  from  the  first  televised  presidential  debates,  in 
1960;  and  a  doll  house  and  doll  owned  by  the  children  of  President 
Grover  Cleveland. 

Outstanding  additions  to  the  collections  of  the  Department  of 
Industries  were  a  group  of  450  pieces  of  rare  ancient  glass,  a  fine 
group  of  Wedgwood  jasper  ware,  and  twenty  pieces  of  eighteenth- 
century  Meissen  porcelain  as  well  as  three  outstanding  presenta- 
tion pieces  of  engraved  glass  of  about  1786  made  at  Frederick 
Amelung's  New  Bremen  Glass  Manufactory. 

One  of  the  most  outstanding  accessions  of  the  past  year  has 

124  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

been  the  Division  of  Transportation's  sugar-plantation  locomotive 
built  in  1883  by  the  Baldwin  Locomotive  Works  for  service  in 
Hawaii.  Named  the  Olomana,  the  diminutive  engine  is  on  display 
in  the  Railroad  Hall. 

Although  the  major  exhibits  for  the  Bicentennial  were  completed 
in  the  past  year,  the  Museum  produced  a  new  exhibition  entitled 
"Person  to  Person/'  which  celebrated  the  centenary  of  the  tele- 
phone. Supported  by  substantial  grants  and  donations  of  artifacts 
from  various  entities  of  the  telephone  industry,  the  exhibit  focuses 
on  the  history  of  inter-person  communication,  how  it  has  changed 
the  American  way  of  life,  and  the  social  impact  of  changes  effected 
in  its  technical  devices.  The  four  thousand  square  feet  of  display 
features  the  original  apparatus  of  Alexander  Graham  Bell;  early 
switchboards,  including  an  operating  panel  frame  automatic  switch- 
board from  1922;  glass  insulators;  telephone-song  sheet  music; 
early  telephone  instruments;  and  a  wide  variety  of  operating  units, 
including  one  incorporating  a  piece  of  the  original  wire  used  by 
Bell  to  summon  Watson,  his  assistant,  over  which  visitors  to  the 
exhibit  may  talk. 

Representing  a  cooperative  effort  between  the  Museum's  Divi- 
sion of  Graphic  Arts  and  the  Department  of  Anthropology  of  the 
National  Museum  of  Natural  History  was  an  exhibition  entitled 
"Perfect  Likenesses,"  which  opened  in  April.  Featuring  drawings 
and  paintings  of  American  Indians  made  from  life,  paintings  copied 
from  them,  and  lithographs  produced  from  them,  the  exhibition 
pointed  to  the  changes  that  occurred  from  copy  to  copy.  Organized 
by  Dr.  Peter  C.  Marzio  and  designed  by  Richard  C.  Virgo,  with  the 
assistance  of  Dr.  Herman  Viola,  Director  of  the  National  Anthro- 
pological Archives,  the  exhibit  assembled  for  the  first  time  a  wide 
range  of  materials  never  previously  shown  together. 

On  June  15  the  Museum  opened  a  special  exhibition  on  the  "Sil- 
ver Jubilee"  of  Queen  Elizabeth  II  of  England.  Based  on  the  theme 
of  American  associations  with  members  of  the  British  royal  family 
from  the  first  English  plantations  in  North  America,  the  nucleus  of 
the  exhibit  was  a  collection  of  materials  loaned  by  special  permis- 
sion of  the  Queen  from  her  personal  collection  in  the  Royal  Library 
at  Windsor  Castle.  Included  were  the  original  draft  penned  by 
Prince  Albert  of  the  famous  "Trent  Memorandum,"  which  resolved 
the  pending  break  in  Anglo-American  relations  during  the  Civil 

History  and  Art  I  125 

War;  an  exchange  of  letters  between  Queen  Victoria  and  Mary 
Todd  Lincoln  following  the  assassination  of  President  Lincoln;  let- 
ters and  a  painting  relating  to  the  visit  of  the  Prince  of  Wales,  later 
King  Edward  VII,  to  the  United  States;  a  pair  of  telephones  turned 
in  ivory  by  Alexander  Graham  Bell  for  Queen  Victoria;  and  Vic- 
toria's message  of  congratulations  to  President  Buchanan,  relayed 
over  the  submarine  cable  laid  across  the  Atlantic. 

Other  objects  in  the  collections  included  state  gifts  from  the 
royal  family  to  Presidents  Truman,  Eisenhower,  Johnson,  and  Ford, 
in  addition  to  other  memorabilia  borrowed  from  several  presiden- 
tial libraries,  the  United  States  National  Archives,  the  Library  of 
Congress,  and  the  Maryland  Historical  Society.  Organized  and  de- 
veloped by  Silvio  A.  Bedini,  the  exhibition  was  designed  by  James 
M.  Mahoney  of  Exhibits  Central  and  produced  and  installed  by  the 
cooperative  efforts  of  the  Office  of  Exhibits  Central  and  the  Mu- 
seum's exhibits  staff.  Several  days  after  the  opening,  the  exhibition 
was  visited  by  Princess  Anne  during  her  visit  to  Washington. 

Temporary  exhibits  in  special  galleries  included  a  photographic 
display,  in  the  Hall  of  Photography,  entitled  "Photographing  the 
Frontier,"  organized  by  Eugene  Ostroff,  Curator  of  Photography, 
and  designed  by  Nadya  Makovenyi.  An  exhibition  on  "Pochoir" 
was  organized  by  Dr.  Elizabeth  Harris  for  the  Hall  of  Printing  and 
Graphic  Arts,  and  designed  by  Richard  S.  Virgo. 

Several  special  units  are  featured  on  the  first  floor  of  the  Mu- 
seum. An  innovative  approach  to  science  education  is  the  descrip- 
tion of  the  Foucault  pendulum  on  a  nearby  panel  that  was  created 
by  Dr.  Faye  Cannon  and  designed  by  Benjamin  W.  Lawless,  Assist- 
ant Director  for  Design  and  Production.  A  whimsical  display  en- 
titled "Ride  On,"  representing  the  cooperative  efforts  of  Curator 
Donald  Berkebile  and  Designer  Deborah  Bretzfelder,  combines  some 
of  the  noteworthy  bicycles  from  the  Museum's  collections  with 
graphic  materials  to  relate  the  technological  and  social  history  of  the 
bicycle  in  American  life  at  the  beginning  of  the  twentieth  century. 

In  the  special  gallery  created  as  an  adjunct  to  the  Dibner  Library, 
Curator  Dr.  Jon  B.  Eklund  produced  an  exhibition  on  "Art  and 
Chemistry,"  combining  manuscripts  and  published  works  from  the 
Library  with  artifacts  from  the  collections.  This  was  followed  by 
an  exhibition  entitled  "Focusing  on  America,"  prepared  by  Dr. 
Cannon  and  designed  by  Deborah  Bretzfelder,  in  conjunction  with 

126  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

the  Washington  meetings  of  the  Seventh  International  Conference 
on  the  History  of  Cartography.  Original  maps  chronicled  the  depic- 
tion of  America  in  increasingly  greater  detail  with  the  continuing 
exploration  and  development  of  the  New  World.  The  exhibit  begins 
with  a  fifteenth-century  world  map  in  which  the  American  conti- 
nent does  not  appear,  and  terminates  with  panoramic  views  pro- 
duced in  the  late  nineteenth  century,  in  which  each  mountain  peak 
is  depicted  with  its  own  characteristics.  Featured  are  books  from 
the  Dibner  Library;  the  field  notebooks  and  other  memorabilia  of 
Major  Andrew  Ellicott,  surveyor  of  the  major  national  boundaries; 
and  maps,  charts,  and  scientific  instruments  from  the  Museum's 
collections.  Of  special  significance  is  the  mariner's  astrolabe  of 
Samuel  de  Champlain  on  loan  from  the  New-York  Historical  Society. 

In  the  Hall  of  Everyday  Life  in  the  American  Past,  a  display  of 
personal  memorabilia,  art  work,  family  photograph  albums,  and 
other  mementos  reflecting  the  gathering  of  community  groups  and 
family  reunions  was  produced  to  illustrate  the  phenomenon  of  re- 
unions for  the  Smithsonian  symposium  "Kin  and  Communities." 
Designed  by  Deborah  Bretzfelder,  the  exhibit  was  organized  by 
Richard  E.  Ahlborn,  Chairman  of  the  Department  of  Cultural  His- 
tory, with  the  assistance  of  Carolyn  Sadler  and  April  Fehr,  gradu- 
ate students  in  anthropology. 

A  special  display  on  "Thirteen  Star  Flags"  was  produced  by  Dr. 
Harold  D.  Langley,  Associate  Curator  of  Naval  History,  in  cooper- 
ation with  Mrs.  Grace  R.  Cooper,  Curator  Emeritus  of  the  Divi- 
sion of  Textiles.  The  exhibition,  designed  by  Deborah  Bretzfelder, 
was  produced  for  the  annual  Conference  of  Vexillologists,  which 
met  in  Washington  in  June. 

Much  effort  during  the  past  year  has  focused  on  the  development 
of  collections  and  preparation  of  scripts  and  designs  for  the  Hall  of 
American  Maritime  Enterprise,  which  is  scheduled  to  open  to  the 
public  in  1978.  Supported  by  grants  from  numerous  maritime  in- 
dustries, the  concept  and  outline  for  the  hall  were  produced  by  Dr. 
Melvin  H.  Jackson,  Curator  of  Marine  History,  with  the  assist- 
ance of  historian  Dr.  Robert  C.  Post;  the  designer  is  Mrs.  Nadya 

Considerable  work  has  also  been  completed  for  a  new  exhibition 
being  produced  by  the  Museum  in  cooperation  with  the  Energy 
Research  and  Development  Administration  (erda)  on  high-energy 

History  and  Art  I  127 

particle  accelerators.  Entitled  "Atom  Smashers,"  this  fifty-year 
retrospective  exhibit  was  developed  by  Dr.  Paul  Forman,  Curator  of 
Modern  Physics;  the  designer  is  John  Schmid  of  erda  and  the  project 
coordinator  is  Richard  5.  Virgo,  the  Museum's  Chief  of  Design. 

The  Frank  Nelson  Doubleday  Lectures  for  1977  featured  the 
topic  "Education  in  the  Real  World,"  and  brought  to  the  Museum 
a  wide  range  of  speakers.  Author  John  Updike  opened  the  series 
with  a  discussion  of  "The  Written  Word."  Congressman  John 
Brademas  of  Indiana  spoke  on  "Government  and  Education,"  while 
the  third  speaker,  Alex  Haley,  author  of  Roots,  presented  a  lecture 
on  "Black  Heritage."  Designer  Charles  Eames  examined  "Education 
as  a  Found  Object,"  and  the  final  speaker  in  the  series,  James  M. 
Hester,  Rector  of  the  United  Nations  University  in  Tokyo,  selected 
as  his  topic,  "Education  for  a  Changed  World." 

In  October  Silvio  A.  Bedini,  Deputy  Director,  led  a  study  group 
to  Cairo  and  Alexandria,  Egypt,  to  advise  the  Egyptian  Ministry 
of  Health  on  the  establishment  and  development  of  museums  for 
the  history  of  medicine  and  pharmacy,  in  an  ongoing  program  of 
cooperation  under  a  treaty  on  health  negotiated  between  the  United 
States  and  Egypt.  He  was  accompanied  by  Dr.  Sami  K.  Hamarneh, 
the  Museum's  historian  of  pharmacy;  Dr.  John  B.  Blake,  historian 
of  the  National  Library  of  Medicine;  and  Dr.  L.  Max  Brodny,  Di- 
rector, Museum  of  Surgical  Science,  International  College  of  Sur- 
geons in  Chicago. 

In  November  Dr.  Brooke  Hindle,  Director  of  the  Museum,  pre- 
sented the  keynote  address  at  the  Fifth  Annual  United  States  Mili- 
tary Museum  Conference  held  at  the  Presidio  of  San  Francisco.  In 
May  he  gave  the  annual  address  at  the  John  Carter  Brown  Library, 
and  in  September  1977  he  gave  the  opening  address  at  the  West- 
chester Museum  Conference  at  the  Rockefeller  Archives  Center. 

In  February  Dr.  Bernard  S.  Finn  visited  India  upon  invitation 
from  the  Indian  Council  of  Scientific  and  Industrial  Research,  to 
consult  on  India's  developing  program  of  technology  museums  and 
to  discuss  a  possible  United  States-India  exhibition  on  the  history 
of  technology.  He  spoke  on  the  exhibition  of  artifacts  of  technology 
at  the  Visvesbaraya  Institute  and  Technology  Museum  and  at  the 
India  Institute  of  Science  at  Bangalore,  at  the  Birla  Industrial  and 
Technological  Museum  in  Calcutta,  and  the  Nehru  Science  Center 
in  Bombay. 

128  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Alex  Haley,  author  of  Roots,  was  the  speaker  for  the  Frank  Nelson  Doubleday 
Lecture  Series  on  February  23,  1977,  at  the  National  Museum  of  History  and  Tech- 
nology. The  title  of  his  talk  was  "The  Black  Heritage."  Below:  The  exhibition  "Ride 
On"  opened  in  May  1977  in  the  National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology.  The 
exhibit  combined  bicycles  from  the  Museum's  collections,  posters  from  the  Museum's 
Collection  of  Business  Americana,  and  graphics  from  a  Smithsonian  Institution 
Traveling  Exhibition  Service  exhibit. 

Robert  M.  Vogel,  Curator  of  Mechanical  and  Civil  Engineering, 
participated  in  several  important  public  events  concerned  with 
industrial  archeology,  including  a  "Section  106"  hearing  before 
the  Advisory  Council  on  Historic  Preservation,  called  to  assess  po- 
tential damage  to  Baltimore's  historic  properties  from  a  planned 
interstate  highway.  With  the  Historic  American  Engineering  Rec- 
ord group  of  the  National  Park  Service,  he  participated  in  a  heli- 
copter survey  of  the  "Northeast  Corridor,"  to  view,  photograph, 
and  assess  the  significance  of  all  structures  along  the  mainline  of 
the  former  Pennsylvania  and  New  Haven  railroads  from  Washing- 
ton to  Boston,  in  an  effort  to  improve  rail  travel  between  the  ter- 
minal cities.  In  May  he  delivered  the  keynote  paper  on  the  preser- 
vation and  continued  re-use  of  early  industrial  districts  at  a  London 
conference  sponsored  jointly  by  the  Victorian  Society  and  the 
Association  for  Industrial  Archeology. 

Accepting  a  special  invitation  from  Vatican  authorities,  Mr. 
Bedini  spent  five  weeks  in  two  visits  to  Rome  conducting  research 
on  several  projects  in  the  library,  archives,  museums,  and  other 
facilities  of  the  Vatican. 

In  May  Robert  G.  Tillotson,  Assistant  Director  for  Administra- 
tion, attended  the  annual  meetings  of  the  International  Council  of 
Museums  (icom)  held  in  Leningrad  and  Moscow.  Also  attending 
were  Curators  Philip  K.  Lundeberg  and  Cynthia  A.  Hoover,  and 
Conservator  Scott  Odell.  Mr.  Tillotson  is  chairman  of  icom's  Inter- 
national Committee  on  Museum  Security,  of  which  Dr.  Lundeberg 
is  the  secretary.  Earlier  in  the  year,  Mr.  Tillotson  coordinated  the 
publication  of  a  volume  on  Museum  Security  in  English  and  French, 
published  by  icom  with  sponsorship  by  the  Smithsonian  Institution, 
the  American  Association  of  Museums,  and  the  Mellon  and  Shell 
foundations.  The  work  was  developed  by  an  icom  International 
Committee  of  thirty-four  authorities  from  nineteen  countries. 

The  Eisenhower  Institute  for  Historical  Research  was  the  host  for 
several  important  scholarly  gatherings  during  the  year.  In  December 
a  session  on  "Non-Americans  in  the  American  Revolution"  was 
sponsored  jointly  by  the  Eisenhower  Institute,  the  American  Mili- 
tary Institute,  and  the  United  States  Commission  on  Military  His- 
tory. Under  the  chairmanship  of  Professor  Russell  F.  Weigley,  the 
conference  was  attended  by  more  than  two  hundred  historians. 

130  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

In  May,  the  Eisenhower  Institute  joined  the  American  Committee 
for  the  History  of  the  Second  World  War  in  developing  a  confer- 
ence on  "Americans  As  Proconsuls:  U.  S.  Military  Government  in 
Germany  and  Japan,  1944-1952,"  which  was  held  at  the  Museum. 
In  was  the  third  and  final  conference  of  a  series  on  United  States 
occupation  policy  held  in  cooperation  with  the  Douglas  MacArthur 
Memorial  Library  and  the  George  C.  Marshall  Research  Library. 
The  conference  was  attended  by  more  than  two  hundred  and  fifty 
historians  and  individuals  who  had  played  important  roles  in  mili- 
tary government  during  and  after  World  War  II. 

Participating  in  the  ongoing  program  of  visiting  scholars  from  the 
academic  and  museum  worlds,  Dr.  Klaus  Maurice,  Curator  of  the 
Bavarian  National  Museum  in  Munich,  spent  six  months  at  the 
Museum.  During  this  period  he  performed  research  in  his  subject 
specialty  of  the  history  of  horology  and  cooperated  with  Dr.  Otto 
Mayr  in  the  planning  of  an  exhibition  on  German  clocks  of  the 
period  1600  to  1650,  to  be  produced  in  1980  at  the  Bayerisches 
Nationalmuseum  and  the  National  Museum  of  History  and  Tech- 

Several  members  of  the  curatorial  staff  continue  as  editors  of 
scholarly  periodicals  in  their  fields.  Dr.  Robert  P.  Multhauf  is  editor 
of  ISIS,  the  journal  of  the  History  of  Science  Society,  and  Dr.  Ber- 
nard S.  Finn  is  its  managing  editor.  John  H.  White,  Jr.,  continues  to 
edit  the  semiannual  publication  Railroad  History,  while  Dr.  John  T. 
Schlebecker  is  editor  of  the  bimonthly  Living  Historical  Farms 

The  Division  of  Musical  Instruments  was  engaged  in  twenty-eight 
events  featuring  a  variety  of  instruments  from  the  collections,  in- 
cluding several  ensemble  concerts  by  the  Smithsonian  Chamber 
Players  under  the  direction  of  James  Weaver.  Performances  were  co- 
sponsored  largely  by  the  Friends  of  Music  and  the  Ward  Hamilton 
Memorial  Fund  for  Folk  Music.  The  Chamber  Players  also  appeared 
in  twenty  performances  throughout  the  United  States  in  collabora- 
tion with  the  National  Smithsonian  Associates  program  to  bring 
Smithsonian  activities  to  other  parts  of  the  country.  Harpsichord 
music  of  Jacques  Duphly  was  recorded  for  the  "Smithsonian  Collec- 
tion" on  the  Stehlin  harpsichord  from  the  collection,  performed  by 
James  Weaver. 

History  and  Art  I  131 

The  Division  of  Education  and  Visitor  Information  cooperated 
closely  with  the  District  of  Columbia  school  system  by  means  of 
monthly  meetings  with  administrative  personnel,  and  emphasized 
adult  education  and  special  populations  in  especially  designed  pro- 
grams. Among  these  programs  was  a  ten-visit  museum  experience  at 
the  School  Without  Walls,  presented  to  secondary  school  students 
by  trained  docents  using  the  Museum's  collections  and  exhibits  to 
illuminate  topics  in  nineteenth-century  American  social  and  political 

School  programs  were  also  expanded  by  the  addition  of  new  les- 
son-tours designed  specifically  for  primary  grade  students.  Programs 
in  special  education  and  for  the  handicapped  and  elderly  were  en- 
larged during  the  year  to  include  lesson-tours  in  transportation  for 
learning-disabled  students.  Outreach  programs  were  offered  to  a 
large  number  of  nursing  homes  and  senior  citizen  groups. 

Throughout  the  year,  the  Museum  attempted  to  reach  a  broad 
cross  section  of  the  Washington  public  through  a  variety  of  infor- 
mal musical  programs.  Free  concerts  were  held  in  the  galleries,  in 
the  auditorium,  and  outdoors  on  the  Mall  terrace.  At  Christmas, 
local  chorus  groups  and  musicians  performed  in  the  Flag  Hall.  Dur- 
ing the  Easter  and  Cherry  Blossom  season,  the  Museum  sponsored  a 
Spring  Celebration  jointly  with  the  Division  of  Performing  Arts. 
This  two-week  long  out-door  music  program  featured  military 
bands  and  local  musical  groups  playing  a  variety  of  American  music. 

In  order  to  call  attention  to  the  onset  of  summer  hours,  the  Musi- 
cal Instruments  Division  invited  John  MacFadyen  of  Busby,  Scot- 
land, to  perform  "An  Evening  of  Scottish  Piping"  in  the  pendulum 
area.  The  concert  was  a  huge  success  and  drew  approximately  nine 
hundred  people.  High  school  musicians  were  also  given  an  oppor- 
tunity to  perform  outdoor  programs  on  the  Mall  terrace  during  the 
tourist  season.  Young  people  from  Maine,  Connecticut,  Illinois,  and 
other  states  participated. 

A  three-day  Fourth  of  July  Celebration,  sponsored  with  the  Divi- 
sion of  Performing  Arts,  offered  music  programs,  puppet  shows, 
barbershop  quartets,  craft  demonstrations,  cyclists,  and  a  dance  pro- 
gram on  the  Museum's  terraces  and  grounds.  Many  of  the  traditions 
of  an  old-fashioned  Fourth  of  July  were  recreated  and  approximately 
200,000  visitors  attended. 

A  special  summer  evening  concert  series  by  the  United  States 

132  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Navy  Commodores  held  on  Wednesdays  in  July  and  August  drew 
500  people  to  each  concert.  In  the  fall,  the  Museum  started  noon- 
time music  concerts  on  Mondays  and  Fridays  in  the  Carmichael 

Books  published  by  the  staff  in  1977  reflected  a  wide  range  of  the 
Museum's  interests.  Physics,  Patents  &  Politics  by  historian  Robert 
C.  Post  is  the  first  full  biography  of  Charles  Grafton  Page,  a  remark- 
able nineteenth-century  experimentalist  with  electro-magnetism, 
who  in  his  time  was  considered  to  be  on  a  par  with  Joseph  Henry, 
although  his  scientific  achievements  were  overshadowed  by  his  ac- 
tivities as  a  reformer  and  promoter.  An  important  work  on  the 
American  patent  system  and  federal  involvement  with  science  and 
technology,  it  is  published  by  Science  History  Publications. 

An  addition  to  the  Museum  series  Smithsonian  Studies  in  History 
and  Technology  is  a  volume  by  Peter  C.  Marzio  on  The  Art  Cru- 
sade, which  provides  an  analysis  of  the  numerous  American  draw- 
ing manuals  produced  between  1820  and  1860.  Drs.  Vladimir  and 
Elvira  E.  Clain-Stefanelli  wrote  a  popular  book  on  the  history  of 
numismatics,  entitled  Das  grosse  Buch  der  Munzen  und  Medaillen, 
which  was  published  in  Munich.  A  useful  little  work  on  Costume 
Display  Techniques,  written  by  Karen  Harris,  the  Section  of  Cos- 
tume's museum  specialist,  was  published  by  the  American  Associa- 
tion for  State  and  Local  History.  Two  research  monographs  pub- 
lished with  the  cooperation  of  the  Division  of  Electricity  and  Nuclear 
Physics  are  Relics  of  the  Electrical  Age  by  Robert  Belfield  and  Saga 
of  the  Vacuum  Tube  by  Gerald  F.  J.  Tyne. 

National  Portrait  Gallery 

During  the  past  year  413  portraits  were  added  by  gift  and  purchase 
to  the  permanent  collection  of  the  National  Portrait  Gallery.  Espe- 
cially notable  gifts  to  the  collection  this  year  were  three  likenesses 
of  Joel  Barlow — a  drawing  by  John  Vanderlyn,  a  miniature  by  Wil- 
liam Dunlap,  and  a  rare  engraving  by  Ruotte — all  donated  by  the 
present-day  descendant  of  the  subject  who  bears  his  illustrious  an- 
cestor's name.  A  magnificent  daguerreotype  of  President  Zachary 
Taylor  and  his  son-in-law,  Colonel  William  W.  S.  Bliss,  was  pur- 

History  and  Art  I  133 

chased  with  the  assistance  of  funds  provided  by  the  Quaker  Oats 
Foundation.  A  striking  portrait  drawing  of  President  Jimmy  Carter 
by  Jamie  Wyeth,  done  from  life  at  Plains,  Georgia,  in  November 
1976,  was  presented  by  the  Peretz  Foundation. 

The  most  significant  gift  to  the  collection  this  year  (indeed,  per- 
haps of  this  decade)  was  the  magnificent  John  Singleton  Copley  self- 
portrait,  an  acquisition  made  possible  by  a  very  generous  matching 
grant  from  The  Morris  and  Gwendolyn  Cafritz  Foundation. 

Worthy  of  special  mention  among  the  year's  purchases  were  a 
sparkling  small  oil  of  Benjamin  West  with  his  family  by  the  artist 
himself  in  the  garden  of  his  house  and  studio  in  London;  an  extra- 
ordinarily vivid  Sharpies  pastel  of  Joseph  Priestly,  the  eminent 
scientist  and  political  thinker,  who  became  an  American  citizen  in 
1794  and  spent  the  remainder  of  his  life  in  this  country;  a  brilliant 
watercolor  self-portrait  of  one  of  America's  greatest  impressionists, 
Mary  Cassatt;  and  a  daguerreotype  of  General  Thomas  J.  "Stone- 
wall" Jackson,  one  of  only  two  known  such  original  photo  images. 

The  Gallery  mounted  eight  exhibitions  during  the  period  covered 
by  this  report.  The  most  ambitious  of  these  was  "The  President's 
Medal,  1789-1977,"  which  dealt  with  presidential  inaugural  medals 
from  the  earliest  times  to  the  present.  It  was  accompanied  by  a  fully 
illustrated  catalogue  published  by  Clarkson  N.  Potter,  Inc.  This 
show  has  since  gone  on  to  the  Lyndon  B.  Johnson  Library  in  Austin, 
Texas.  The  other  seven  exhibitions  were  "Thomas  Hart  Benton," 
which  celebrated  the  acquisition  in  the  preceding  year  of  a  major 
self-portrait  of  the  artist;  "Not  a  Model  Boy,"  marking  the  hun- 
dredth anniversary  of  the  publication  of  Tom  Sawyer  by  Mark 
Twain;  "Gallant  Harry  of  the  West,"  in  commemoration  of  the 
two-hundredth  anniversary  of  the  birth  of  Henry  Clay;  "Aaron 
Burr  Acquitted,"  which  dealt  with  Burr's  trial  for  conspiracy;  "Re- 
cent Acquisitions  from  the  Department  of  Photographs,"  the  first 
time  a  major  selection  of  this  new  area  of  the  Gallery's  holdings  was 
shown;  "Illustrators  of  the  Civil  War:  Conrad  Wise  Chapman  and 
Winslow  Homer,"  which  was  mounted  in  conjunction  with  the  Gal- 
lery's permanent  installation  of  Civil  War  period  portraits;  and  "We 
Were  But  a  Handful,"  which  opened  on  the  fifty-seventh  anniver- 
sary of  the  ratification  of  the  Women's  Suffrage  Amendment  to  the 

134  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 


^    v 

|         1 





Mary  Cassatt,  self-portrait  in  watercolor,  circa  1880, 
recently  acquired  by  the  National  Portrait  Gallery. 

Jimmy  Carter,  pencil  drawing  from  life  by  Jamie  Wyeth  at 
Plains,  Georgia,  November  1976,  was  presented  to  the  Na- 
tional Portrait  Gallery  by  the  Peretz  Foundation.  Below: 
Daguerreotype  of  President  Zachary  Taylor  and  his  son-in- 
law,  Colonel  William  W.  S.  Bliss,  circa  1847,  was  purchased 
by  the  National  Portrait  Gallery  with  the  assistance  of  funds 
provided  by  the  Quaker  Oats  Foundation. 

"Faces  of  Freedom/'  a  half-hour  film  about  the  history  of  the 
United  States  as  told  through  portraiture,  produced  for  the  Gallery 
by  Charles  Guggenheim  and  narrated  by  Charlton  Heston,  pre- 
miered in  July  and  is  now  being  shown  daily  in  a  small  theater  de- 
signed especially  for  that  purpose  adjacent  to  the  front  entrance  of 
the  Gallery. 

David  E.  Finley,  a  member  of  the  National  Portrait  Gallery  Com- 
mission from  its  inception,  and  the  one  person  more  than  any  other 
responsible  for  the  existence  of  the  Gallery,  died  on  February  1, 
1977.  A  generous  bequest  by  Mr.  Finley  made  possible  the  acquisi- 
tion of  a  long-sought-after  portrait  print  of  Pocahontas  by  Simon 
van  de  Passe,  done  in  1616,  which  is  yet  another  way  whereby  the 
name  of  David  E.  Finley  will  continue  to  be  remembered.  Wilmarth 
Sheldon  Lewis,  also  one  of  the  first  Commissioners  of  the  Gallery, 
retired  from  its  membership  on  August  25, 1976.  Mr.  Lewis's  service 
to  the  Gallery  from  its  earliest  days  has  been  invaluable,  and  we 
look  forward  to  many  more  years  of  his  wise  counsel. 

Office  of  Academic  Studies 

In  its  role  as  a  leader  in  the  international  scholarly  community,  the 
Smithsonian  maintains  close  scholarly  ties  with  universities,  mu- 
seums, and  research  institutions  around  the  world.  Among  the  most 
important  of  these  connections  are  the  Institution's  academic  pro- 
grams. Through  them  young  scholars  come  to  the  Smithsonian, 
bringing  a  refreshing  spirit  of  vitality  to  the  basic  research  efforts  of 
the  Institution.  This  continuous  infusion  of  new  ideas  and  enthusi- 
asm assists  in  maintaining  a  high  level  of  intellectual  diversity  and 

With  policy  direction  from  the  Board  of  Academic  Studies,  the 
Office  of  Academic  Studies  acts  as  the  center  through  which  the 
Smithsonian's  research  activities  pursue  their  academic  objectives. 
Academic  programs  reflect  the  character  of  the  research  and  collec- 
tion strengths  of  the  Smithsonian.  They  deliberately  avoid  duplica- 
tion of  university-based  study  and  research,  stressing  new  perspec- 
tives on  academic  subjects  and  disciplines  not  commonly  studied  in 
the  university.  These  programs  range  from  off-campus  undergradu- 

History  and  Art  I  137 

ate  studies  to  traditional  postdoctoral  research-training  fellowships. 
They  are  flexible,  giving  assistance  to  individuals  who  need  to  study 
at  the  Institution  for  a  few  days  and  to  persons  who  require  the 
research  resources  of  the  Institution  for  a  year  or  more. 

Fellowships  are  awarded  to  postdoctoral  scholars  to  spend  six 
months  to  one  year  participating  in  a  program  of  advanced  research 
training.  Predoctoral  Fellows  receive  appointments  for  a  similar 
period  to  conduct  research  necessary  to  complete  their  dissertations. 
During  1976-1977  sixty-nine  postdoctoral  and  predoctoral  fellows 
were  appointed.  Students  who  need  to  spend  a  shorter  period  pur- 
suing their  research  in  consultation  with  the  research  staff  of  the 
Smithsonian  are  offered  ten-week  appointments.  During  1976-1977 
sixteen  such  appointments  were  made.  The  Office  of  Academic 
Studies  also  conducts  a  Short-Term  Visitor  Program,  under  which 
twenty-two  visitors  spent  one  week  to  a  month  at  the  Institution 
during  the  past  year. 

Smaller  academic  programs  continue  to  be  developed  by  individ- 
ual bureaus  of  the  Institution  to  meet  specific  needs  that  cannot  be 
met  by  those  Institution-wide  programs  conducted  by  the  Office  of 
Academic  Studies.  In  the  past  year  the  Hirshhorn  Museum  and 
Sculpture  Garden,  the  National  Zoological  Park,  and  the  National 
Collection  of  Fine  Arts  have  continued  to  conduct  specialized  aca- 
demic programs  for  undergraduate  and  graduate  students. 

A  system  developed  to  maintain  regular  contact  with  past  fellows 
has  resulted  in  an  index  that  includes  a  listing  of  significant  books 
and  articles  resulting  from  fellows'  tenure  at  the  Institution. 

A  total  of  146  individuals  participated  in  the  Smithsonian's  aca- 
demic studies  programs  during  1976-1977.  A  listing  of  individual 
names  and  research  projects  may  be  found  in  Appendix  7. 

Office  of  American  and  Folklife  Studies 

The  Office  of  American  Studies  continued  its  program  in  graduate 
education  throughout  the  year.  The  fall  1976  seminar  in  "Material 
Aspects  of  American  Civilization"  had  as  its  theme  "American  Mu- 
seums in  the  Year  of  the  Bicentennial."  Taught  by  the  Director  of 
the  Program,  Dr.  Wilcomb  E.  Washburn,  and  Professor  Bernard 

138  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Mergen,  of  The  George  Washington  University,  the  course  had 
twenty-five  students. 

Other  seminars  given  during  the  academic  year  1976-1977  in- 
cluded: "The  American  Decorative  Arts  in  Historic  Preservation," 
taught  by  Babara  Carson;  "The  Material  Culture  of  Alexandria, 
Virginia:  1770-1830,"  taught  by  Dennis  O'Toole,  Curator  of  Educa- 
tion of  the  National  Portrait  Gallery;  and  "American  Art  and 
American  History,"  taught  by  Lillian  Miller,  Historian  of  American 
Art  and  History  of  the  National  Portrait  Gallery. 

Individual  students  continued  to  pursue  specialized  research  un- 
der the  supervision  of  the  Director  of  the  Program. 

In  November  1976  a  Folklife  Unit  was  established  at  the  Smith- 
sonian Institution  within  the  Office  of  American  Studies.  Concom- 
mitantly,  the  Director  of  the  American  Studies  Program,  Dr.  Wash- 
burn, was  appointed  Chairman  of  the  newly  established  Folklife 
Advisory  Council,  which  held  its  first  meeting  January  7,  1977.  The 
Council  was  established  by  Secretary  Ripley  to  "advise  and  guide 
the  evolution  of  our  documentation,  Festival,  and  other  folklife  ac- 
tivities" at  the  Smithsonian  Institution.  Under  the  guidance  of  the 
Advisory  Council,  the  Folklife  Unit  staff  made  major  progress  to- 
ward organizing  the  documentary  materials  amassed  from  the  ten 
Festivals  of  American  Folklife  held  by  the  Smithsonian,  and  formu- 
lated plans  for  the  utilization  of  these  materials  in  scholarly  publi- 

Dr.  Washburn  spent  a  month,  starting  in  January,  as  Regents 
Lecturer  at  the  University  of  California,  Berkeley.  He  also  attended 
the  Second  International  Reunion  of  the  History  of  the  Art  of  Navi- 
gation and  of  Hydrography  at  the  invitation  of  the  Documentation 
Section  of  the  Brazilian  Navy  in  Salvador,  Bahia.  Afterward,  the 
Director  attended  meetings  in  Rio  de  Janeiro  of  the  Instituto  Histori- 
co  e  Geografico  Brasileiro,  of  which  he  is  one  of  two  United  States 
members.  In  October  1976  he  delivered  a  paper  entitled  "Reflections 
of  an  Historian  about  Archives  Past  and  Present  with  Special  Refer- 
ence to  the  United  States"  at  Simon  Fraser  University  in  Burnaby, 
British  Columbia. 

History  and  Art  I  139 

President  Jimmy  Carter  inspects  "Silverworks  from  Rio  de  la  Plata,  Argentina" 
exhibition  at  the  Pan  American  Union  Building  before  addressing  a  meeting  of 
the  Organization  of  American  States.  With  him  is  Rafael  Sarda,  an  OA5 
official.  "Silverworks  from  Rio  de  la  Plata,  Argentina"  is  a  major  international 
exhibition  being  circulated  by  the  Smithsonian  Institution  Traveling  Exhibition 
Service.  (Official  White  House  photo) 

Smithsonian  Year  •  1977 


Two  words  have  often  been  used  to  describe  museums — "attic"  and 
"iceberg."  It  is  a  moot  question  whether  the  word  "attic,"  when  it 
was  used  in  the  nineteenth  century,  had  the  pejorative  connotations 
that  we  attribute  to  it  today.  An  attic  was  once  considered  a  secure 
place,  a  safe  spot  to  house  heirlooms,  hope  chests,  or  the  legacies  of 
relatives.  Yet,  the  term  connotes  misuse  and  underuse;  out  of  sight, 
out  of  mind;  reservoirs  of  obsolescence  rather  than  treasures  to  be 
shared  with  one's  descendants.  It  evokes  unwanted  burdens  that 
lassitude  has  elbowed  out  of  consciousness.  Hence,  museums  no 
longer  want  to  be  referred  to  as  attics.  What  about  icebergs?  That 
terminology  arose  when  it  became  increasingly  evident  that  the  vast 
proportion  of  museum  collections,  by  necessity,  could  not  be  exhibi- 
ted to  the  public,  either  because  there  was  not  enough  space  to  do 
so  properly,  as  was  so  often  the  case,  or  because  collections  were 
not  spectacular  enough  or  were  too  repetitive  to  enlighten  but  a 
small  percentage  of  visitors,  a  special  audience  that  was  far  more 
content  to  search  through  drawers  and  study  objects  close  at  hand 
in  a  storeroom,  laboratory,  or  office  than  in  public  exhibition  spaces 
with  the  attendant  interference  of  glass  vitrines  and  wandering 

A  great  majority  of  the  world's  most  important  museums  are  ice- 
bergs, in  that  a  great  proportion  of  their  resources  are  hidden  away 
from  the  general  public  and  are  accessible,  primarily,  to  the  research 
staffs  who  curate  them  and  who  seek  out  new  knowledge  with  the 
occasional  assistance  of  visiting  scholars. 

The  semantic  comparison  between  a  museum  and  an  iceberg, 
however,  falls  apart  since  one  expects  that  an  iceberg  will  melt.  The 
museum  iceberg,  on  the  contrary,  far  from  melting,  keeps  growing 
in  an  orderly  fashion  based  upon  the  needs  of  scholarship,  the  de- 
sire of  society  to  know  more  about  its  evolution,  and  the  moral  obli- 


gation  to  pass  the  material  testimony  of  the  past  to  future  genera- 

The  museum  iceberg  also  is  not  a  cold,  uninviting  environment 
but  rather  one  where  continuity  from  one  civilization  to  another  can 
be  traced,  and  where,  in  spite  of  the  traumas  to  which  human  kind 
has  been  subjected  repeatedly  over  the  ages,  the  evidence  can  be 
found  that  reason,  hope,  and  creativity  can  survive.  That  is  the  im- 
portant message  of  the  collections  in  our  care,  that  is  their  seminal 
significance  for  the  future,  that  is  why  so  many  of  the  resources  and 
so  large  a  portion  of  the  efforts  expended  on  their  behalf,  which  to 
an  outsider  may  seem  superfluous  or  even  wasteful,  are,  on  the  con- 
trary, essential  if  these  resources  are  to  be  studied  adequately,  inter- 
preted, and  transmitted  for  the  benefit  of  this  and  future  generations. 

It  is  to  these  ends  that  the  Office  of  Museum  Programs'  various 
entities  are  dedicated.  In  this  year  following  the  Bicentennial,  all 
have  shifted  from  that  one  momentous  series  of  activities  to  less 
visible  but  no  less  necessary  tasks. 

Perhaps  the  most  important  mission  carried  out  during  the  year 
was  the  Collection  Management  and  Policy  Study  undertaken  by  the 
Chief  Registrar,  with  the  cooperation  of  the  museums.  This,  for  the 
first  time,  attempted  to  analyze  policies  and  procedures  that  govern 
the  acquisition  and  management  of  the  Institution's  collections.  The 
first  phase  of  this  enormous  task,  made  particularly  complex  by  the 
variety  of  the  resources  involved,  has  been  completed.  It  will  now 
be  refined  to  become  an  instrument  to  strengthen  the  governance  of 
the  Institution  as  well  as  to  provide  an  example  of  self-analysis  use- 
ful to  others. 

The  Libraries  are  now  serving  their  constituency  at  a  far  higher 
rate  of  user  satisfaction  than  heretofore.  The  leadership  of  Dr.  Rus- 
sell Shank,  for  ten  years  the  Institution's  Director  of  Libraries,  is 
responsible  for  this  happy  state  of  affairs.  Under  his  direction,  the 
Libraries  grew  in  resources  and  service,  and  its  internal  organization 
was  strengthened.  It  was  with  regret  that  we  learned  that  Dr.  Shank 
had  accepted  the  position  of  Director  of  Libraries  of  the  University 
of  California  at  Los  Angeles.  This  regret  was  tinged  with  pride  that 
he  was  receiving  such  professional  and  academic  recognition  in  an 
area  of  the  country  in  which  he  wanted  to  live.  The  quality  of  Dr. 
Shank's  leadership  was  further  recognized,  shortly  before  his  de- 
parture, by  his  election  to  the  presidency  of  the  American  Library 

142  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

All  of  the  units  responsible  to  the  Assistant  Secretary  for  Mu- 
seum Programs  have  refined  their  procedures  and  enriched  their  of- 
ferings. Perhaps  it  would  not  be  inappropriate  to  pay  special  tribute 
to  the  Department  of  Horticulture  which,  in  spite  of  one  of  the 
harshest  winters  on  record,  a  small  staff,  and  temperamental  sum- 
mer weather,  has  provided  visual  delight  on  and  around  the  Mall 
and  has  enriched,  with  its  special  green  touch,  many  exhibitions  and 
other  public  events.  The  roots  of  service  grow  deep  in  that  depart- 
ment and  roots,  just  like  icebergs,  though  out  of  sight,  are  as  essen- 
tial for  the  ultimate  flowerings  of  plants  as  reserve  collections  are 
to  a  museum's  ability  to  provide,  through  the  objects  in  its  care,  the 
material  evidence  of  mankind's  evolution. 

Conservation  Analytical  Laboratory 

The  Conservation  Analytical  Laboratory  (cal)  supports  the  Institu- 
tion's programs  by  providing  conservation  service  and  advice  on 
many  diverse  objects  in  the  National  Collections. 

In  cooperation  with  Conservation  Information  Programs,  cal  con- 
tinued its  educational  programs  through  video-taped  conservation- 
orientation  lectures  and  its  collaboration  with  the  National  Bureau 
of  Standards  on  a  series  of  seminars  on  various  scientific  subjects 
related  to  conservation  and  archaeometry. 

In  response  to  growing  demands  for  information  from  the  public, 
a  system  of  continually  revised,  "standard"  answers  to  questions  on 
the  preservation  of  objects  in  every  conceivable  material  was  ini- 
tiated in  February  1977.  In  six  months  150  "hand-outs"  were  com- 
pleted, enabling  prompt  response  to  over  500  public  questions. 

Fulfilling  the  Institution's  commitment  to  research,  cal  supported 
Dr.  James  Blackman,  a  postdoctoral  fellow,  in  the  examination  of 
the  obsidian  and  steatite  artifacts  from  Tall-i  Malyan,  Anshan,  a 
mid-4th-to-late-2nd-millenium  b.c  city  in  the  highlands  of  south- 
western Iran;  and  Dr.  Frederick  Fraikor,  in  the  study  of  the  copper, 
bronze,  and  iron  objects  excavated  at  Tell  Jemmeh,  Israel. 

Several  cal  staff  members  were  involved  in  local,  national,  and 
international  activities: 

Museum  Programs  I  143 

R.  M.  Organ,  Chief  of  cal,  and  Eleanor  McMillan,  Supervisory 
Conservator,  participated  in  the  meetings  in  May  of  the  Interna- 
tional Council  of  Museums  in  Leningrad  and  Moscow.  Mr.  Organ 
also  lectured  in  May  to  the  conservators  at  the  International  Centre 
for  Conservation,  Rome,  where  Nikki  Horton,  Conservator-in-train- 
ing at  cal,  was  attending  the  four-month  course,  "Fundamental 
Principles  of  Conservation." 

Eleanor  McMillan  and  R.  M.  Organ  were  lecturers  and  modera- 
tors for  a  workshop  on  the  Principles  of  Conservation  and  Preven- 
tive Care  organized  by  the  Office  of  Museum  Programs  at  the 

Jacqueline  S.  Olin,  Research  Chemist,  presented  a  paper  at  the 
Archaeological  Chemistry  Symposium  of  the  American  Chemical 
Society  meeting  in  Chicago,  Illinois,  which  was  also  attended  by 
Walter  Hopwood,  Chemist. 

Martha  E.  Goodway  presented  a  paper  at  the  annual  meeting  of 
the  American  Institute  for  Conservation,  Boston,  Massachusetts, 
which  was  also  attended  by  several  cal  Conservators,  each  of  whom 
specializes  in  a  specific  field  of  conservation. 

National  Museum  Act  Program 

The  National  Museum  Act  of  1966  reaffirms  the  Smithsonian  Insti- 
tution's traditional  role  of  assisting  other  museums,  and  authorizes 
the  Institution  to  strengthen  its  activities  of  service  to  them.  The 
Act  directs  the  Institution  to  cooperate  with  museums  and  their  pro- 
fessional organizations  in  a  continuing  study  of  museum  problems 
and  opportunities  in  the  United  States  and  abroad;  to  prepare  and 
carry  out  programs  for  training  career  employees  in  museum  prac- 
tices; to  prepare  significant  museum  publications;  to  perform  re- 
search on  museum  techniques;  and  to  cooperate  with  departments 
and  agencies  of  the  government  concerned  with  museums.  Within 
these  objectives,  emphasis  is  given  to  projects  dealing  with  museum 
conservation:  the  study  of  conservation  problems,  research  leading 
to  new  or  improved  conservation  techniques,  and  training  of  mu- 
seum conservators. 

144  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Eleni  Martin,  Conservation  Aide,  is  shown  operating  the  fumigation  chamber  in 
the  Conservation  Analytical  Laboratory.  Below:  At  their  benches,  Conservators  Ed 
McManus,  Mary  Lou  Garbin,  and  Greg  Byrne  work  on  a  variety  of  objects — an 
1876  silver-plated  decorative  vessel,  one  of  several  pairs  of  turn-of-the-century  ice 
skates,  and  one  of  two  large  nineteenth-century  terra  cotta  relief  panels  each  of 
which  depicts  a  Biblical  scene. 


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Funds  appropriated  to  the  Smithsonian  for  the  implementation  of 
the  National  Museum  Act  are  made  available  primarily  by  grants 
and  contracts  to  museums,  nonprofit  museum-related  organizations 
and  associations,  academic  institutions,  and  individuals  employed  or 
sponsored  by  eligible  organizations.  Each  year,  guidelines  describing 
the  specific  grant  program  offerings  and  application  requirements 
are  distributed  widely  to  the  museum  community  and  institutions 
having  an  interest  in  the  objectives  of  the  National  Museum  Act. 

Applications  for  support  are  reviewed  and  evaluated  by  an  Ad- 
visory Council  composed  of  museum  professionals  who  represent  a 
cross  section  of  museum  interests  and  disciplines  as  well  as  various 
regions  of  the  United  States.  Members  of  the  Advisory  Council  are 
appointed  to  three-year  terms  by  the  Secretary  of  the  Smithsonian 
Institution.  The  members  in  1977  were: 

Robert  Feller,  Senior  Fellow 

National  Gallery  of  Art  Research  Project 

Russell  Fridley,  Director 
Minnesota  Historical  Society 

Bonnie  Pitman  Gelles 
Museum  Consultant 
Washington,  D.C. 

Julia  Hotton,  Assistant  Director 
Public  Affairs  and  Development 
The  Brooklyn  Museum 

Philip  S.  Humphrey,  Director 
Museum  of  Natural  History 
University  of  Kansas 

Thomas  W.  Leavitt,  Director 
Merrimack  Valley  Textile  Museum 

Joseph  Veach  Noble,  President 
American  Association  of  Museums  and 
Director,  Museum  of  the  City  of  New  York 

Richard  H.  Randall,  Director 
Walters  Art  Gallery 

Mitchell  Wilder,  Director 

Amon  Carter  Museum  of  Western  Art 

Vernal  L.  Yadon,  Director 

Pacific  Grove  Museum  of  Natural  History 

Paul  N.  Perrot,  Chairman 

Assistant  Secretary  for  Museum  Programs 

Smithsonian  Institution 

146  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

In  addition  to  its  review  and  evaluation  of  applications,  the  Ad- 
visory Council  assists  with  the  determination  of  policies  governing 
the  grant  program  and  with  the  establishment  of  standards  which 
applicants  must  meet.  The  Council  requires  that  projects  supported 
by  the  National  Museum  Act  must  be  of  substantial  value  to  the 
museum  profession  as  a  whole,  and  must  contribute  to  the  improve- 
ment of  museum  methods  and  practices  or  to  the  professional 
growth  of  individuals  entering  or  working  in  the  museum  field. 

In  1977,  the  National  Museum  Act  received  an  appropriation  of 
$790,027.  A  total  of  224  proposals  requesting  more  than  $2,800,000 
were  received  and  reviewed  during  the  year.  The  Advisory  Council 
recommended  funding  for  82  grants  totaling  $726,430.  Of  this 
amount,  $286,106  was  directed  to  conservation  training  and  research 

A  majority  of  the  projects  supported  in  1977  were  associated  with 
training  individuals  entering  or  working  in  the  museum  field.  This 
support  has  provided  approximately  700  persons  with  an  opportuni- 
ty to  receive  theoretical  and  practical  training  in  various  museum 
functions,  including  exhibition,  administration,  museum  education, 
conservation,  and  curation.  Among  the  major  conservation  projects 
supported  by  the  National  Museum  Act  in  1977  was  the  National 
Conservation  Advisory  Council,  a  body  comprised  of  leading  figures 
in  the  field,  which  is  investigating  the  current  status  of  museum 
conservation  in  the  United  States.  Initial  reports  of  the  ncac  examine 
the  training  of  conservators,  education  of  users,  scientific  support, 
and  conservation  facilities,  and  provide  recommendations  for  the 
establishment  of  a  cohesive  national  conservation  program.  Another 
National  Museum  Act  project  related  to  conservation  is  being  under- 
taken by  the  School  of  Textiles  at  North  Carolina  State  University 
and  involves  the  study  of  textile  aging  and  degradation  mechanisms. 
The  results  of  the  study  will  be  invaluable  in  the  development  of 
systems  for  preserving  textiles  in  the  nation's  museums.  (A  full  list 
of  the  projects  supported  by  the  National  Museum  Act  is  included 
in  Appendix  3  to  this  volume.) 

Although  many  of  the  projects  have  provisions  for  publishing 
and  distributing  the  results  to  the  profession,  the  National  Museum 
Act  maintains  copies  of  all  project  reports  in  the  Museum  Reference 
Center  of  the  Office  of  Museum  Programs,  where  they  are  available 
for  study  and  reference. 

Museum  Programs  I  147 

Office  of  Exhibits  Central 

Highlights  of  the  busy,  fruitful  year  were  (1)  the  Silver  Jubilee  exhi- 
bition which  the  Office  of  Exhibits  Central  (oec)  designed,  edited, 
produced,  and  installed  at  the  National  Museum  of  History  and 
Technology  in  honor  of  Queen  Elizabeth  II  (and  visited  by  her 
daughter  Princess  Anne),  and  (2)  the  international  acclaim  accorded 
the  motion-picture  unit  which  received  three  Emmys — in  the  Pro- 
duction, Direction,  and  Cinematography/Editing  categories — for  the 
Festival  of  American  Folklife.  Celebrating  a  Century:  The  Philadel- 
phia Centennial  Exhibition  of  1876,  also  produced  by  the  motion- 
picture  unit,  is  being  widely  shown  and  recognized.  It,  too,  is  an 
award-winner  (five  awards),  as  are  The  Big  Cats  and  How  They 
Came  to  Be  and  Tiger,  produced  for  the  National  Zoological  Park. 

Shortly  before  the  Smithsonian  subway  station  was  opened,  oec 
completed  the  installation  of  the  last  in  a  series  of  three-dimensional 
directories,  keyed  in  six  languages  to  orient  and  guide  Mall  visitors. 

A  major  portion  of  oec's  time  and  talent  has  supported  the  Smith- 
sonian Institution  Traveling  Exhibition  Service.  The  oec  exhibits 
editors  have  edited,  and  sometimes  also  written,  label  and  other  copy 
for  virtually  all  Smithsonian  Institution  Traveling  Exhibition  Ser- 
vice exhibitions — and  provided  printed  labels  for  most,  oec  design- 
ers, graphics  specialists,  modelmakers,  cabinetmakers,  and  other 
staff  members  also  lent  their  creative  talents  to  the  full  schedule  of 
sites  exhibitions. 

In  addition  to  sites,  oec  has  provided  specialized  assistance  to  vir- 
tually every  other  Smithsonian  facility,  and  to  some  non-Smithson- 
ian activities,  ranging  from  the  Botanical  Garden  to  the  President's 
Commission  on  Mental  Retardation.  Exceptional  projects  have  in- 
cluded the  custom-sculptured  mannequin  of  Mrs.  Gerald  R.  Ford  for 
the  First  Ladies  Hall,  extensive  participation  in  the  Festival  of 
American  Folklife,  label  editing  and  printing  for  most  National  Mu- 
seum of  History  and  Technology  exhibitions,  brochures  for  the 
Smithsonian  National  Associates  Program,  and  an  exhibition  for  the 
reception  area  at  the  Chesapeake  Bay  Center  for  Environmental 

The  freeze-dry  laboratory  is  back  in  full  operation,  handling  more 
than  600  objects  during  the  year.  Its  scientist,  Rolland  O.  Hower,  is 

148  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

cooperating  with  Harvard  University  on  improved  preservation  of 
the  nation's  oldest  collection  of  human  pathologic  and  anatomic  ma- 
terial, and  is  working  with  pathologists  at  the  Memorial  Sloan-Ket- 
tering  Hospital  Cancer  Center.  His  manual  on  the  freeze-dry 
preservation  of  biological  specimens  has  been  written,  reviewed, 
edited,  and  submitted  for  publication. 

Office  of  Horticulture 

Working  with  the  various  Smithsonian  museums  and  allied  organi- 
zations, the  Office  of  Horticulture  provided  horticultural  plantings 
for  special  exhibits  and  events  such  as  the  Inaugural  Celebrations  at 
the  John  F.  Kennedy  Center,  the  Cooper-Hewitt  Conservatory,  the 
exhibition  "Paint  on  Wood"  at  the  Renwick  Museum,  and  the  spe- 
cial dinner  at  the  National  Air  and  Space  Museum  commemorating 
the  fiftieth  anniversary  of  Lindbergh's  transatlantic  flight.  The  Office 
of  Horticulture  participated  in  over  two  hundred  special  programs 
sponsored  by  the  Institution. 

Assisting  the  Women's  Committee  of  the  Smithsonian  Associates, 
the  Office  designed  and  installed  plantings  for  the  1976  "White 
Christmas"  benefit.  Assistance  was  also  provided  to  the  Women's 
Committee's  fund-raising  event  at  the  opening  of  the  Lord  &  Taylor 
store  at  the  new  White  Flint  Mall.  All  proceeds  from  this  benefit 
were  donated  to  the  Office  of  Horticulture  for  use  in  the  construc- 
tion of  the  mini-garden  between  the  Arts  and  Industries  Building 
and  the  Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden. 

New  plantings  in  the  Victorian  Garden,  which  is  located  in  the 
South  Yard  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution  Building,  include  two 
floral  beds.  This  summer  five  antique  cast  iron  Victorian  urns  were 
added  to  the  garden  and  planted  with  a  large  variety  of  upright  and 
trailing  tropicals  and  blooming  annuals.  Hanging  baskets  were  also 
hung  from  the  lamp  posts.  All  trees,  shrubs,  and  bedding  plants  in 
the  Victorian  Garden  are  labeled  to  add  educational  interest  to  this 
lovely,  quiet  garden. 

Much  work  has  been  completed  this  year  on  the  renovation  of  the 
Office  of  Horticulture's  greenhouse-nursery  complex  which  is  leased 
from  the  United  States  Soldiers'  and  Airmen's  Home  located  at  3700 

Museum  Programs  I  149 

N.  Capitol  Street,  N.W.  Also  located  there  is  the  Institution's  grow- 
ing orchid  collection  which  now  includes  over  1,000  plants,  and  all 
the  state  flowers  and  state  trees  which  were  donated  by  the  states 
who  participated  in  the  Office  of  Horticulture's  Bicentennial  project. 
These  plants  will  be  used  for  the  interior  and  exterior  landscaping 
schemes  of  the  Smithsonian  museums  on  the  Mall. 

A  major  project,  and  the  first  exhibit  of  the  Office  of  Horticulture 
to  be  displayed  outside  the  Institution,  was  installed  at  the  Williams- 
burg Garden  Symposium  last  March.  This  exhibit  included  nine 
panels  of  photographs  of  Victorian  bedding  designs,  Victorian  gar- 
den accessories  and  furniture,  and  live  bedding  plants  which  were 
planted  in  small  embroidery  parterres  similar  to  those  in  the  Vic- 
torian Garden. 

The  Horticultural  Advisory  Committee  of  the  Institution  met 
three  times  this  year  to  discuss  projects  and  the  future  development 
of  the  Office  of  Horticulture,  including  the  Victorian  Garden,  the 
Cooper-Hewitt  Conservatory,  the  grounds  at  Belmont,  the  Hirsh- 
horn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden,  and  the  renovation  of  the 
grounds  of  the  National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology. 

Office  of  Museum  Programs 

The  museum  field  looks  to  the  Smithsonian  Institution  as  a  major 
resource  for  information  on  the  latest  developments  and  up-to-date 
practices  in  museum  operations.  Through  the  Office  of  Museum 
Programs,  the  Institution  seeks  to  provide  much-needed  assistance 
and  information. 

The  Workshop  Series  provided  training  for  museum  personnel 
from  the  United  States  and  abroad  through  three-,  four-,  and  five- 
day  workshops  at  the  Institution.  The  subject  matter  of  the  work- 
shops includes  exhibit  preparation,  educational  management,  docent 
training,  grant  solicitation,  collection  management  and  maintenance, 
evaluation,  membership  development,  budgeting  and  accounting, 
and  interpretation.  Enrollment  for  the  workshops  ranges  from 
twelve  to  twenty  individuals,  representing  museums  with  a  wide 
geographic  distribution.  The  Office  also  conducted  four  on-site 
workshops  in  the  Boston  area.  In  addition,  the  Office  of  Museum 

150  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Programs  offered  workshops  to  Smithsonian  Institution  personnel 
on  insurance,  conservation,  label-writing,  and  lighting. 

The  Internship  Program  over  the  years  has  offered  opportunities 
for  individual  training  to  323  United  States  and  foreign  museum 
employees.  It  now  averages  twenty  persons  a  year.  Interns  serving 
in  departments  and  offices  throughout  the  Institution  include  United 
States  residents  and  museum  professionals  from  African,  Asian, 
European,  and  South  American  nations.  Internships,  without  sti- 
pend, vary  in  length  from  three  weeks  to  two  years,  although  the 
average  length  is  three  to  four  months.  As  with  the  workshops,  the 
focus  for  the  internships  is  museum  techniques,  and  intern  assign- 
ments may  involve  assisting  with  research,  collections  management, 
education,  cataloguing,  and  exhibit  preparation. 

The  Conservation  Information  Program  is  charged  with  develop- 
ing audiovisual  presentations  demonstrating  basic  principles  of  mu- 
seum conservation.  It  is  further  charged  with  distributing  these 
presentations  throughout  the  United  States  and  around  the  world. 

The  information  produced  by  the  Conservation  Information  Pro- 
gram is  intended  to  be  used  by  conservators  and  students  of  conser- 
vation, or  nonconservation  personnel  (e.g.,  curators,  exhibits  spe- 
cialists, etc.).  Thus,  some  presentations  illustrate  approaches  to  the 
treatment  of  objects,  while  others  attempt  to  educate  the  viewers  to 
the  importance  of  safeguarding  collections  from  negligence,  ignor- 
ance, or  environmental  extremes. 

The  Program  has  completed  a  core  series  of  eighty  video  tapes 
orienting  museum  personnel  to  the  procedures  and  chemistry  of 
conservation,  plus  a  selection  of  eleven  slide/audio  presentations 
and  video  tapes  dealing  with  specific  topics.  Each  of  these  eleven 
tapes  is  supported  by  printed  matter  which  provides  preliminary  or 
supporting  information  and  identifies  the  sources  of  that  informa- 
tion. Since  1974,  more  than  894  slide  shows  and  523  packages  of 
two  or  four  video  tapes  have  been  loaned  to  museums  and  museum 
training  organizations.  In  response  to  viewer  demand,  sales  of  tapes 
and  slide  shows  were  begun  in  1976.  To  date,  fifteen  institutions  in 
the  United  States,  Canada,  Australia,  Sweden,  and  Great  Britain 
have  purchased  53  slide  shows  and  424  video  tapes. 

Career  counseling  for  people  interested  in  the  museum  field  is  a 
subsidiary  activity  of  the  Office  of  Museum  Programs,  along  with 
the  organization  of  national  conferences.  Resource  materials  are 

Museum  Programs  I  151 

compiled,  and  staff  serve  as  consultants  for  other  museum  studies 
programs.  A  Museum  Evaluation  Conference  was  held  in  June  1977, 
attended  by  psychologists,  evaluators,  and  museum  personnel.  The 
taped  proceedings  have  been  transcribed  and  will  be  disseminated. 

The  Psychological  Studies  Program  provides  an  increasingly  re- 
quested service  to  the  Institution's  museums,  and  has  attained  a 
leadership  role  for  its  research  methodology,  and  the  assembly  of 
analytical  data.  There  is  mounting  evidence  that  museums  need  to 
evaluate  the  effectiveness  of  their  services  and  the  impact  of  these 
on  the  visiting  public,  and  to  examine  their  roles  as  social,  cultural, 
and  educational  institutions. 

A  number  of  internal  studies  have  been  completed  on  visitor  be- 
havior, guards,  orientation,  docent  evaluation,  exhibitions;  and  a 
consultant  service  has  been  developed  for  other  museums  which  are 
involved  in  evaluation  programs.  The  staff  psychologist  counsels 
and  works  with  staff  of  Smithsonian  Institution  museums  in  their 
search  to  assess  the  effectiveness  of  their  exhibition  and  educational 

The  Museum  Reference  Center,  a  unique  working  collection  of 
resources  on  all  aspects  of  museum  operations,  is  located  in  the 
Office  of  Museum  Programs.  It  provides  reference  assistance  to 
professional  museum  personnel  and  researchers  throughout  the 
world.  Its  files  contain  up-to-date  information  on  museum  organi- 
zation, administration  and  management,  legislation,  exhibitions, 
support  services,  museum  architecture,  exhibit  design,  the  history 
and  philosophy  of  museums,  management  of  museum  collections, 
conservation,  museum  education,  and  related  areas  such  as  experi- 
mental, educational,  and  behavioral  psychology. 

The  Reference  Center  offers  the  following  services  to  museum 
professionals  and  qualified  researchers  within  and  without  the  In- 

Literature  searching 

Bibliographies  on  selected  subjects 

Information  on  current  museum  activities 

Information  on  current  issues  in  the  profession 

Selected  materials  from  Office  of  Museum  Programs  workshops 

Files  on  professionals  activities  and  training  opportunities 

Access  to  the  collection  for  research  use. 

The  Native  American  Museum  Training  Program,  initiated  in 
1977,  has  been  organized  in  response  to  increasing  requests  from 

152  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

the  Native  American  communities  for  assistance  in  establishing, 
operating,  and  maintaining  tribal  museums  in  order  to  preserve 
their  cultural  heritage.  Existing  avenues  of  assistance  and  training  in 
museology  generally  have  not  been  available  to  Native  Americans; 
this  new  program  is  intended  to  fill  this  void. 

To  determine  the  training  needs  of  Native  Americans  and  coor- 
dinate activities  designed  to  meet  those  needs,  the  position  of 
Native  American  Training  Program  Coordinator  was  created,  and 
Dr.  James  A.  Hanson  was  appointed  to  fill  it.  He  serves  as  liaison 
between  the  Institution's  Office  of  Museum  Programs  and  the 
Department  of  Anthropology,  which  has  had  an  American  Indian 
Cultural  Resources  Training  Program  (Archives)  since  1973,  as  well 
as  other  involved  agencies,  and  the  Native  Americans.  Over  80 
tribes  have  already  built  museums  or  are  planning  to  establish  them. 
Other  tribes  have  expressed  serious  interest  in  having  a  profession- 
ally maintained  cultural  facility.  Practical  training  in  theory  and  tech- 
nique along  with  consultation  and  encouragement  will  be  offered. 

Part  I  of  the  new  multifaceted  training  program  will  provide  for 
a  pilot  series  of  four  seminars  at  locations  easily  accessible  to  sev- 
eral native  groups.  Part  II  will  consist  of  internships  at  the  Smith- 
sonian for  periods  varying  from  one  to  two  months,  adjusted  to 
the  individual's  requirements  in  conservation,  exhibit  design  and 
construction,  registration,  management  and  research.  Smithsonian 
staff  will  supervise  the  training  activities  in  their  fields  of  expertise. 
Part  III  will  encourage  cooperation  with  museums  in  other  parts  of 
the  country.  This  can  develop  into  long-range  assistance,  exchange 
of  information  and,  wherever  applicable,  sharing  of  resources. 

Office  of  the  Registrar 

The  Institution's  major  collections  policy  and  management  study 
dominated  activity  in  the  Office  this  year.  Staff  members  were 
heavily  involved  in  data  gathering,  writing,  and  editing  as  well  as 
in  production  of  interim  and  final  reports. 

Coordination   of   registrarial   activities   was   provided   as   usual 
through  the  Central  Registrar  and  the  Council  of  Registrars.  The 

Museum  Programs  I  153 

role  of  the  Council  continued  to  expand  during  the  year.  In  addi- 
tion to  regular  monthly  meetings  at  which  business  was  transacted 
and  featured  professional  discussions  were  presented,  the  Council 
sponsored  various  cooperative  projects.  This  year  members  of  the 
Council  served  as  instructors  in  a  seminar  on  museum  registration 
methods,  part  of  the  Workshop  Series  offered  by  the  Office  of 
Museum  Programs  for  employees  of  museums  in  the  United  States 
and  foreign  countries.  Work  on  next  year's  seminar  is  now  under 
way,  and  plans  are  being  developed  for  an  intramural  seminar 
series  for  employees  of  Registrar's  offices  in  Smithsonian  bureaus. 
The  Office  itself,  while  continuing  to  serve  as  a  clearinghouse 
for  Council  matters,  pursued  projects  of  its  own  at  the  Institutional 
level.  Ongoing  projects  include  an  inventory  of  data  elements  used 
in  collections  management  information  systems,  an  analysis  of  po- 
tential subject  thesauri,  an  investigation  of  how  information  in 
automated  files  on  the  various  collections  might  be  applied  to  Insti- 
tution-wide needs,  and  a  feasibility  study  on  data  processing  stand- 
ards. Staff  members  of  the  Registrar's  Office  are  active  in  the  Mu- 
seum Computer  Network  and  the  Museum  Data  Bank  Committee. 
During  the  past  year  they  participated  in  a  successful  effort  to  form 
a  nationwide  organization  of  museum  registrars,  and  to  have  it  rec- 
ognized officially  as  the  Registrars  Committee  of  the  American 
Association  of  Museums.  As  a  representative  from  this  body,  the 
Smithsonian  Institution  Registrar  is  serving  as  chairman  of  an 
American  Association  of  Museums  subcommittee  on  future  objec- 
tives for  registrarial  personnel  in  the  museum  profession.  Of  par- 
ticular interest  at  the  present  time  are  discussions  and  proposals 
concerning  world  and  national  heritage  trusts.  In  connection  with 
the  latter  of  these  concepts,  the  Office  submitted  a  National  Heri- 
tage Trust  Task  Force  paper  on  the  essential  components  of  our 
cultural  and  natural  heritages. 

Smithsonian  Institution  Archives 

During  the  year  much  staff  time  was  devoted  to  the  preparation 
of  a  new  Guide  to  the  Smithsonian  Archives.  Scheduled  for  publi- 
cation in  fiscal  year  1978,  it  contains  over  400  entries.  Work  con- 

154  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

tinued  on  the  records  of  the  National  Museum  of  Natural  History 
and  the  National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology.  A  survey  of 
the  manuscript  collections  of  the  National  Museum  of  History  and 
Technology  was  completed,  and  the  results  will  be  published  in  a 
guide  during  1978.  A  records  survey  was  started  in  the  National 
Air  and  Space  Museum. 

Major  accessions  were  reviewed  from  the  National  Museum  of 
Natural  History,  the  National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology, 
the  National  Museum  Act  Program,  the  Interdisciplinary  Commu- 
nications Program,  and  the  Bicentennial  Coordinator.  Other  ac- 
cessions of  note  include  the  papers  of  Helmut  Buechner,  Robert  A. 
Brooks,  Waldo  L.  Schmitt,  Edward  A.  Preblem,  William  Mann,  and 
C.  B.  Wilson. 

The  Archives'  Oral  History  Program  continued,  with  emphasis 
on  the  history  of  the  National  Museum  of  Natural  History.  Thir- 
teen interviews,  totaling  over  sixteen  hours,  were  conducted. 

Scholars  continued  to  visit  the  Archives  during  fiscal  year  1977. 
Several  recent  publications  have  appeared,  based  at  least  in  part 
on  material  in  the  Archives.  Among  them  are:  Curtis  M.  Hinsley, 
Jr.,  The  Development  of  a  Profession:  Anthropology  in  Washing- 
ton, D.  C,  1846-1903,  Ph.D.  dissertation,  University  of  Wisconsin 
at  Madison,  1976;  Arthur  P.  Molella,  "The  Electric  Motor,  the 
Telegraph,  and  Joseph  Henry's  Theory  of  Technological  Progress," 
Proceedings  of  the  Institute  of  Electrical  and  Electronics  Engineers, 
64  (1976):  1273-1278;  and  Lester  D.  Stephens,  "Evolution  and 
Woman's  Rights  in  the  1890's:  The  Views  of  Joseph  LeConte," 
The  Historian,  38  (1976) :  239-252. 

Smithsonian  Institution  Libraries 

Nineteen  hundred  seventy-seven  was  a  year  of  steady  growth  for 
the  collections,  and  of  consolidation  of  the  outstanding  gains  of 
recent  years,  such  as  the  incorporation  of  the  Dibner  Library  into 
the  National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology  Rare  Book 
Room;  an  opened  and  fully  functioning  National  Air  and  Space 
Museum  Library  in  its  new  quarters;  increased  use  of  the  rapidly 
expanding  Ohio  College  Library  Center  data  base  of  major  re- 

Museum  Programs  I  155 

searck  library  holdings  for  on-line  cataloguing,  searching  and  lo- 
cating sources  of  interlibrary  loans;  increased  products  from  the 
Libraries'  own  automated  operation,  among  them  the  first  listing 
of  the  Libraries'  desiderata;  a  four-year  cumulation  of  the  National 
Air  and  Space  Museum  Bureau  Library  index  to  aeronautical  peri- 
odicals; expansion  of  reader  services  offered  at  the  Radiation  Biol- 
ogy Laboratory,  National  Zoological  Park,  and  National  Museum  of 
Natural  History;  and  a  significant  boost  to  the  Libraries'  conserva- 
tion program. 

The  increase  in  numbers  of  books  and  journals,  while  critical  to 
make  up  for  past  neglect,  to  allow  immediate  access  to  literature 
by  the  growing  number  of  researchers  at  the  Institution,  and  to 
accommodate  new  programs,  at  the  same  time  compounds  the  Li- 
braries' most  serious  problem — inadequate  space.  This  year  the 
Libraries  attempted  to  meet  this  problem  in  a  number  of  ways. 
Microform  sets  of  journals  have  been  acquired  in  increasing  num- 
bers. In  some  cases,  they  have  replaced  sets  on  active  shelves,  and 
those  originals  with  important  illustrations  have  been  transferred 
to  off-the-Mall  shelving  where  retrieval  is  possible.  The  off-the- 
Mall  shelving  area  itself  (Smithsonian  Institution  Service  Center) 
has  been  weeded  of  little-used  materials  and  completely  reorga- 
nized. Released  space  will  accommodate  more  judiciously  selected 
material  and  ease  somewhat  the  crowded  Mall  shelves.  The  move 
of  all  journals  from  the  fifth  floor,  National  Museum  of  History  and 
Technology  Bureau  Library,  to  space  on  the  first  floor  has  reduced 
somewhat  the  crowding  on  that  Library's  main  fifth  floor.  In  the 
National  Museum  of  Natural  History,  the  Division  of  Mammals' 
library  collection  was  given  a  larger  and  more  convenient  area  by 
the  Museum.  At  the  National  Zoological  Park,  a  handsome  new 
library  in  the  Administration  Building  has  released  library  books 
from  boxes  and  offices. 

The  crowding  of  people  in  unexpanding  space  has  also  been 
relieved  somewhat  in  the  Libraries'  Acquisitions  department.  A 
study  of  space  utilization  and  requirements  led  to  a  complete  reno- 
vation of  that  office  and  to  the  installation  of  space-saving  and 
more  efficient  equipment. 

In  July  the  Libraries  lost  its  Director  of  ten  years,  Russell  Shank, 
to  the  University  of  California  at  Los  Angeles,  where  he  became 
University  Librarian.  Under  his  leadership,  the  Libraries  grew  in 

156  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

staff,  size  of  collections,  number  of  Bureau  libraries,  and  in  the  uses 
of  newer,  more  responsive  technologies.  Just  before  his  depar- 
ture, Dr.  Shank  became  President-elect  of  the  American  Library 

In  July  Dr.  Elaine  Sloan,  Assistant  Director  for  Management  and 
Development,  left  to  become  Associate  University  Librarian  for 
Reader  Services  at  the  University  of  California,  Berkeley. 

Two  in-depth  studies  were  completed  during  the  year:  an  exam- 
ination of  the  serial  system  to  improve  management  of  the  Libra- 
ries' 25,000  serial  titles,  and  to  make  access  to  them  easier  and 
quicker  for  the  user;  and  the  problem  of  bibliographic  control  and 
organization  of  approximately  200,000  trade  catalogues  in  the 
National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology,  with  the  aim  of 
making  this  important  and  valuable  source  material  more  easily 
available  for  research.  Recommendations  resulting  from  both  stud- 
ies are  under  review  by  the  Libraries. 

During  the  year,  a  statement  of  present  collecting  practices  for 
all  Smithsonian  Institution  Libraries  was  compiled.  It  is  the  first 
stage  in  the  drafting  of  a  collection  development  policy. 

The  Libraries  participated  early  in  the  Library  of  Congress'  Co- 
operative Machine  Readable  Cataloging  (comarc)  project.  For  co- 
marc  the  Smithsonian  Libraries,  while  creating  its  own  biblio- 
graphic record,  converts  Library  of  Congress  cataloguing  to  ma- 
chine-readable format,  permitting  the  record  to  be  added  to  the 
Library  of  Congress'  immense  marc  data  base. 

The  temporary  facility  to  house  the  Dibner  Library  of  the  His- 
tory of  Science  and  Technology,  in  the  National  Museum  of  His- 
tory and  Technology,  and  exhibit  some  of  its  treasures,  was  offi- 
cially opened  in  October  1976.  A  reception  to  honor  the  donor,  Dr. 
Bern  Dibner,  was  attended  by  members  and  friends  of  the  Dibner 
family.  It  was  also  attended  by  prominent  rare-book  librarians, 
collectors,  dealers,  and  by  Smithsonian  representatives. 

Several  exhibits  of  Dibner  material  through  the  year  featured 
fifteenth-  and  sixteenth-century  editions  of  works  by  notable 
Greek  scientists  of  the  Athenian  and  Alexandrian  Schools,  and 
early  illustrated  books  on  chemistry,  medicine,  and  natural  history. 

Staff  of  the  National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology  Li- 
brary and  of  Technical  Services  are  preparing  a  short-title  cata- 
logue of  the  Dibner  Library.  This  will  be  computer  produced  and 

Museum  Programs  I  157 

allow  access  to  the  incunabula  and  other  rarissima  of  this  collec- 
tion from  a  number  of  approaches:  author,  title,  printer,  date,  and 
place  of  publication,  among  others. 

The  National  Air  and  Space  Museum  Library  completed  its  first 
year  in  new  quarters.  Its  staff  has  answered  over  600  inquiries  a 
month  from  the  public,  as  well  as  from  the  curatorial  and  research 
staff.  An  "open  house"  was  held  for  librarians  and  information 
scientists  in  the  Washington  and  Baltimore  areas  and  tours  were 
organized  for  library-science  schools  and  aerospace  educators.  The 
Early  Birds  of  Aviation  visited  the  Library  during  their  annual 
meeting  in  Washington.  Charles  Dollfus,  renowned  balloonist,  auto- 
graphed the  Library's  copy  of  his  rare  Histoire  de  I'Aeronautique. 
The  Librarian  has  begun  to  coordinate  the  organization  and  micro- 
filming of  the  research  files.  These  files  contain  a  wealth  of  historical 
documents  on  famous  and  little-known  aerospace  personalities;  air- 
craft and  engine  photographs  and  drawings,  space  projects  and 
vehicles;  early  ballooning  and  rocketry;  industry  histories;  and 
other  miscellaneous  topics  relating  to  aerospace. 

The  Bella  C.  Landauer  collection  of  over  1,500  pieces  of  aero- 
nautical sheet  music  was  recently  catalogued  by  a  volunteer.  The 
New  York  Times  staff  photographed  several  pieces  of  music  about 
Charles  Lindbergh  for  the  Times  Sunday  Magazine  of  May  8,  1977, 
a  special  commemorative  issue  on  the  first  transatlantic  flight  in 
1927.  Time/Life  Books  also  photographed  other  aeronautical  music 
for  a  forthcoming  book  on  flight. 

Mrs.  Gardiner  Fiske  of  Southern  Pines,  North  Carolina,  donated 
a  folio  of  six  hand-colored  prints  on  the  "Moon  Hoax"  designed 
by  Italian  artists  in  Naples  in  1836.  This  outstanding  gift  shows 
the  human  population  of  the  moon  as  presumed  by  Sir  John  Fred- 
erick William  Herschel.  Mrs.  Fiske  also  donated  a  first  edition  of 
Barthelemy  Faujas  de  Saing-Fond,  Description  des  Experiences  de 
la  Machine  Aerostatique  de  MM.  de  Montgolfier,  Paris,  1783, 
which  had  another  first  edition  bound  with  it:  Jean-Claude  Pin- 
geron's  L' Art  de  Faire  Soi-Meme  les  Ballons  Aerostatiques,  Con- 
formes  a  Ceux  de  M.  de  Montgolfier,  Paris,  [1783]. 

The  Radiation  Biology  Laboratory  and  National  Zoological  Park 
Bureau  Libraries  became  fully  staffed  for  the  first  time.  The  National 
Zoological  Park  Library  moved  to  new  expanded  and  attractive 
quarters  in  the  Zoo's  Administration  Building  and  assimilated  book 

158  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

collections  previously  housed  in  various  locations.  The  Library  has 
featured  some  of  its  rarities  in  a  small  exhibit  case  and  is  probably 
the  only  library  anywhere  to  have  a  bejeweled  elephant  anklet  on 
permanent  display.  Its  collection  of  "Zooiana"  has  been  organized 
and  is  beginning  to  grow  again. 

Concurrent  with  the  opening  of  the  Cooper-Hewitt  Museum  in 
October  1976,  the  Picture  Library  reopened  to  the  staff,  and  to  the 
public  on  an  appointment  basis  after  a  three-year  period  of  inactiv- 
ity. During  the  winter,  the  book  collection,  which  had  been  in 
storage  for  four  years,  was  delivered  to  the  new  stacks. 

The  same  week  in  which  the  Museum  opened,  the  American 
Society  of  Interior  Designers  formally  donated  to  the  Museum  its 
library  of  about  2,000  items,  along  with  a  contribution  for  servic- 
ing this  collection.  House  and  Garden  magazine,  in  November, 
delivered  its  Color  Archives  to  the  Library.  A  number  of  other 
large  gifts  helped  build  the  collections  during  1977,  among  them  a 
donation  of  books  by  Alison  Harwood,  including  a  copy  of  A.  J. 
Downing's  The  Architecture  of  Country  Houses,  1850,  one  of  the 
most  important  works  on  nineteenth-century  American  architecture. 

Smithsonian  Institution  Traveling  Exhibition  Service 

This  twenty-fifth  anniversary  of  the  founding  of  the  Smithsonian 
Institution  Traveling  Exhibition  Service  saw  the  1,000th  exhibition 
begin  its  tour.  At  the  same  time,  special  program  areas,  given  im- 
petus during  the  Bicentennial,  were  incorporated  into  sites'  regular 
program.  The  Bicentennial  program  staff  combined  with  the  science 
coordinators  to  become  the  American  Studies  Office.  The  "Interna- 
tional Salute  to  the  States"  program  continues  extending  sites'  im- 
portant work  with  international  exhibitions.  Physically,  sites  offices 
were  relocated  from  Barney  Studio  House  to  the  Arts  and  Industries 
Building,  consolidating  the  staff  on  one  floor  for  the  first  time. 

sites  produced  twenty-eight  new  titles,  or  forty-four  new  exhi- 
bitions, counting  duplicates  and  additional  versions.  Of  these, 
twelve  opened  in  Washington,  D.C.,  nine  of  which  were  shown  in 
Smithsonian  museums,  including  "Belgian  Gunmaking"  at  the 
National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology,  "22  Polish  Textile 

Museum  Programs  I  159 

Artists"  at  the  Renwick  Gallery,  and  "Treasures  of  Cyprus/'  "Rails 
of  the  World:  Paintings  by  J.  Fenwick  Lansdowne/'  and  "Locks 
from  Iran:  Pre-Islamic  to  Twentieth  Century"  at  the  National 
Museum  of  Natural  History. 

Among  the  new  American  Studies  exhibitions  beginning  their 
tours  in  1977,  two  were  funded  from  the  Smithsonian  Institution 
Bicentennial  program:  "America's  First  Ladies"  and  "And  Now  a 
Message  ...  A  Century  of  American  Advertising,  1830-1930." 
"The  Frederick  Douglass  Years"  and  "Black  Women:  Achievement 
Against  the  Odds"  were  produced  by  the  Anacostia  Neighborhood 
Museum  with  sites  staff  authoring  materials  for  supplementary 
publications.  Other  new  American  Studies  exhibitions  included 
"Folk  Art  and  Crafts:  The  Deep  South,"  "North  American  Indian 
Baskets,"  and  "Space  Art  from  the  U.S.S.R." 

Exhibitions  from  foreign  sources  accounted  for  nearly  half  of 
the  new  exhibitions  in  1977.  Among  these  were  "An  American 
Inspiration:  Danish  Modern  and  Shaker  Design,"  "Hungarian  Art 
Nouveau,"  "The  Human  Form:  Sculpture,  Prints  and  Drawings  by 
Fritz  Wotruba,"  and  "Salzburger  Feltspiele!"  New  exhibitions  in 
the  general  program  included  "Bridges :  The  Spans  of  North  Amer- 
ica," "America  Underfoot,"  "Rails  of  the  World:  Paintings  by  J. 
Fenwick  Lansdowne,"  and  "World  Print  Competition  77." 

At  the  end  of  the  year,  sites  was  negotiating  for  thirty-three  new 
exhibitions  from  sources  as  diverse  as  various  Smithsonian  bu- 
reaus, United  States  museums  and  private  lenders,  and  foreign  gov- 
ernments and  museums.  Among  major  exhibitions  in  the  planning 
stages  are  "Impressions/Expressions:  Black  American  Graphics," 
"Kings,  Heroes,  and  Nomads:  Pictorial  Rugs  from  the  Tribes  and 
Villages  of  Persia,"  "Louis  M.  Eilshemius"  in  the  Hirshhorn  Mu- 
seum Collection,  and  "Treasures  of  Belgian  Jewelry." 

sites'  annual  catalogue  of  exhibitions,  Update,  was  issued  in 
April  and  listed  113  new  exhibitions.  A  quarterly  newsletter,  Site- 
line,  introduced  in  January  1977,  highlights  sites  exhibitions  and 
their  exhibitors.  Siteline  is  mailed  out  to  the  6,000  institutions  on 
sites'  mailing  list.  Both  Update  and  Siteline  are  written,  edited,  and 
published  by  sites  staff. 

sites'  publications  program  was  particularly  active.  Supplement- 
ing new  exhibitions  were  fourteen  publications,  including  major 
catalogues  such  as  America  Underfoot:  A  History  of  Floor  Cover- 

160  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 


Canadian  Ambassador  Jack  H.  Warren  opens  Smithsonian  Institution  Traveling 
Exhibition  Service's  exhibition  "Rails  of  the  World:  Paintings  by  J.  Fenwick  Lans- 
downe"  at  the  National  Museum  of  Natural  History  while  Secretary  Ripley  looks  on. 
Below:  Iranian  Ambassador  Ardeshir  Zahedi  with  the  head  of  the  Chinese  liaison 
office  admires  the  largest  lock  in  "Locks  from  Iran"  exhibition  at  the  opening  at  the 
National  Museum  of  Natural  History.  This  is  another  of  the  many  exhibitions  being 
circulated  by  the  Smithsonian  Institution  Traveling  Exhibition  Service. 

ings  from  Colonial  Times  to  the  Present,  The  Human  Form:  Sculp- 
ture, Prints  and  Drawings  by  Fritz  Wotruba,  Locks  from  Iran:  Pre- 
Islamic  to  Twentieth  Century,  and  Treasures  of  Cyprus. 

Several  innovations  were  introduced  in  the  educational  program. 
Exhibitors  scheduled  to  receive  the  show  were  invited  to  Washing- 
ton, D.C,  for  a  workshop  on  "Belgian  Gunmaking"  while  the  ex- 
hibition was  shown  at  the  National  Museum  of  History  and  Tech- 
nology. A  similar  workshop  was  held  in  relation  to  "Treasures  of 
Cyprus."  Roundtable  discussion  groups  consisting  of  outside  ad- 
visors helped  sites  to  plan  content  for  brochures  being  prepared 
for  "America's  First  Ladies"  and  "Images  of  Aging  in  America." 
Suggestions  for  curriculum  development  using  sites  exhibitions 
with  school  programs  were  devised  by  the  Office  of  American  and 
Folklife  Studies. 

sites  continued  its  cooperation  with  George  Washington  Uni- 
versity's Museum  Education  program,  and  staff  members  attended 
and  participated  in  various  national  and  regional  conferences.  In 
addition  to  travels  to  cities  throughout  the  United  States  to  nego- 
tiate for  exhibitions  and  inspect  those  on  tour,  the  staff  traveled  to 
France,  Belgium,  The  Netherlands,  Italy,  Canada,  Hungary,  Fin- 
land, Russia,  and  Poland,  for  exhibition  development  purposes  and 
to  attend  international  museum  meetings. 

Totals  for  period  October  1,  1976,  through  September  30,  1977 

Number  of  bookings    790 

Number  of  states  served   49 

Estimated  audience 6,464,000 

Exhibitions  (including  duplicates)  listed  in  last  Update 

(catalogue  of  sites  exhibitions)   213 

Exhibitions  produced  for  tour  during  the  year  (includ- 
ing duplicates  and  additional  versions)   44 

Exhibitions  beginning  tours  October  1,  1976,  through 
September  30,  1977 

America  Underfoot:  A  History  of  Floor  Coverings  from  Colonial  Times 

to  the  Present 
America's  First  Ladies  (3  duplicates) 

162  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

An  American  Inspiration:  Danish  Modern  and  Shaker  Design 

And  Now  a  Message  ...  A  Century  of  American  Advertising  1830- 

1930  (3  duplicates) 
Arne  Jacobsen:  Danish  Architect  and  Designer 
Artists,  Authors,  and  Others:  Drawings  by  David  Levine 
Belgian  Gunmaking  and  American  History 
Black  Women:  Achievement  Against  the  Odds  (4  duplicates) 
Bridges:  The  Spans  of  North  America 
A   Cartoon   History   of   United   States   Foreign   Policy  1776-1976   (3 

Divine  Favors,  Human  Vows:  Milagros  from  Puerto  Rico 
Folk  Art  and  Crafts:  The  Deep  South  (3  duplicates) 
Folk  Woodcuts  of  Brazil's  Northeast 
The  Frederick  Douglass  Years  (6  duplicates) 
The  Hidden  World  of  Misericords 

The  Human  Form:  Sculpture,  Prints  and  Drawings  by  Fritz  Wotruba 
Hungarian  Art  Nouveau 
Images  of  Old  Age  in  America 
Locks  from  Iran:  Pre-Islamic  to  Twentieth  Century 
North  American  Indian  Baskets 
Oliphant:  Paintings  and  Cartoons 

Rails  of  the  World:  Paintings  by  J.  Fenwick  Lansdowne 
Salzburger  Festspiele! 
Space  Art  from  the  U.S.S.R. 
Terminal,  Station  and  Depot 
Treasures  of  Cyprus 
22  Polish  Textile  Artists 
World  Print  Competition  77:  Selections  from  the  Exhibition 

Museum  Programs  I  163 

i  I  *fi 

The  Anacostia  Neighborhood  Museum  observed  its  tenth  anniversary  on  September 
15,  1977.  Opening  ceremonies  ten  years  earlier,  on  September  15,  1967,  are  shown 
above,  with  Secretary  Ripley  listening  as  Alton  Jones,  head  of  the  Anacostia  Mu- 
seum's Advisory  Council,  addresses  the  audience.  Below.  Secretary  Ripley  addresses 
friends  and  well-wishers  at  the  Museum's  tenth  anniversary  celebration. 

gfca   .  .-*& 

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Smithsonian  Year  .  1977 

There  have  been  several  organizational  changes  in  Public  Service. 
The  Folklife  Unit,  for  the  past  ten  years  a  part  of  the  Division  of 
Performing  Arts,  was  reassigned  to  the  Office  of  American  Stud- 
ies, under  the  Assistant  Secretary  for  History  and  Art.  The  Office 
of  Public  Affairs  was  moved  to  the  newly  created  Office  of  Coordi- 
nator of  Public  Information. 

A  major  effort  in  1977  was  the  Publishing  Task  Force,  which 
was  set  up  under  the  supervision  of  James  Page  and  charged  with 
the  responsibility  of  examining  whether  it  would  be  feasible  for 
the  Institution  to  enter  into  a  serious  commitment  to  the  publica- 
tion of  books  which  would  appeal  to  a  broad  general  public.  The 
methods  used  by  the  Publishing  Task  Force  to  accomplish  their 
goal  included  such  things  as  test  mailings  and  market  surveys.  The 
result  to  date  is  the  publication  of  a  new  book  about  the  Smith- 
sonian called  The  Smithsonian  Experience.  The  book  is  being  of- 
fered for  sale  primarily  through  the  National  Associates.  With  over 
300  photographs,  many  of  them  in  color,  and  fascinating  accom- 
panying text,  it  will  provide  enjoyment  and  enlightenment  to  thou- 
sands of  people.  This  program  is  monitored  closely  by  the  Regents. 

Another  venture  of  a  similar  nature  is  the  development  and  pro- 
duction of  a  recorded  collection  of  the  work  of  superb  jazz  per- 
formers and  performances;  it  is  the  only  collection  of  its  kind  in 
existence  and,  thus,  has  long  merited  the  kind  of  marketing  atten- 
tion it  is  now  receiving.  Musical  historians  and  critics,  jazz  buffs, 
and  jazz  lovers,  as  well  as  people  who  simply  love  good  music  well 
performed  and  faithfully  recorded,  have  acclaimed  this  collection. 

Telecommunication  has  opened  new  windows  to  a  widespread 
public  by  laying  the  groundwork  for  two  possible  television  series 
to  be  carried  over  the  Public  Television  Network.  One  of  these  is 


currently  being  test-marketed,  while  the  other  is  in  a  more  embry- 
onic stage  of  development.  Much  credit  is  due  to  the  National  Asso- 
ciates Board  for  its  supportive  interest  in  this  outreach  program. 

Anacostia  Neighborhood  Museum 

On  September  15,  1977,  the  Anacostia  Neighborhood  Museum 
celebrated  its  tenth  anniversary  with  a  reception  held  at  the  Mu- 
seum. Exactly  ten  years  earlier,  Secretary  Ripley  had  predicted  that 
the  opening  of  the  Museum  would  prove  "truly  an  important  event 
in  the  history  of  museums.  Together,"  he  had  said,  "we  must  con- 
tinue to  explore  the  seemingly  limitless  possibilities  that  this  dis- 
covery calls  out  to  us."  On  September  15  of  this  year,  with  Museum 
Director  John  R.  Kinard  and  other  dignitaries,  the  Secretary  took 
part  in  the  celebration  of  that  exploration. 

Situated  in  the  Anacostia  section  of  southeast  Washington,  the 
Anacostia  Neighborhood  Museum  represents  the  Mall-based  Smith- 
sonian Institution  to  area  residents  who  might  otherwise  have  no 
contact  with  this  aspect  of  the  cultural  life  of  the  nation's  capital. 
Its  programs  and  exhibitions  are  designed  for  the  needs  and  inter- 
ests of  the  Anacostia  community,  yet  as  a  museum  of  the  Smith- 
sonian its  exhibitions  reach  national  and  even  international  audi- 
ences. Two  examples  of  such  exhibits  are  "Blacks  in  the  Westward 
Movement"  and  "The  Frederick  Douglass  Years"  which,  through 
the  Smithsonian's  Traveling  Exhibition  Service,  have  traveled  in 
the  past  two  years  to  museums,  libraries,  and  college  galleries  in 
over  thirty  states.  A  third  show,  "Black  Women:  Achievement 
Against  the  Odds"  was  designed  in  the  Museum's  Exhibits  Design 
and  Production  Center  and  is  also  circulated  nationally  by  sites 
and  internationally  through  the  United  States  Information  Agency. 

In  its  effort  to  establish  itself  as  a  center  for  ethnic  studies,  the 
Museum  has  begun  an  acquisition  program  in  its  Research  Center. 
The  Museum  has  also  encouraged  graduate  students  and  scholars 
to  participate  in  its  internship  programs.  In  the  past  year,  two  stu- 
dents— one  from  Sierra  Leone,  West  Africa,  the  other  from  the 
Texas  State  Historical  Commission — gained  practical  experience 
and  college  course  credits  while  working  in  the  Research  Center. 

166  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Congresswoman  Shirley  Chisholm  is  the  first  speaker  in  the  Minority  Women  Speak 
Lecture  Series  launched  under  the  auspices  of  the  Anacostia  Neighborhood  Mu- 
seum's Education  Department.  Below:  Children  visiting  the  Museum  intensify  that 
learning  experience  at  a  learning  center  operated  by  the  Education  Department. 

Believing  that  the  Smithsonian  has  a  significant  role  to  play  in 
attracting  minorities  to  employment  opportunities  in  major  muse- 
ums around  the  country,  seven  trainees  have  completed  the  first 
phase  of  their  participation  in  the  Anacostia  Neighborhood  Mu- 
seum's exhibits  training  program.  Chosen  from  one  hundred  appli- 
cants, these  seven  trainees  spent  six  weeks  learning  such  skills  as 
exhibit  design  and  fabrication  and  silk-screening  followed  by  ten 
weeks  of  training  in  other  museums  of  the  Institution.  They  at- 
tended seminars,  lectures,  and  workshops  conducted  by  Institution 
scholars,  and  other  professionals  from  the  private  sector.  They  are 
presently  being  placed  in  museum-related  jobs  in  the  Washington 
area.  Three  other  trainees  received  jobs  early  in  the  program.  In- 
valuable experience  was  gained  as  trainees  were  involved  in  the  pro- 
duction of  the  Museum's  major  exhibit  for  1977,  "The  Anacostia 
Story  1608-1930." 

"The  Anacostia  Story"  opened  in  March  1977.  It  was  accom- 
panied by  a  158-page  catalogue  and  narrative  history  which  was 
published  by  the  Smithsonian  Institution  Press  a  month  earlier. 
Both  the  exhibit  and  the  catalogue  were  the  culmination  of  four 
years  of  effort  by  the  Museum's  staff.  Members  of  the  Anacostia 
community  played  an  important  role  in  the  creation  of  "The  Ana- 
costia Story,"  donating  artifacts,  books,  photographs,  and  other 
memorabilia,  but,  even  more  importantly,  donating  their  time  and 
their  memories  of  Anacostia's  rich  history.  These  recollections 
were  recorded  and  now  form  the  nucleus  of  the  Museum's  oral 
history  archives.  Such  community  involvement  in  the  production 
of  a  major  exhibit  distinguishes  the  Anacostia  Neighborhood  Mu- 
seum from  all  other  Museums  in  the  Smithsonian  complex. 

Still  another  outgrowth  of  work  on  "The  Anacostia  Story"  was 
the  development  of  the  Anacostia  Historical  Society.  Composed  of 
over  two  hundred  Anacostia  residents,  during  the  past  year  the 
Society  has  sponsored  lectures  and  other  events  in  an  efrort  to 
revive  old  Anacostia's  cultural  traditions.  The  Society  continues  to 
be  one  of  the  main  links  between  the  Museum  and  the  Anacostia 

Other  ties  between  the  Museum  and  area  residents  have  been 
established  by  the  Education  Department,  which  conducted  a  varie- 
ty of  workshops  and  seminars  during  the  past  year.  Audiences  for 
both  ranged  from  preschool  teachers  to  college  groups  to  groups 

168  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

of  children.  The  Department  launched  its  "Minority  Women  Speak" 
lecture  series  with  a  presentation  by  Congresswoman  Shirley  Chis- 
holm  and,  with  the  aid  of  a  museum  intern,  established  a  learning 
center  for  groups  visiting  the  Museum.  With  the  Research  Center 
and  Exhibits  Center,  the  Education  Department  continued  over  the 
past  year  "to  explore  the  seemingly  limitless  possibilities"  that  the 
Anacostia  Neighborhood  Museum  offers. 

Division  of  Performing  Arts 

To  open  its  eleventh  year  of  presentations,  the  Division  of  Per- 
forming Arts  (dpa)  produced  an  evening  of  the  music  of  Duke 
Ellington  as  part  of  the  United  States  in  the  World  International 
Conference.  Performed  by  members  of  the  New  York  Jazz  Reper- 
tory Company,  the  concert  featured  the  Ellington  masterpiece, 
Black,  Brown  and  Beige. 

The  1976-1977  winter  concerts  were  organized  in  eight  series: 
Jazz  Heritage,  Jazz  Connoisseur,  Country  Guitar,  The  Blues,  Amer- 
ican Popular  Song,  Theater  Chamber  Players,  Music  from  Marl- 
boro, and  a  series  in  conjunction  with  the  Division  of  Musical  In- 
struments (dmi)  of  the  Museum  of  History  and  Technology. 

Within  these  series,  artists  such  as  Tony  Bennett,  Willie  Dixon, 
Vic  Dickenson  and  Benny  Morton,  Art  Blakey,  Les  Paul,  Leon 
Fleisher,  the  Viola  Da  Gamba  Trio  of  Basel,  and  some  sixty  others, 
performed  intimate  and  informal  concerts,  free  workshops,  and 
open  rehearsals  offering  a  rich  sampling  of  America's  diverse  mu- 
sical heritage. 

Scaling  down  from  the  massive  Bicentennial  Festival  of  Ameri- 
can Folklife,  the  Division  turned  toward  the  Museums  on  the  Mall 
to  find  a  new  presentational  format. 

On  the  occasion  of  the  1977  Inauguration  of  President  Carter, 
the  Institution  was  asked  to  produce  events  that  would  contribute 
to  the  general  festivities  and  that  would  be  free  and  open  to  the 
public.  The  Division  of  Performing  Arts,  working  with  the  Mu- 
seum of  History  and  Technology,  Museum  of  Natural  History,  Air 
and  Space  Museum,  Hirshhorn  Museum,  National  Collection  of 
Fine  Arts,  and  National  Portrait  Gallery,  produced  eighty-two  con- 

Public  Service  I  169 

certs  in  five  days  (January  18-22)  that  were  held  in  informal  spaces. 
The  musical  range,  from  the  Sambistas  de  Rio  to  Japanese  koto 
music,  from  The  Seldom  Scene  (country  music)  to  Sweet  Honey  in 
the  Rock  (contemporary  Black  ballad  singing),  offered  the  familiar 
and  the  exotic.  Crowds  of  over  130,000  attended  the  events  and 
reacted  with  enthusiasm.  Feedback  from  museum  directors  and 
staff  suggested  that  the  music  in  the  galleries  served  to  enhance 
both  the  collections  and  the  performances. 

Drawing  upon  this  experience,  the  Division  was  asked  by  the 
Museum  of  History  and  Technology  to  produce  live  entertainment 
for  a  two-week  Spring  Celebration,  coinciding  with  the  Easter  va- 
cation break  and  Cherry  Blossom  season.  Performances  were  held 
at  the  Mall  entrance  to  the  Museum  and  around  the  Pendulum 
area,  and  concentrated  on  presentations  of  talent  from  within  the 
Greater  Washington  area. 

For  the  Fourth  of  July  weekend,  the  Division,  again  working 
with  the  Museum  of  History  and  Technology,  offered  an  old  fash- 
ioned Independence  Day  Celebration,  complete  with  high-wheel 
bike  riders,  clowns,  mimes,  brass  bands,  old-fashioned  social  danc- 
ing, and  a  special  appearance  by  Uncle  Sam.  Press  coverage  stressed 
the  timeliness  of  such  nostalgic  presentations. 

Increasingly  in  the  1976-1977  season,  the  Division  worked  with 
other  areas  of  the  Institution  to  present  performances  and  special 
events.  Programmatic  liaison  ranged  from  producing  full  events  for 
the  Museum  of  History  and  Technology  to  producing  a  special 
weekend  of  twentieth-century  piano  music  for  the  Hirshhorn  Mu- 
seum, to  production  and  publicity  support  for  the  National  Associ- 
ates' outreach  program.  Together,  the  Division  of  Performing  Arts, 
the  National  Smithsonian  Associates,  and  the  Division  of  Musical 
Instruments  produced  the  tour  of  the  Smithsonian  Chamber  Players, 
presenting  twenty  concerts  and  twenty-one  workshops  for  National 
Associates  in  Denver,  Detroit,  Milwaukee,  Minneapolis,  Peoria, 
Portland,  and  Seattle. 

Such  programs  have  two  goals:  to  add  meaning  and  context  to 
the  exhibits  and  special  events,  and  to  stimulate  public  awareness  of 
and  interest  in  the  traditional  activities  of  the  museums. 

The  eighth  year  of  the  DPA-operated  Puppet  Theater  featured  the 
Nicolo  Marionettes  as  the  resident  company,  with  productions  of 
Around  the  World  in  80  Days,  Peter  and  the  Wolf,  Beauty  and  the 

170  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 


Country,  blues,  gospel,  and  American  popular  songs  filled  the  air  at  the  Museum 
of  History  and  Technology  during  the  Spring  Celebration  which  coincided  with 
cherry  blossom  time  in  Washington.  Here,  local  songstress  Ronnie  Wells  receives  a 
bouquet  for  her  performance.  Below,  The  Smithsonian  Chamber  Players  with  James 
Weaver,  Director,  performed  at  the  Smithsonian  and  on  a  National  Associate  tour 
featuring  concerts  of  American  Music  of  the  Federal  Period. 

Teachers  study  colonial  objects  during  Office  of  Elementary  and  Secondary  Educa- 
tion's workshop  on  museum  teaching  methods.  Below.  Teachers  work  with  natural 
history  specimens  during  a  recent  methods  workshop  sponsored  by  the  Office  of 
Elementary  and  Secondary  Education. 

Beast,  and  The  Magic  Flute,  which  music  critic  Irving  Lowens  re- 
viewed as  working  better  with  puppets  than  with  real  people. 

The  African  Diaspora  Program,  the  area  of  dpa  concerned  with 
black  cultural  materials,  conducted  several  educational  and  cultural 
missions.  A  project  with  the  Arlington  County  Humanities  Pro- 
gram took  stories,  songs,  and  other  black  American  cultural  ma- 
terials into  fourteen  schools  in  the  County.  Phase  II  of  this  project, 
co-sponsored  by  the  University  of  Virginia,  offered  a  graduate- 
level  course  taught  by  the  African  Diaspora  Staff  and  Advisory 
Committee  on  Arts  in  the  Classroom.  Dr.  Bernice  Reagon  was  pro- 
gram director  for  a  pilot  project,  a  Festival  in  the  Georgia  Sea 
Islands,  featuring  Georgia  black  American  cultural  traditions,  on 
August  20  and  21.  Mrs.  Rosie  Hooks  was  a  member  of  the  United 
States  delegation  to  the  Second  World  Black  and  African  Arts 
Festival  in  Lagos,  Nigeria,  and  later  was  responsible  for  the  Wash- 
ington component  of  a  national  tour  of  a  cultural  mission  from 
Gambia.  Dr.  Reagon  was  invited  by  the  Government  of  Cuba  as  a 
member  of  a  cultural  mission  of  black  artists  and  scholars,  and 
subsequently  organized  the  Smithsonian  reception  for  Los  Papines, 
the  first  cultural  group  to  come  from  Cuba  since  the  revolution. 

Office  of  Elementary  and  Secondary  Education 

During  fiscal  year  1977  the  Office  of  Elementary  and  Secondary 
Education  (oese)  continued  to  grow  with  new  programs  and  in  new 

Art  to  Zoo — a  four-page  publication  to  promote  the  use  of  mu- 
seums, parks,  libraries,  zoos,  and  other  community  resources — 
was  distributed  to  over  eight  hundred  teachers  nationally,  and 
prompted  many  favorable  comments  from  readers.  "Art  to  Zoo  is 
just  marvelous!"  writes  a  fourth-grade  teacher  in  Pittsfield,  Massa- 
chusetts. "Sometimes  I  feel  that  I  am  stuck  in  a  rut  and  have  no 
imagination  at  all  .  .  .  then  something  like  this  comes  in  the  mail 
and  I  feel  rejuvenated  and  alive  again."  In  conjunction  with  this 
publication,  oese's  first  regional  teachers'  workshop  was  offered  in 
Lancaster,  Pennsylvania.  Over  seven  hundred  teachers  from  two 
school  systems  joined  oese  and  thirteen  cultural  institutions  in  the 

Public  Service  I  173 

Lancaster  area  for  a  day-long  series  of  workshops,  demonstrations, 
and  exhibits.  During  the  1977-1978  school  year  such  workshops 
will  continue,  and  the  Art  to  Zoo  mailing  list  will  be  increased  in 
size  to  include  30,000  teachers. 

In  collaboration  with  the  National  Portrait  Gallery,  oese  staff 
worked  with  four  Washington-area  schools  to  help  third-  through 
sixth-graders  set  up  classroom  museums  on  subjects  relating  to 
their  curriculums.  These  subjects  were:  Family  History,  Greek  Art 
and  Architecture,  The  Animals  of  Maryland,  and  The  Civil  War. 
The  project  has  been  thoroughly  documented;  one  result  will  be  a 
slide  package  for  national  distribution,  showing  how  others  can 
create — with  maximum  educational  profit — a  full-fledged  museum 
in  their  classrooms  from  materials  readily  at  hand. 

On  the  local  level,  in  keeping  with  its  responsibility  to  encour- 
age cooperation  and  exchange  of  information  among  the  Smith- 
sonian education  offices,  and  between  those  offices  and  the  District 
of  Columbia  schools,  oese  continues  to  offer  a  number  of  programs 
that  have  proven  successful  in  the  past.  The  first  of  these  involves 
two  publications  designed  specifically  for  a  local  audience — Let's 
Go  (a  monthly  newsletter)  and  Learning  Opportunities  for  Schools 
(an  annual  brochure) — which  inform  teachers  of  the  ever  growing 
variety  of  Smithsonian  services  available  to  young  people  and 
suggest  ways  of  using  museums  as  educational  resources.  These 
publications  are  sent  free  to  over  thirteen  hundred  area  schools. 

Also  especially  for  local  teachers  is  "Teacher's  Day,"  held  an- 
nually. This  year,  Teacher's  Day  brought  more  than  a  hundred 
Washington-area  teachers  and  Smithsonian  education  staff  to- 
gether for  an  informal  program  of  special  activities,  including  an 
introduction  to  educational  materials  developed  by  the  Education 
Office  at  the  National  Zoo. 

Local  teachers  are  also  reached  through  an  oese  workshop  and 
seminar  program,  now  in  its  sixth  year.  During  fiscal  1977  approxi- 
mately two  thousand  teachers  participated  in  OESE-sponsored  work- 
shops and  seminars,  including  three  summer  (1977)  courses  en- 
abling the  development  of  curriculum  units  based  on  Smithsonian 
resources.  The  workshops  vary  in  length  and  format,  but  all  are 
designed  to  help  teachers  use  the  Smithsonian  and  other  commu- 
nity resources  to  maximum  advantage  in  their  classrooms. 

As  a  result  of  a  series  of  regular  meetings  with  District  of  Co- 

174  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

lumbia  Public  Schools'  Superintendent  Vincent  Reed  and  his  staff, 
members  of  the  Smithsonian's  education  staff  are  now  better  able 
to  meet  the  curricular  needs  of  the  District  Schools.  These  meet- 
ings, which  will  continue  during  the  1977-1978  school  year,  have 
given  the  Office  an  opportunity  to  expand  its  programs  into  adult 
education,  special  education,  and  teacher  workshops. 

In  1977,  oese  sponsored  its  third  annual  program  for  summer 
interns.  This  year  Intern  '77  brought  twenty-six  promising  high 
school  seniors  from  rural  and  inner-city  communities  to  the  Smith- 
sonian to  engage  in  learning  and  service  projects.  The  students 
worked  under  the  guidance  of  curatorial  and  technical  staff  mem- 
bers in  various  parts  of  the  Institution.  A  grant  from  the  DeWitt 
Wallace/Reader's  Digest  Scholarship  Fund  made  this  effort  possible. 

Other  important  oese  activities  include:  (1)  the  chairing  of  a  spe- 
cial Smithsonian  committee  for  handicapped  individuals,  which 
works  to  promote  equal  opportunities  and  access  to  exhibition  gal- 
leries and  education  programs  for  handicapped  visitors  and  em- 
ployees; (2)  a  resource  center,  which  lends  to  education  staff 
throughout  the  Institution  printed  and  audiovisual  materials  relat- 
ing to  museum  education;  and  (3)  a  Docent  Roundtable,  which 
enables  volunteer  guides  (docents)  for  the  various  Smithsonian  mu- 
seums to  learn  of  the  work  of  their  colleagues  and  to  discuss  mat- 
ters of  common  concern. 

The  oese  staff  seeks  to  expand  the  scope  and  understanding  of 
the  professional  museum  educator,  through  participation  in  na- 
tional and  regional  conferences  and  workshops.  To  this  end,  pro- 
grams were  presented  at  the  Southeast  Conference  meeting  of  the 
American  Association  of  Museums,  an  American  Association  of 
State  and  Local  History  workshop  on  Museum  Education,  and  the 
Northeast  Conference  of  the  National  Council  for  the  Social  Stud- 
ies, oese  staff  members  also  helped  to  plan  and  teach  seminars  on 
Docent  Training,  Museum/School  Relations,  and  Museum  Interpre- 
tation given  at  the  Smithsonian  by  the  Office  of  Museum  Programs. 

Office  of  Smithsonian  Symposia  and  Seminars 

To  the  spirited  strains  of  the  McLain  Family  Band  of  Berea,  Ken- 
tucky, playing  for  the  first  time  in  public — in  honor  of  Flag  Day — 

Public  Service  I  175 

H    i  M 

Facing  page,  upper:  Mrs.  Jimmy  Carter  speaks  at  the  formal  opening  ceremony 
on  June  14,  1977,  of  "Kin  and  Communities:  The  Peopling  of  America,"  the 
Smithsonian's  sixth  international  symposium.  In  the  foreground,  Alex  Haley, 
Dr.  Margaret  Mead,  and  Secretary  Ripley  await  their  turns  to  address  the  audi- 
ence. Facing  page,  lower:  Secretary  Ripley  and  Senator  Humphrey  respond  to 
enthusiastic  applause  after  presentation  of  the  Smithsonian's  Joseph  Henry 
Medal.  Below:  Members  of  the  McLain  Family  Band,  one  of  the  nation's  fore- 
most bluegrass  groups,  which  has  toured  the  world  playing  to  the  delight  of 
capacity  crowds  in  some  forty-five  countries  and  which  played  at  the  opening 
of  the  symposium  "Kin  and  Communities:  The  Peopling  of  America." 

their  rendition  of  The  Stars  and  Stripes  Forever,  the  Institution's 
sixth  international  symposium  was  inaugurated  on  June  14,  1977, 
at  the  Kennedy  Center's  Eisenhower  Theater.  Mrs.  Jimmy  Carter, 
Mrs.  Walter  Washington,  Alex  Haley,  and  Dr.  Margaret  Mead 
addressed  a  capacity  audience  prior  to  Secretary  Ripley's  presen- 
tation of  the  Joseph  Henry  Medal  to  Senator  Hubert  H.  Humphrey 
for  distinguished  service  to  the  Smithsonian  as  a  former  Regent. 
These  opening  ceremonies  officially  ushered  in  a  sequence  of  events 
in  connection  with  which  Dr.  Mead,  the  symposium's  chairperson, 

"Families  always  have  been  part  of  some  kind  of  larger  com- 
munity, and  only  rarely  could  they  exist  alone  for  any  length 
of  time.  Is  there  any  viable  alternative  to  the  family  as  a  set- 
ting in  which  children  can  be  reared  successfully  to  become 
capable  and  responsible  adults?  Should  we  aim  at  some  wholly 
new  social  invention?" 

This  was  the  issue  addressed  by  the  "Kin  and  Communities: 
The  Peopling  of  America"  program,  spanning  several  years  of  de- 
velopment as  an  educational  adjunct  of  the  total  Bicentennial  pe- 
riod (1976-1979),  wherein  discovery  and  rediscovery  of  personal 
roots  will  help  redefine  one's  own  American  experience.  High- 
lighted in  the  formal  souvenir  program  to  the  symposium  were 
articles  by  Eli  N.  Evans,  "How  To  Interview  Your  Grandparents," 
and  by  James  W.  Symington,  "A  Tale  of  Two  Families  (And  One 
City),"  to  illustrate  the  living  growth  of  American  culture  and  how 
it  has  influenced  our  common  history.  Distinguished  contributors 
to  the  symposium,  in  addition  to  the  foregoing,  included  authors 
Elizabeth  Janeway,  Man's  World,  Woman's  Place;  Amaury  de 
Riencourt,  Sex  and  Power  in  History;  Wyatt  Cooper,  Families:  A 
Memoir  and  A  Celebration;  Edward  B.  Fiske,  education  editor  for 
the  New  York  Times;  Bernard  Bailyn;  John  Demos;  and  many 
others.  In  addition  to  the  larger  sessions  at  which  formal  papers 
were  presented,  there  were  colloquia,  public  panels,  workshops, 
and  working  groups.  Materials  from  all  the  meetings  will  be  incor- 
porated into  a  formal  published  volume  to  be  edited  by  Allan  J. 
Lichman  and  Joan  Challinor,  both  of  the  Department  of  History, 
American  University.  A  committee  of  some  thirty  national  advisors 
served  as  counsel  to  the  office  in  developing  the  overall  activities. 

178  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

The  symposium  week  closed  with  an  old-fashioned  family-style 
picnic  at  the  National  Zoo,  during  which  even  a  thunderous  down- 
pour could  not  dampen  the  spirits  of  those  enjoying  the  evening's 

Supplementing  the  office's  responsibilities  on  the  Mall,  the  Di- 
rector, Dr.  Wilton  Dillon,  represented  the  Smithsonian  at  the  con- 
ference on  "Science  and  World  Affairs"  sponsored  by  the  Pugwash 
Movement  in  August  1977  at  Munich.  Throughout  the  year  Dr. 
Dillon  also  spoke  before  other  outside  groups,  among  them  Teach- 
ers College,  Columbia  University,  on  behalf  of  the  Institution  and 
his  own  anthropological  research  into  intergenerational  education 
and  the  human  life  cycle. 

Office  of  Telecommunications 

In  its  first  full  year  as  a  separate  unit,  the  Office  of  Telecommuni- 
cations, as  the  responsible  division  for  all  Smithsonian  activities  in 
television,  radio,  and  films,  moved  forward  on  a  number  of  projects. 
The  Office  developed  and  produced  a  new  official  film  overview  of 
the  Smithsonian  with  Secretary  Ripley  as  the  host/narrator,  and 
completed,  in  the  role  of  co-producer,  a  film  dealing  with  the  Na- 
tional Museum  of  Natural  History  with  Orson  Welles  as  narrator. 
Also,  the  Office  assisted  in  the  production  of  a  CBS-TV  network 
special  on  the  Pyramids,  and  negotiated  rebroadcast  for  the  NBC- 
TV  network  of  the  popular  Smithsonian  Special  of  the  previous 
year,  Monsters!  Mysteries  or  Myths? 

Two  major  projects  designed  for  public  television  progressed  to 
the  point  where  one  of  them,  a  new  version  of  What  in  the 
World,  moved  into  the  videotape  pilot  phase;  and  the  other, 
Smithsonian  World,  a  monthly  television  magazine,  is  in  the  stage 
of  seeking  an  underwriter. 

Among  other  activities,  the  Office  produced  a  new  30-second 
television  public  service  announcement  patterned  after  last  year's 
prize-winning  Bicentennial  "spots"  for  nationwide  distribution; 
filmed  and  recorded  for  archival  purposes  many  Smithsonian  events; 
and  fulfilled  numerous  requests  from  television,  film,  and  radio  pro- 
ducers for  assistance  with  coverage  of  happenings  throughout  the 

Public  Service  I  179 

Institution.  Radio  Smithsonian,  the  Institution's  national  weekly 
radio  program,  continued  its  growth  with  a  revised,  expanded  for- 
mat, at  the  same  time  increasing  its  coverage  to  more  than  fifty 

Smithsonian  Institution  Press 

During  the  year  the  Smithsonian  Institution  Press  published  203 
publications  with  federal  appropriations  totaling  $354,981.34,  in- 
cluding such  notable  books  as  The  Thomas  Eakins  Collection  of  the 
Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Gardens;  Americas:  Decorative 
Arts  in  Latin  America  in  the  Era  of  the  Revolution;  Perfect  Likeness; 
The  Art  Crusade;  The  Musical  Instruments  of  Joseph  Haydn:  An 
Introduction;  and  The  Anacostia  Story.  Among  the  significant  scien- 
tific monographs  published  by  the  Press  were  The  Walakpa  Site, 
Alaska:  Its  Place  in  the  Birnik  and  Thule  Cultures;  Traditional  Pot- 
tery Techniques  of  Pakistan:  Field  and  Laboratory  Studies;  Science 
and  Instrument-makers :  Michelson,  Sperry,  and  the  Speed  of  Light; 
and  Comparative  Ethology  of  the  Large-spotted  Genet  (Genetta 
tigrina)  and  Some  Related  Viverrids.  In  addition,  the  Press  pub- 
lished The  Red  Alga  Polysiphonia  (Rhodomelaccae)  in  the  Northern 
Gulf  of  California  and  is  awaiting  delivery  from  the  printer  of  Astro- 
naut Observations  from  the  Apollo-Soyuz  Mission,  the  first  publi- 
cations of  the  two  new  "Smithsonian  Contributions"  series  which 
were  initiated  in  fiscal  year  1977 — "Smithsonian  Contributions  to 
the  Marine  Sciences,"  and  "Smithsonian  Studies  in  Air  and  Space." 
The  Press  and  the  Superintendent  of  Documents  shipped,  on  order 
and  to  subscribers  a  total  of  167,000  publications  including  books, 
art  catalogues,  brochures,  and  miscellaneous  items;  100  records 
were  distributed. 

In  addition  to  these,  the  Press  published  and  marketed  nine  trade 
books  during  the  year,  bringing  its  total  inventory  to  168,561  books 
valued  at  $290,437  published  with  Smithsonian  trust  funds.  Smith- 
sonian best  sellers  in  1977  were  Zoobook,  Rauschenberg,  Washing- 
ton on  Foot,  The  Golden  Door,  Peoples  and  Cultures  of  Ancient 
Peru,  and  America  as  Art. 

External  arrangements  of  interest  have  included  a  contract  with 
Macmillan  of  Canada  to  distribute  Smithsonian  Institution  Press 

180  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

books  in  that  country,  an  agreement  with  British  Museum  Publica- 
tions Ltd.  to  co-publish  a  book  on  George  Catlin's  artistic  and 
scholarly  interest  in  American  Indian  pipes,  acceptance  by  both  the 
Book-of-the-Month  Club  and  the  Playboy  Book  Club  of  the  Press' 
forthcoming  The  Smithsonian  Collection  of  Newspaper  Comics  as 
one  of  their  alternate  selections,  and  selection  by  the  National  Wild- 
life Federation  of  Zoobook  for  their  Christmas  1977  catalogue. 

Noteworthy  Press  activities  within  the  Smithsonian  family  have 
included  publications  for  the  Woodrow  Wilson  International  Center 
for  Scholars  of  the  first  of  an  important  series,  Scholars'  Guide  to 
Washington,  D.  C.  for  Russian/ Soviet  Studies,  and  substantial 
progress  toward  editorial  and  design  completion  of  the  Archives 
of  American  Art's  massive  Bibliography  of  the  Arts  in  America,  a 
unique  scholarly  achievement  for  which  the  manuscript  alone  will 
exceed  20,000  pages.  A  rewarding  collaboration  between  the  Press 
and  the  National  Capital  Planning  Commission  resulted  in  a  publi- 
cation of  unusual  significance — Worthy  of  the  Nation:  The  History 
of  Planning  for  the  National  Capital.  This  book,  written  by  Fred- 
erick Gutheim,  is  the  culmination  of  many  years  of  preparation  by 
the  National  Capital  Planning  Commission  as  one  of  its  major 
Bicentennial  projects. 

A  continuing  flow  of  awards  attested  to  the  quality  of  Smith- 
sonian and  Smithsonian  Institution  Press  books.  Most  notable  was 
selection  of  America  as  Art  as  one  of  five  finalists  in  the  History 
Division  of  the  prestigious  National  Book  Awards.  In  addition,  two 
Smithsonian  Institution  Press  editors  received  1977  National  Asso- 
ciation of  Government  Communicators  Blue  Pencil  Awards,  while 
two  Press  books,  The  Golden  Door  and  The  Edge  of  the  Forest, 
were  among  the  thirty  university  press  books  accepted  on  the 
basis  of  excellence  in  design  for  the  Association  of  American  Uni- 
versity Presses'  1977  Bookshow,  which  is  exhibited  nationwide; 
Zoobook  was  awarded  a  gold  medal. 

Smithsonian  Magazine 

The  official  magazine  of  the  Institution  continued,  in  its  seventh 
year,  with  increasing  financial  and  critical  success,  to  follow  the 

Public  Service  I  181 

original  instructions  of  the  Secretary,  which  were  to  publish  mate- 
rial in  which  the  Smithsonian  Institution  is  interested  or  might  be 
interested.  What  follows  are  the  important  areas  of  subject  matter 
with  examples  of  outstanding  articles. 

Science  (hard  and  natural):  traveling  faster  than  light;  a  two-part 
article  on  the  nature  and  activities  of  the  controversial  Corps  of 
Engineers;  limb  regeneration;  the  fight  to  save  the  porpoise;  South- 
ern Hemisphere  telescopes  which  widen  the  field  of  astronomy; 
space  shuttle;  life  in  a  DNA  lab;  articles  (coal,  water  power,  and 
solar  cells)  in  three  successive  issues  on  vitally  needed  energy;  a 
two-part  article  on  the  indispensible  biosphere  and  the  link,  in  the 
Western  Hemisphere,  between  the  Amazon  and  Mckenzie  basins. 

Art:  national  tour  of  King  Tut  exhibit;  Alexander  Calder,  Amer- 
ica's Matisse/ Picasso;  Thracian  gold;  France's  new  national  mu- 
seum, the  Pompidou. 

History:  Joseph  Needham's  monumental  series  on  China;  two- 
part  article  on  Supreme  Court  (living  history);  Pevsner's  great 
mansions  of  England;  construction  of  Lincoln  statue;  two-part 
article  on  Brady,  the  first  great  war  (Civil)  photographer. 

A  new  circulation  guarantee  of  1,500,000  was  established  on 
March  1,  1977,  up  from  a  previous  guarantee  of  1,000,000  and  an 
Audit  Bureau  of  Circulation  figure  of  1,250,000  for  June  1976.  Ad- 
vertising pages  increased  to  775  pages  for  the  year  ending  June  30, 
1977,  as  compared  to  730  for  the  preceding  year.  Gains,  not  yet 
computed,  were  maintained  up  to  the  end  of  the  new  fiscal  year, 
September  30.  That  Smithsonian  magazine  distribution  is  nation- 
wide is  shown  by  the  fact  that  there  are  more  Associate  members  in 
California  than  there  are  in  the  Washington,  D.C.,  metropolitan  area. 
Figures  on  magazine  profits  were  released  by  the  Secretary:  more 
than  $2.9  million  for  fiscal  year  1976. 

The  magazine  became  an  integral  part  of  the  Cooper-Hewitt 
membership  organization  as  it  had  previously  become  a  benefit  of 
Resident  Association  membership.  It  gave  substantial  assistance  to 
the  new  Woodroiu  Wilson  Quarterly.  It  cooperated  with  other  di- 
visions and  departments  in  calling  the  attention  of  its  public  to  the 
products  of  the  Division  of  Performing  Arts,  Photographic  Serv- 
ices, the  Air  and  Space  Museum,  the  Museum  Shops,  and  the 
Smithsonian  Press. 

182  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Smithsonian  Resident  Associates 

The  Smithsonian  Resident  Associate  Program  was  established  in 
1965  by  Secretary  Ripley  to  provide  the  opportunity  for  residents 
of  the  greater  Washington  area  to  participate  actively  in  the  life  of 
the  Institution.  The  Program  seeks  to  achieve  this  goal  through  an 
extensive  range  of  quality  educational  activities  that  are  consonant 
with  the  research,  collections,  and  exhibitions  of  the  Institution. 
These  activities  include  classes  in  the  arts,  sciences,  humanities, 
and  studio  arts;  study  tours  within  the  Smithsonian  bureaus  and 
nearby  complementary  facilities,  as  well  as  pertinent  overnight 
tours,  lectures,  symposia,  seminars,  film  series,  exhibition  previews, 
outdoor  festivals,  art  poster  projects,  and  performing  arts  events. 

The  Program's  focus  throughout  fiscal  year  1977  was  on  main- 
taining the  quality  of  its  educational  offerings  and  continuing  to 
ensure  efficient  and  thoughtful  service  to  members.  While  no 
growth  was  sought,  and  no  membership  promotions  utilized,  the 
number  of  memberships  rose  to  44,000  as  of  September  1977,  a  net 
gain  of  about  3,500  over  the  previous  summer.  (Memberships  may 
be  categorized  as  individual,  double,  family,  and  contributing.) 

The  year  was  marked  by  an  intensification  of  cooperation  with 
Smithsonian  bureaus  as  the  Program  sought  to  enhance  the  knowl- 
edge and  appreciation  of  the  Institution's  collections,  exhibitions, 
research,  and  curatorial  interests.  For  example,  the  National  Col- 
lection of  Fine  Arts  was  host  to  two  member  openings  during  the 
year:  the  walkthrough  of  the  "Robert  Rauschenberg  Retrospec- 
tive," and  a  preview  of  the  exhibition  "Painting  and  Sculpture  in 
California:  The  Modern  Era." 

In  addition  to  cooperating  with  Washington  organizations,  the 
Program  works  to  foster  civic  awareness  and  interest  in  the  im- 
mediate community  of  which  the  Smithsonian  is  part.  One  of  the 
Program's  long-range  goals  has  been  to  engage  the  interests  of  a 
broader  spectrum  of  Washingtonians  and  to  make  the  Program 
accessible  to  a  wider  range  of  age,  interest,  and  ethnic  groups.  The 
Young  Associate  scholarship  program,  now  funded  directly  out  of 
the  Program's  budget,  enables  some  one  hundred  and  fifty  inner- 
city  youngsters  from  thirty  D.C.  schools  to  participate  tuition-free 

Public  Service  I  183 

Resident  Associates  tour  historic  Congressional  Cemetery,  where  composer  John 
Philip  Sousa,  Civil  War  photographer  Matthew  Brady,  and  seventy-five  Congress- 
men and  fifty-six  Senators  are  buried.  Historian  Ruth  Ann  Overbeck  led  the  walk- 
ing tour.  Below,  left:  Students  in  a  Resident  Associate  studio  art  class  learn  tech- 
niques of  figure  drawing  from  life  with  instructor  Ann  Purcell  (standing  far  right). 
Right:  Kite  flyers  at  the  Resident  Associate  Program's  Annual  Smithsonian  Kite 
Festival  pose  with  a  tetrahedral  kite  of  the  type  with  which  Alexander  Graham  Bell 

in  Young  Associate  classes  and  programs  each  year.  The  Program 
is  also  currently  working  with  the  District  of  Columbia  Board  of 
Recreation  to  allocate  tuition-free  scholarships  to  Resident  Asso- 
ciate adult  classes  for  Washington  residents  who  are  now  taking 
part  in  adult  education  classes  in  the  public  school  system.  In  an 
effort  to  attract  more  blacks  and  more  Spanish-speaking  members, 
the  Program  has  engaged  Charles  Hobson,  Program  Director, 
WETA  radio,  to  develop  programs  and  activities  geared  to  minority 

The  Young  Associate  Program  extends  the  resources  of  the  Insti- 
tution to  members'  children  (as  well  as  scholarship  children) 
through  classes  and  special  events.  The  Program  offers  learning 
experiences  appropriate  to  specific  age  groups,  ranging  from  four 
to  eighteen.  This  year  membership  was  extended  to  young  people 
up  to  age  twenty-one  to  enable  college  age  dependents  to  attend 
family  activities  without  the  necessity  of  individual  memberships. 

There  are  almost  six  thousand  family  memberships,  and  special 
activities  are  regularly  geared  to  family  participation.  The  annual 
Zoo  nights,  the  Boomerang  and  Kite  Festivals,  which  were  particu- 
larly well-attended  this  year,  are  family  highlights,  in  addition  to 
farm  excursions,  train  trips,  fossil  digs,  and  canal  trips.  Over  thirty 
family  activities  were  scheduled  in  fiscal  year  1977,  not  including 
special  activities  for  the  children  of  family  members.  As  an  exam- 
ple of  the  seriousness  with  which  Young  Associate  courses  are 
now  regarded  in  the  city,  George  Washington  University  extended 
course  credit  to  students  in  a  class  on  "Community  Resources"  for 
their  participation  as  interns  in  Resident  Associate  classes  for 
young  people. 

Over  two  hundred  and  fifty  volunteers  work  for  the  Resident 
Associate  Program  on  a  regular  basis,  assisting  at  special  events, 
monitoring  classes,  and  performing  office  duties.  The  Program's  vol- 
unteers frequently  offer  their  time  to  other  Smithsonian  bureaus,  as 
they  did  in  June  when  they  served  as  monitors  for  the  Office  of 
Smithsonian  Symposia  and  Seminars'  symposium  on  "Kin  and 
Communities:  The  Peopling  of  America."  Over  one  hundred  and 
forty-five  volunteers  have  been  presented  with  certificates  of  ap- 
preciation, signed  by  Secretary  Ripley,  to  offer  further  thanks  for 
special  help. 

Public  Service  I  185 

Visitor  Information  and  Associates'  Reception  Center 

The  Visitors  Information  and  Associates'  Reception  Center,  now 
in  its  seventh  year,  continues  to  expand  its  role  of  providing  infor- 
mation and  service  to  the  Institution,  the  public,  and  Associate 

Notable  achievements  in  fiscal  year  1977  include:  the  approval 
of  the  Center  as  the  Institution-wide  central  registration  point  for 
behind-the-scenes  volunteers;  and  the  acceptance  by  the  Museum 
of  History  and  Technology  administration  of  a  proposal  to  appoint 
department/division  public  inquiry  liaisons. 

Increases  in  all  visitor  services  provided  by  the  Center  are  attrib- 
uted to  delayed  Bicentennial  visitations  and  the  expanding  popu- 
larity of  Smithsonian  attractions  and  activities. 

Information  Volunteers,  currently  numbering  350,  continue  to 
provide  the  human  interface  between  the  Smithsonian  and  visitors 
to  the  National  Collections.  Desk  coverage  in  museums  and  gal- 
leries served  by  the  Information  Volunteer  Program,  between  the 
hours  of  10  and  4,  seven  days  a  week,  netted  32.9  thousand  hours 
of  volunteer  service.  Orientation  services  were  provided  in  the  As- 
sociates' Lounge  for  approximately  135,000  members. 

The  "Castle"  Docent  Program  has  realized  much  of  its  potential 
this  year  in  cooperation  with  the  Associates'  Travel  Program. 
Weekly  Sunday  morning  tours  were  offered  to  2,100  participants  in 
"Washington  Anytime"  weekend.  Further  expansion  of  the  Program 
now  enables  the  addition  of  tours  for  special  events,  when  docents 
are  assigned  to  each  of  the  featured  rooms  in  the  "Castle."  "A  Vic- 
torian Evening  at  the  Smithsonian,"  presented  for  the  Contributing 
Membership  on  the  first  Sunday  in  May,  was  the  first  such  event  for 
the  period-costumed  docents. 

Completing  its  second  official  year  of  operation,  the  Public  In- 
quiry Mail  sector  experienced  a  30  percent  growth  factor.  The  fifty- 
to-fifty  ratio  between  public  and  member  requests  remains  con- 
stant, as  does  the  diversity  of  information  sought.  Information  sys- 
tems and  ready  reference  files  have  been  expanded  and  updated. 
Closer  curatorial  contacts  were  established  to  facilitate  public 
queries  regarding  collections  and  exhibits,  and  the  mail  operations 
of  other  major  institutions  were  examined  and  evaluated  for  future 

186   '  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

application.  New  informational  preprints  were  developed  for  re- 
sponse to  frequently  asked  questions,  allowing  more  time  to  proc- 
ess special  requests.  Through  the  hard  work  and  dedication  of  staff 
and  volunteers  alike,  the  Institution's  image  as  a  reliable  and 
thorough  source  of  information  continues  to  be  reinforced  through 
the  mail,  thus  adding  a  new  dimension  to  the  understanding  and 
knowledge  of  thousands  of  persons. 

The  Independent  Volunteer  Placement  Service  maintained  a  ros- 
ter of  staff  projects  and  an  active  referral  service  for  prospective 
volunteers.  Some  24,000  hours  of  service  were  contributed  by  vol- 
unteers placed  through  this  program  in  fiscal  year  1977.  Adults 
provide  the  primary  resource  of  volunteer  assistance,  with  a  grow- 
ing number  of  students  assigned  to  short-term  projects.  Future 
plans  for  this  program  include  specialized  projects  designed  to 
provide  broader  service  to  the  Institution. 

From  the  Anacostia  Neighborhood  Museum  to  the  National 
Zoological  Park,  Smithsonian  volunteers  continue  to  personify  the 
diversity  and  richness  of  the  National  Collections. 

The  Smithsonian  is  indeed  indebted  to  the  2,352  devoted  indi- 
viduals who  have  given  so  generously  of  their  time  and  talents  this 
past  year.  Together,  some  216,985  hours  of  service  have  been 
amassed  by  these  volunteers,  working  as  docents,  information  spe- 
cialists, and  behind-the-scene  staff  assistants.  The  Smithsonian 
recognizes  and  commends  this  volunteer  corps  whose  contribution 
so  significantly  amplifies  the  Institution's  credo — "the  increase  and 
diffusion  of  knowledge." 

Public  Service  I  187 

Kjell  Sandved,  photographer  with  the  National  Museum  of  Natural  History,  demon- 
strates his  camera  equipment  during  a  photography  techniques  session  at  the  Denver 
Museum  of  Natural  History,  held  under  the  auspices  of  the  Smithsonian  National 
Associate  Program.  (Photo  by  Ronda  Barlow,  Denver  Museum  of  Natural  History) 

Smithsonian  Year  .   1977 


The  institution's  membership  program  of  the  Smithsonian  Associ- 
ates was  essentially  designed  for  Washington  area  residents,  until 
the  spring  of  1970  when  publication  of  the  Smithsonian  Magazine 
began.  As  a  principal  benefit  of  membership,  the  monthly  magazine 
so  stimulated  interest  in  the  program  as  to  increase  the  Smithsonian 
Associates  to  nearly  1,600,000  members  across  the  country. 

National  Board  of  the  Smithsonian  Associates 

The  National  Board  of  the  Smithsonian  Associates  provides  leader- 
ship to  the  National  Associates  Program,  and  constitutes  an  impor- 
tant network  of  informed  leaders  who  care  about  and  work  for  the 
Smithsonian  Institution  in  communities  all  around  the  country. 
Under  the  leadership  of  its  Chairman,  Ambassador  George  C.  Mc- 
Ghee,  the  Board  met  in  Washington  in  the  fall  of  1976,  and  in 
Minneapolis  in  the  spring  of  1977. 

Five  new  members  were  elected  to  the  Board  this  year:  Mrs. 
Jackson  Burke,  the  Honorable  William  T.  Coleman,  Jr.,  and  Messrs. 
Gaylord  Donnelley,  James  M.  Kemper,  Jr.,  and  Vernon  Taylor,  Jr. 
In  addition,  Mrs.  Karl  G.  Harr  joined  the  Board  (ex  officio)  follow- 
ing her  election  as  the  new  Chairman  of  the  Smithsonian  Women's 
Committee.  To  honor  the  nine  original  members  of  the  Board,  a  new 
category — Honorary  Membership — was  created.  The  persons  who 
will  be  so  honored  are  Messrs.  Richard  P.  Cooley,  Joseph  F.  Cullman 
III,  Leonard  K.  Firestone,  Alfred  C.  Glassell,  Jr.,  William  A.  Hewitt, 
Lewis  A.  Lapham,  Francis  C.  Rooney,  Jr.,  Merritt  K.  Ruddock,  and 


Thomas  J.  Watson,  Jr.  Subsequently,  Mrs.  Lyndon  B.  Johnson  and 
the  Honorable  Nelson  A.  Rockefeller  were  also  elected  Honorary 
Members  because  of  their  frequent  service  to  the  Institution. 

The  remaining  members  of  the  National  Board  of  the  Smith- 
sonian Associates  are  the  Honorable  George  C.  McGhee,  Chairman, 
Mr.  Robert  O.  Anderson,  Mr.  William  S.  Anderson,  Mr.  Harry  Hood 
Bassett,  Mr.  Henry  C.  Beck,  Jr.,  Mr.  Keith  S.  Brown,  Mr.  Thomas  M. 
Evans,  Mr.  Charles  T.  Fisher  III,  Mrs.  David  L.  Guyer,  Mr.  Henry  J. 
Heinz  II,  the  Honorable  John  N.  Irwin  II,  Mrs.  Robert  A.  Magowan, 
Mrs.  Robert  S.  McNamara,  Mr.  Scott  McVay,  Dr.  Ruben  F.  Mettler, 
Mr.  John  R.  Norton  III,  Mr.  Charles  M.  Pigott,  Mr.  George  S.  Pills- 
bury,  Mr.  Arthur  A.  Seeligson,  Jr.,  and  Mr.  James  O.  Wright. 

Regional  Program 

As  the  Institution's  membership  program  spread  beyond  the  con- 
fines of  the  Mall  to  Associates  who  receive  the  magazine  through- 
out the  country,  the  vehicle  for  additional  member  involvement  has 
been  the  Regional  Program.  This  program  offers  a  series  of  activities 
representing  Smithsonian  research  and  educational  interests  in  se- 
lected cities  across  the  country.  During  the  past  year,  programs  of 
up  to  two  weeks  in  length  were  scheduled  in  Peoria,  Milwaukee, 
Detroit,  Seattle,  Portland,  Denver,  and  Minneapolis-Saint  Paul. 
Approximately  157,000  Associates  and  members  of  local  museums 
in  these  localities  received  invitations.  Over  157  lectures,  perform- 
ances, exhibitions,  and  workshops  were  offered  for  which  34,000 
members  requested  tickets. 

The  educational  goal  of  the  program,  stressing  a  greater  partici- 
pation of  members  in  museum  activities  around  the  country,  was 
undertaken  with  the  assistance  of  fifteen  bureaus  of  the  Institution 
and  twenty-one  co-sponsoring  local  organizations.  Meaningful  ex- 
periences were  provided  through  innovative  program  formats,  sup- 
plemental educational  materials,  and  reading  lists  developed  by  the 
lecturers  and  the  National  Associate  Program. 

Two  of  the  most  successful  programs  were  the  Smithsonian 
Chamber  Players  performing  for  sellout  audiences;  and  Kjell  Sand- 
ved,  National  Museum  of  Natural  History,  presenting  a  research 
film  on  animal  motility  to  "standing  room  only"  audiences. 

190  /  Smithsonian  Year  19~7 

The  impact  of  the  program  was  felt  locally,  where  as  many  as 
400  new  members  were  added  to  co-sponsors'  organizations  as  a 
result  of  the  program.  A  post-tour  survey  in  one  host  city  indicated 
that  98  percent  of  those  questioned  intended  to  return  to  the  local 
museums,  more  than  35  percent  planned  to  join  the  local  museum, 
and  over  84  percent  felt  that  they  had  a  greater  understanding  of 
the  work  and  collections  of  the  Institution. 

The  shared  concern  for  an  active,  nationwide,  museum-going 
populace,  has  fostered  a  strong  cooperative  spirit  between  the 
Smithsonian  and  local  museums.  As  the  outreach  program  has 
grown,  the  interplay  between  museums  has  encouraged  the  regional 
hosts  to  enhance  Smithsonian  offerings  with  locally  planned  special 
events  and  follow-up  programs,  using  the  Smithsonian  program 
concept  to  provide  continuing  educational  benefits  for  local  mem- 

Additionally,  the  program  has  utilized  the  talents  of  its  speakers 
not  only  for  lectures  to  members,  but  also  in  dialogues  with  other 
museum  professionals.  During  part  of  their  visit  the  Smithsonian 
staff  consulted  with  scientists  in  like  disciplines,  sharing  ideas  and 
discussing  developments  in  their  respective  fields. 

Associates  Travel  Program 

During  1977,  the  Domestic  Study  Tours  staff  continued  to  provide 
members  with  educational  travel  experiences.  Visits  were  made  to 
such  places  as  the  Colorado  River  to  study  natural  history,  New 
Mexico  to  study  the  Pueblo  Indian  cultures,  and  Alaska  to  enjoy 
the  wildlife  of  Mount  McKinley.  On  all  tours,  small  groups  of 
members  were  accompanied  by  a  Smithsonian  representative  and  a 
curator  who  is  a  specialist  in  the  topic  of  the  tour. 

More  than  2,000  members  participated  in  the  popular  "Washing- 
ton Anytime"  weekend  during  the  year.  Designed  to  give  National 
Associates  an  opportunity  to  visit  Washington  and  the  Smithsonian 
any  weekend  during  the  year,  the  program,  assisted  by  the  Visitor 
Information  and  Associates'  Reception  Center,  responded  to  a  large 
number  of  members  who  wished  to  enjoy  the  city  following  the 
Bicentennial  activities. 

Membership  and  Development  I  191 

The  new  Foreign  Charter  Program,  which  is  dedicated  to  the  goal 
of  providing  educational  and  culturally  oriented  tours  to  a  broad 
base  of  the  Associates  membership,  continues  to  be  successful.  Each 
charter  tour  provides  educational  travel  opportunities  for  172  mem- 
bers. The  tour  is  divided  into  six  small  groups  of  28  or  29  members, 
each  accompanied  by  a  Smithsonian  representative  and  a  tour 
leader.  Participating  members  receive  educational  tour  bulletins, 
recommended  reading  lists,  books,  maps,  special  publications,  and 
helpful  information  prior  to  departure.  An  optional  two-day  Pre- 
departure  Program  is  also  available.  The  program  offers  an  orienta- 
tion to  the  Institution,  social  events  for  meeting  fellow  travelers, 
and  a  series  of  lectures  by  curators  and  visiting  specialists  on  his- 
tory, culture,  political  and  social  life,  and  art  and  architecture  of 
the  country  to  be  visited.  Last  year  visits  were  made  to  England, 
Australia,  Siberia,  Mexico,  Russia,  Poland,  and  Turkey. 

Contributing  Membership  Program 

Contributing  Members  of  the  Smithsonian  National  Associates  sup- 
port the  Institution's  work  through  annual  contributions  of  $50, 
$100,  and  $500.  In  the  past  year,  the  membership  doubled  from 
885  to  1,616  and  maintained  a  renewal  rate  of  85  percent.  Special 
events  for  Contributing  Members  included  a  "Private  Viewing  of 
the  Treasures  of  Tutankhamun"  in  November  and  a  "Victorian 
Evening  at  the  Smithsonian"  in  May. 

The  James  Smithson  Society  was  created  in  1977  to  encourage 
and  recognize  major  gifts  to  the  Smithsonian  Institution.  This  So- 
ciety, which  is  the  highest  order  of  Contributing  Membership,  is 
comprised  of  two  membership  categories.  Annual  members  are 
individuals  who  make  unrestricted  contributions  of  $1,000  to 
$24,999  in  a  given  year.  Life  Members  are  those  who  give  $25,000 
or  more,  either  in  monetary  gifts  or  additions  to  the  collections. 

The  first  year  of  the  James  Smithson  Society  was  extremely  suc- 
cessful, with  ninety-seven  Annual  and  eighteen  Life  members.  The 
Annual  membership  made  possible  the  acquisition  of  Rembrandt 
Peale's  important  painting,  The  Roman  Daughter,  for  the  National 

192  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Collection  of  Fine  Arts,  and  twenty  summer  intern  scholarships  for 
high  school  students  through  the  Office  of  Elementary  and  Second- 
ary Education.  Life  members'  gifts  covered  a  wide  range  of  signifi- 
cant objects  and  collections  to  five  Smithsonian  bureaus,  including 
ancient  glass,  gems,  jade  carvings,  jewelry,  paintings,  drawings, 
stoneware,  porcelain,  a  silver  teapot,  a  nineteenth-century  steam 
engine  and  monetary  contributions. 

The  Smithsonian  Institution  gratefully  acknowledges  the  gene- 
rous support  of  the  James  Smithson  Society  1977  Annual  Members, 
Life  Members,  and  the  Contributing  Members  of  the  Smithsonian 
Associates,  who  are  listed  in  Appendix  8. 

Membership  and  Development  I  193 

Statue  of  Joseph  Henry  silhouetted  against  the  towers  and  turrets  of  the  Smith- 
sonian Institution's  first  building,  which  was  designed  by  James  Renwick,  Jr.,  and 
was  built  between  1847  and  1855.  Joseph  Henry  was  the  Institution's  first  Secretary 
and  served  in  that  capacity  from  1846  until  1878. 

Smithsonian  Year  .  1977 

In  may  1977,  the  audit  review  committee  of  the  Board  of  Regents 
engaged  the  services  of  Phillip  S.  Hughes  to  study  certain  aspects 
of  the  Institution's  management,  and  to  provide  the  study,  with  his 
recommendations,  to  the  Committee.  Mr.  Hughes,  a  distinguished 
civil  servant  and  a  former  Deputy  Director  of  the  Office  of  Man- 
agement and  Budget,  submitted  his  report  to  the  Audit  Committee 
on  September  1,  1977. 

The  Hughes  Report  recommended  the  following:  that  the  Insti- 
tution provide  more  information  to  the  Congress  regarding  the 
former's  future  plans  for  federal  and  trust  funds;  that  it  establish  a 
five-year  planning  process;  that,  corollary  to  this,  the  Institution 
develop  a  comprehensive,  descriptive  list  of  its  activities;  that  it 
establish  and  issue  policies  for  the  use  of  its  trust  funds;  and  that 
the  position  of  Under  Secretary,  vacant  since  the  death  in  1976  of 
Robert  A.  Brooks,  be  filled.  The  Report  was  adopted  by  the  Board 
of  Regents,  and  implementation  is  currently  underway. 

On  July  11,  1977,  Lawrence  E.  Taylor  assumed  the  newly  estab- 
lished position  of  Coordinator  of  Public  Information,  reporting 
directly  to  the  Secretary.  Mr.  Taylor  is  responsible  for  all  aspects 
of  public  information,  Congressional  relations,  and  special  events, 
functions  which  previously  had  been  assigned  among  several  other 

financial  Management 

The  Treasurer  and  his  staff  continued  their  oversight  and  adminis- 
tration of  the  financial  assets  of  the  Institution  in  addition  to  imple- 

Administration  I  195 

meriting  several  important  new  programs  designed  to  improve  finan- 
cial reporting,  and  budgetary  and  expenditure  controls. 

The  Treasurer,  working  closely  with  the  Investment  Policy  Com- 
mittee of  the  Board  of  Regents,  oversees  the  management  of  the 
endowment  funds  of  the  Institution  by  three  professional  advisory 
firms.  Details  on  these  funds  and  other  financial  resources  of  the 
Institution  can  be  found  in  the  Financial  Report  shown  in  the  State- 
ment by  the  Secretary.  The  Investment  Accounting  Division  assists 
the  Treasurer  with  the  monitoring  of  the  endowments  and  is  also 
responsible  for  the  short-term  investment  of  current  funds  excess 
to  immediate  operating  needs.  This  is  accomplished  through  daily 
cash  management  and  forecasting  procedures  to  insure  the  highest 
possible  return.  The  Division  maintains  various  automated  systems 
for  the  tabulation  of  investment  data,  performance  evaluations  of 
the  three  investment  managers,  and  distributions  of  earned  interest 
of  funds  of  bureaus  of  the  Institution. 

During  the  year,  the  Office  of  Programming  and  Budget  devel- 
oped and  implemented  the  Institution's  first  "zero-base"  budget  for 
fiscal  year  1979,  following  the  Office  of  Management  and  Budget's 
general  guidelines.  Each  of  the  Institution's  museums,  bureaus,  or 
offices  receiving  an  annual  appropriation  reviewed  its  programs 
rigorously  and  assessed  the  impact  of  funding  at  various  resource 
levels.  A  noteworthy  feature  of  the  zero-base  budgeting  system 
involved  ranking  of  the  Institution's  programs  in  priority  order 
across  program  lines. 

The  Accounting  Division  developed  and  instituted  for  fiscal  year 
1977  a  new  accounting  system  utilizing  a  greatly  expanded  key-to- 
disc  data-entry  system.  One  major  contribution  of  this  system  is 
the  consolidation  of  federal  and  trust  processing.  Until  this  year, 
separate  systems  were  used  to  accomplish  functions  such  as  pre- 
paring vouchers,  disbursing  checks,  and  recording  cash  receipts. 
Centralization,  in  this  case,  has  eliminated  duplication  of  work 
effort,  reduced  numerous  manual  accounting  functions,  and  has 
standardized  the  internal  reporting  process. 

The  Grants  and  Insurance  Administration  Division  continued  to 
provide  administrative,  management,  and  financial  services  to 
Smithsonian  researchers  receiving  funds  from  granting  agencies 
and  to  ensure  that  expenditures  are  in  accord  with  the  terms  of  the 
grants  and  applicable  regulations.   In  addition,  the  Division  was 

196  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

active  during  the  year  in  the  administration  of  the  Institution's 
comprehensive  fine  arts  insurance  coverage  and  in  implementing 
new  procedures  to  reduce  losses. 

Fiscal  year  1977  saw  greatly  increased  emphasis  on  control  in  the 
Museum  Shops.  New  systems  were  implemented  for  providing  bet- 
ter information  to  management  and  for  controlling  inventory. 
Financial  results  for  the  year  were  very  satisfactory,  making  it 
possible  for  the  Museum  Shops  to  continue  to  share  a  portion  of 
their  revenue  with  various  museums  of  the  Institution.  A  new 
thirty-two-page  catalogue,  offering  items  representing  or  relating 
to  the  museum  collections,  was  mailed  to  all  Smithsonian  Associates 
in  September  1977,  and  early  response  looks  extremely  favorable. 
A  new  and  highly  sophisticated  computer  system  has  been  devel- 
oped to  process  incoming  orders  expeditiously. 

The  Product  Development  Program  originated  in  1972  as  a  means 
for  visitors  and  nonvisitors  as  well  to  see  and  acquire  various  inter- 
pretations and  copies  of  items  in  the  Smithsonian.  As  part  of  this 
program,  an  agreement  was  reached  during  the  past  year  with  Im- 
perial Glass,  a  division  of  the  Lenox  China  Company,  under  which 
Imperial  will  develop  several  glass  reproductions  based  on  Smith- 
sonian collections. 

Under  another  agreement  the  Stieff  Company  introduced  in  fiscal 
year  1977  the  "Susan  B.  Anthony  gavel,"  a  reproduction  of  the 
original  in  the  Smithsonian.  They  also  completed  development  of 
the  "Adams  Silverware,"  inspired  by  the  dinner  setting  used  by 
John  Quincy  Adams  and  his  family. 

The  Belmont  Conference  Center,  a  240-year-old  manor  house, 
with  365  surrounding  acres  of  lawns,  forests,  and  fields,  located 
between  the  District  of  Columbia  and  Baltimore  near  Interstate  95, 
provides  an  attractive,  secluded,  and  gracious  retreat  unusual  in  the 
Eastern  Corridor.  Since  its  opening  in  1967,  conference  operations 
have  been  directed  toward  the  needs  of  small  groups  which  require 
a  location  unencumbered  by  the  normal  intrusions  associated  with 
offices.  Belmont  can  accommodate  twenty-four  in-house  residents, 
with  facilities  for  ten  to  twelve  additional  guests,  speakers,  or  ob- 
servers for  meals  and  meeting  sessions.  This  limiting  size  factor 
ensures  that  each  conference  has  the  undivided  and  individual  atten- 
tion of  the  entire  staff,  as  well  as  the  opportunity  for  unusually 
close  interaction  within  the  meeting  group  itself.  Of  the  eighty  or 

Administration  I  197 

so  meetings  which  Belmont  hosts  in  a  year,  approximately  60  per- 
cent are  from  federally-funded  agencies;  the  balance  include  those 
from  foundations,  universities,  and  other  philanthropic  organiza- 
tions as  well  as  private  industry. 

Support  Activities 

During  the  past  year,  significant  improvements  were  made  to  pro- 
vide timely  administrative  support  throughout  the  Institution. 

The  Office  of  Computer  Services  installed  a  new  computer  system 
to  meet  the  growing  demand  for  additional  capabilities. 

The  Equal  Opportunity  program,  now  including  provisions  for  the 
handicapped,  continued  to  emphasize  the  Institution's  commitment 
to  equality  in  all  employment  practices.  The  Civil  Service  Commis- 
sion approved  the  Smithsonian's  1977  Affirmative  Plan  of  Action  as 
well  as  the  Upward  Mobility  Program.  In  addition,  the  Smithsonian 
received  special  recognition  by  the  Civil  Service  Commission  for 
timely  processing  of  discrimination  complaints. 

The  Office  of  Facilities  Planning  and  Engineering  Services  com- 
pleted 158  projects,  valued  at  3.8  million  dollars,  and  initiated  100 
other  projects,  which  will  be  completed  as  funds  become  available. 
Longer  range  planning  continues  to  be  emphasized. 

The  United  States  Patent  Office  assumed  responsibility  for  the 
international  transfer  of  patent  specifications,  a  task  performed  by 
the  International  Exchange  Service  (ies)  for  many  years.  This  trans- 
fer has  enabled  ies  to  devote  more  time  to  other  important  priorities. 

The  Office  of  Personnel  Administration  completed  the  Trust 
Fund  Personnel  Handbook  during  the  year,  and  it  is  now  approach- 
ing final  stages  of  review  by  key  Smithsonian  officials.  The  hand- 
book is  the  first  compilation  of  policies  regarding  Trust  Fund  per- 
sonnel management. 

The  Office  of  Plant  Services  continued  to  make  progress  toward 
energy  conservation  and  reduction  and  employed  an  energy  con- 
servation officer  to  implement  an  effective  utilities  conservation 

The  Office  of  Printing  and  Photographic  Services  improved  the 
overall  quality  of  photographic  and  duplicating  support  throughout 

198  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

the  Institution,  upgraded  original  photographic  work  produced  in 
the  studios,  and  modernized  and  upgraded  its  laboratory  facilities 
in  the  National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology.  Greater  em- 
phasis was  given  to  producing  photographic  materials  for  the  pub- 
lic, including  slide  sets  and  original  photography  of  key  museum 

The  Office  of  Protection  Services'  three  years  of  study,  planning, 
and  preliminary  work  culminated  in  July  1977  in  the  establishment 
of  the  Smithsonian's  own  control  center  for  monitoring  fire  and 
burglar  alarms  at  Smithsonian's  facilities  in  the  Washington,  D.C., 
area.  The  new  center,  located  in  the  original  Smithsonian  Institution 
Building  and  staffed  twenty-four  hours  a  day,  assumes  and  expands 
the  functions  formerly  performed  by  an  outside  organization  at  a 
remote  location  and  outside  the  Institution's  control. 


The  Smithsonian  Institution  Women's  Council  continues  to  bring 
women  into  the  mainstream  of  Smithsonian  activities.  During  the 
past  year,  members  participated  in  various  training  and  career  de- 
velopment programs,  including  time  management,  labor-manage- 
ment relations,  and  employee-performance  evaluation. 

The  Programs  Committee  sponsored  a  variety  of  films  and  semi- 
nars on  topics  such  as  women's  history,  obtaining  a  credit  rating, 
and  rape  crisis,  and  held  the  first  in  a  series  of  panel  discussions 
highlighting  the  unique  careers  of  women  in  the  Smithsonian.  The 
Publicity  Committee  was  instrumental  in  preparing  a  photographic 
exhibit  in  the  Employee  Gallery  of  the  National  Museum  of  Natural 
History  based  on  past  and  present  activities  of  the  Women's  Council. 

In  an  effort  to  improve  communications  within  the  Smithsonian, 
the  Women's  Council  began  distributing  a  periodic  newsletter  about 
training,  career  opportunities,  personnel  and  Civil  Service  Commis- 
sion regulations  and  policies,  and  committee  activities  and  accom- 

Administration  I  199 

France's  Fernand  Braudel,  one  of  the  world's  great  historians  and  a  Wilson 
Center  Fellow,  chatting  with  Director  James  Billington.  (Photo  by  The  New 
York  Times) 

Smithsonian  Year  •  1977 





Approaching  its  seventh  anniversary,  the  Woodrow  Wilson  Inter- 
national Center  for  Scholars,  recognized  throughout  the  nation  and 
the  world  as  a  scholarly  institution  of  major  importance,  has  become 
a  distinctive,  living  memorial  to  a  former  president. 

The  Center  continued  to  commemorate,  through  its  residential 
fellowship  program  of  advanced  research  and  communication,  both 
the  intellectual  depth  and  the  public  concerns  of  Woodrow  Wilson. 

The  Fellows 

The  thirty-five  fellows  conducting  individual  research  are  the  core 
of  the  Center.  The  quality  and  diversity  of  the  fellows  and  their 
published  works  continue  to  grow.  The  number  of  applications  from 
across  the  United  States  and  around  the  world  increases  each  year. 
As  of  September  1977,  236  fellowships  had  been  awarded  in  open 
international  competition  since  the  Center  was  established — about 
60  percent  to  American  scholars,  the  rest  to  applicants  from  some 
thirty-eight  foreign  countries.  All  told,  the  fellows  have  come  from 
some  115  different  universities  and  scholarly  institutions. 

The  new  head  of  the  Agency  for  International  Development  (aid) 
John  Gilligan;  the  new  head  of  our  country's  Law  of  the  Sea  nego- 
tiating team,  Elliot  Richardson;  the  new  superintendent  of  West 


Point,  Andrew  Goodpaster;  and  the  new  head  of  the  Environmental 
Protection  Agency,  Douglas  Costle,  were  all  Wilson  Center  fellows. 
Other  fellows  this  past  year  included  a  former  head  of  state  from 
Latin  America,  a  deputy  head  of  state  from  Africa,  and  close  ad- 
visers to  the  prime  ministers  of  England  and  Japan.  Fernand  Brau- 
del  of  France,  one  of  the  world's  greatest  historians,  made  his  first 
visit  to  America  in  many  years  as  a  Center  fellow  in  1976.  Mexico's 
distinguished  writer,  Carlos  Fuentes,  was  a  fellow.  The  famed  Rus- 
sian poet  Andrei  Voznesensky  arrived  in  late  1977,  to  work  on 
recent  American  poetry.  Last  year,  the  equally  diversified  group  of 
American  fellows  included  thirty-one  American  college  professors 
from  a  variety  of  departments  in  twenty-five  different  universities. 
All  are  at  the  Center  to  produce  a  major  publishable  scholarly  work. 
The  year  also  produced  a  marked  increase  in  applications  and  a 
doubling  of  selections  from  beyond  the  Boston-Washington  cor- 

The  Program 

The  Board  of  Trustees  has  consistently  felt  that  the  Center  would 
profit  from  having  some  special  areas  of  emphasis  that  would  pro- 
vide focus  within  its  overall  program  without  tying  it  into  the  rigidi- 
ties of  departmental  structures  or  a  permanent  faculty.  As  a  result, 
the  Center  currently  has  small  special  programs  in  Russian  and 
Soviet  Studies,  Latin  American  Studies,  International  Security  Stud- 
ies, and  Resources  and  Environment. 

The  Center  is  unique  among  institutes  for  advanced  study  in  its 
commitment  to  communicate  between  "the  world  of  learning  and 
the  world  of  public  affairs."  Accordingly,  it  sponsors  an  extensive 
program  of  meetings,  informal  discussions,  formal  colloquia  on 
work  in  progress,  and  evening  dialogues.  Most  of  these  are  open  to 
the  concerned  public  affairs  community.  During  the  two  years  that 
the  Russian  program  has  been  functioning,  for  instance,  there  have 
been  20  conferences  attended  by  a  total  of  more  than  1,000  people. 
The  Latin  American  program,  which  began  earlier  this  year,  has 
already  had  twelve  meetings  of  different  kinds. 

The  Center  thus  offers  public  officials  and  others,  on  occasion,  a 

202  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

chance  to  take  a  step  back  from  today's  immediate  crisis  to  join 
with  scholars  in  supplying  perspective  and  wisdom. 

The  Center  recently  added  a  special  series  of  dialogues  on  such 
subjects  as  the  relationship  of  religion  and  politics — which  will  lead 
to  a  series  of  meetings  involving  members  of  Congress — and  on 
national  educational  policy,  which  has  brought  the  last  five  United 
States  Commissioners  of  Education  together  periodically  at  the 
Center.  The  Center  also  organizes  special  events  such  as  the  recent 
national  conference  on  government  reorganization  that  brought  124 
participants  from  state  and  local  governments  and  universities  all 
over  the  country  to  discuss  the  question  of  government  reorganiza- 
tion with  such  speakers  as  Richard  Pettigrew  and  Jack  Watson  from 
the  White  House,  United  States  Representative  John  Brademas,  and 
former  Health,  Education  and  Welfare  Secretary  Caspar  Wein- 
berger, as  well  as  co-chairmen  Governor  Dan  Evans  of  Washington 
and  Mayor  Kenneth  Gibson  of  Newark. 

Another  part  of  the  Center's  "switchboard"  function  involves 
bringing  people  in  touch  with  scholarly  materials  they  might  not 
otherwise  know  about.  The  Center  has  undertaken  a  series  of 
scholars'  guides  to  the  immense  archival  resources  of  the  Washing- 
ton area.  The  first  of  these  volumes,  a  comprehensive  guide  to  the 
resources  for  Russian  and  Soviet  studies  in  Washington,  is  sched- 
uled for  issuance  in  October  1977.  Work  is  currently  progressing 
on  similar  guides  for  the  study  of  Latin  America,  Africa,  East  Asia, 
and  film  and  television  resources. 

Most  important  has  been  the  establishment  of  the  Wilson 
Quarterly,  a  national  review  which  digests  and  presents  in  plain 
English  to  a  broad,  lay  audience  some  of  the  more  important  in- 
sights and  ideas,  not  just  of  the  Center  but  of  the  entire  world  of 
higher  scholarship.  Within  one  year,  it  has  become  perhaps  the  most 
widely  read  quarterly  in  the  English-speaking  world  with  close  to 
90,000  paid  subscribers. 

Woodrow  Wilson  International  Center  for  Scholars  I  203 

President  Carter,  Ambassador  Andrew  Young,  and  Roger  L.  Stevens  at  the  dedication 
of  the  Kennedy  Center  African  Room,  April  1977.  (Photo  by  Richard  Braaten) 

Smithsonian  Year  •  1977 



In  providing  for  the  establishment  of  the  National  Cultural  Cen- 
ter, which  subsequently  became  the  John  F.  Kennedy  Center  for 
the  Performing  Arts,  Congress  specified  that  the  institution  should: 

1.  Present  classical  and  contemporary  music,  drama,  dance,  and 
poetry  from  the  United  States  and  abroad; 

2.  Present  lectures  and  other  programs; 

3.  Develop  programs  for  children,  youth,  and  the  elderly,  spe- 
cifically for  their  participation,  education,  and  recreation;  and 

4.  Provide  facilities  for  civic  activities. 

Implicit  was  the  desire  that  the  Center  serve  not  only  the  na- 
tion's capital,  but  the  entire  country  as  a  national  showcase  and  a 
force  for  arts  advancement  and  general  enrichment. 

In  six  years  of  operation,  the  Kennedy  Center  has  become  one 
of  the  most  active  arts  institutions  in  the  world.  More  than  6,100 
performances  have  been  presented  to  a  total  audience  of  9.6  million 
people.  Comprehensive  educational  and  public-service  programs 
have  been  developed  for  the  Washington  community  and  the  nation 
as  a  whole.  And,  as  a  national  memorial,  the  Center  has  welcomed 
nearly  20  million  visitors. 

The  1976-1977  season  was  marked  by  a  continued  commitment 
to  the  artistic  excellence  of  performance  programming  and  by  sig- 
nificant expansion  of  the  Center's  public-service  emphasis. 


Performing  Arts  Programming 

The  Kennedy  Center's  three  major  auditoriums,  the  2,750-seat 
Concert  Hall,  the  2,300-seat  Opera  House  and  the  1,150-seat 
Eisenhower  Theater,  were  kept  in  full  operation  throughout  1976- 
1977  and  audience  attendance  for  the  year's  1,000  performances  of 
dance,  music,  drama,  and  musical  comedy  totaled  nearly  1.6  million. 
In  addition,  the  224-seat  American  Film  Institute  (afi)  Theater  pre- 
sented more  than  650  films  to  an  audience  of  100,000. 


During  the  Center's  first  six  seasons,  3,444  performances  of  drama 
and  musical  comedy  have  been  presented  in  the  Eisenhower  The- 
ater and  Opera  House.  Of  the  107  productions  staged,  68  have 
been  produced,  coproduced  or  made  possible  financially  by  the 
Center  itself. 

The  1976-1977  theater  season  featured  512  performances  of  16 
major  productions  and  attracted  a  total  audience  of  625,000.  Drama 
productions  included  William  Luce's  The  Belle  of  Amherst,  starring 
Julie  Harris;  the  American  premiere  of  Harold  Pinter's  No  Man's 
Land,  with  Sir  John  Gielgud  and  Sir  Ralph  Richardson;  Tom  Stop- 
pard's  Dirty  Linen:  G.  B.  Shaw's  Caesar  and  Cleopatra,  starring 
Rex  Harrison  and  Elizabeth  Ashley;  the  American  premiere  of 
Stoppard's  Travesties,  with  John  Wood;  Hal  Holbrook's  Mark 
Twain  Tonight;  the  world  premiere  of  Arthur  Miller's  The  Arch- 
bishop's Ceiling,  with  John  Cullum  and  Bibi  Andersson;  Henrik 
Ibsen's  The  Master  Builder,  starring  Richard  Kiley  and  Jane  Alex- 
ander; Alan  Ayckbourn's  Absent  Friends,  with  Anne  Jackson  and 
Eli  Wallach;  and  the  American  premiere  of  Aleksei  Arbuzov's  Do 
You  Turn  Somersaults?,  with  Mary  Martin  and  Anthony  Quayle. 

Complementing  the  season  of  Western  drama  was  the  Septem- 
ber engagement  of  the  Grand  Kabuki  of  the  National  Theatre  of 
Japan.  The  company,  foremost  conservator  of  Kabuki's  more  than 
350-year-old  tradition,  presented  excerpts  from  Yoshitsune  Senbon 
Zakura  and  Kurozuka,  both  featuring  Ennosuke  Ichikawa  III, 
Japan's  leading  Kabuki  actor. 

Completing  the  season  were  productions  of  five  musicals — 
Pippin,  which  originated  in  the  Opera  House  in  1972,  Shenandoah, 

206  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

and  three  new  works:  Music  Is,  by  George  Abbott,  Richard  Adler 
and  Will  Holt;  The  Baker's  Wife,  by  Joseph  Stein  and  Stephen 
Schwartz;  and  Annie,  by  Thomas  Meehan,  Charles  Strouse,  and 
Martin  Charnin. 

Annie,  in  which  the  Center  participated  as  a  co-producer,  played 
four  weeks  to  capacity  Eisenhower  Theater  audiences  before  mov- 
ing to  Broadway  where  it  received  seven  Tony  Awards,  including 
"Best  Musical,"  and  the  New  York  Drama  Critics'  Circle  Award, 
"Best  Musical,  1976-77." 


The  1967-1977  dance  series  brought  to  the  Opera  House  thirteen 
weeks  of  dance  by  three  of  the  world's  most  acclaimed  companies: 
The  New  York  City  Ballet;  the  Stuttgart  Ballet;  and  the  Center's 
official  company,  the  American  Ballet  Theatre.  Audience  attend- 
ance for  the  season's  104  performances  exceeded  216,000,  an  av- 
erage of  94  percent  capacity. 

Included  in  the  New  York  City  Ballet's  nineteen-work  repertory 
were  Washington  premieres  of  George  Balanchine's  Union  Jack 
and  Jerome  Robbins'  The  Cage  and  Other  Dances.  Among  the 
Stuttgart  productions  were  American  premieres  of  The  Sleeping 
Beauty,  William  Forsythe's  Daphne,  and  Kenneth  MacMillan's 

Highlighting  the  dance  year  was  the  American  Ballet  Theatre 
world  premiere  of  Mikhail  Baryshnikov's  staging  of  The  Nut- 
cracker, with  Baryshnikov  in  the  role  of  Nutcracker/Prince  and 
Marianna  Tcherkassky  as  Clara. 

The  Stuttgart  Ballet  was  presented  at  the  Center  and  in  New 
York;  Philadelphia;  Homedale,  New  Jersey;  and  Chicago  as  the 
pilot  project  of  a  new  partnership  agreement  between  the  Center 
and  the  Metropolitan  Opera.  Under  the  agreement,  the  Center  and 
the  Metropolitan  will  jointly  manage  American  engagements  of 
major  foreign  companies.  During  1978,  the  partnership  will  pre- 
sent the  Ballet  Nacional  de  Cuba  with  Alicia  Alonso,  director  and 
prima  ballerina,  and  the  London  Festival  Ballet  with  Rudolph 

Under  the  sponsorship  of  the  Washington  Performing  Arts  So- 
ciety, the  Martha  Graham  Dance  Company  made  its  first  Opera 
House  appearance  during  1976-1977,  and  the  Alvin  Ailey  City 

John  F.  Kennedy  Center  for  the  Performing  Arts  I  207 

Center  Dance  Theatre  returned  for  its  sixth  Center  engagement. 
The  Performing  Arts  Society  also  presented  an  eight-performance 
international  folk-dance  series  in  the  Concert  Hall. 


The  September  1976  engagements  of  La  Scala  and  the  Paris  Opera 
(detailed  in  Smithsonian  Year,  1976)  continued  the  Center's  com- 
mitment to  presenting  the  finest  opera  companies  from  around  the 

During  1977,  the  Center  presented  63  performances  of  9  operas, 
and  audience  attendance  totaled  nearly  100,000.  In  May,  the  New 
York  City  Opera  brought  to  Washington  productions  of  Carmen, 
Turandot,  Die  Vled.erm.aus,  La  Traviata,  Mefistofele,  The  Pirates  of 
Penzance,  and  a  gala  //  Barbiere  di  Siviglia,  conducted  by  Sarah 
Caldwell,  with  Beverly  Sills  as  Rosina. 

Two  Houston  Grand  opera  productions,  Carlisle  Floyd's  Of  Mice 
and  Men  and  George  Gershwin's  Porgy  and  Bess,  played  the 
Opera  House  for  six  weeks  during  June  and  July.  Porgy  and  Bess 
was  coproduced  by  the  Houston  Grand  Opera  and  Sherwin  M. 

The  Center's  fifth  music  festival  devoted  specifically  to  the 
works  of  an  individual  composer  saluted  the  genius  of  George 
Frideric  Handel.  The  Festival,  directed  by  Stephen  Simon  and 
jointly  sponsored  by  the  Center  and  the  Friends  of  Handel,  Inc., 
featured  the  oratorios,  Saul  and  Solomon,  and  a  concert  staging  of 
the  opera,  Rinaldo. 

During  September,  the  Center  presented  the  first  section  of  a 
Brahms-Beethoven  Cycle,  with  the  Cleveland  Orchestra  and  solo- 
ists Isaac  Stern,  Misha  Dichter,  Rudolf  Firkusny,  Janos  Starker,  and 
Daniel  Majeske  performing  the  complete  Brahms  symphonies, 
piano  concerti,  and  other  works  over  a  seven-day  period.  The 
Cycle  included  a  performance  of  Ein  Deutsches  Requiem,  with 
Fay  Robinson,  Thomas  Stewart,  and  the  Choral  Arts  Society  of 
Washington.  The  Concertgebouw  of  Amsterdam  will  perform  the 
Beethoven  Cycle  during  May  1978. 

Each  year,  a  number  of  performances  are  presented  in  the  Con- 
cert Hall  and  Opera  House  by  the  Center's  affiliate  organizations. 
During  1976-1977,  the  Washington  Opera,  under  the  artistic  direc- 

208  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

tion  of  George  London,  produced  Verdi's  Attila,  Puccini's  Madama 
Butterfly,  and  Massenet's  Werther.  The  Paul  Hill  Chorale,  the  Ora- 
torio Society,  and  the  Choral  Arts  Society  of  Washington  pre- 
sented twelve  choral  concerts.  The  Washington  Performing  Arts 
Society  brought  to  the  Concert  Hall  twenty-three  major  orchestras 
and  thirty  recital  artists. 

The  resident  National  Symphony  Orchestra  performed  119  con- 
certs before  a  total  audience  of  nearly  265,000.  Antal  Dorati,  who 
had  served  as  Music  Director  since  1971,  left  the  orchestra  at  the 
close  of  the  1976-1977  season  to  become  Director  of  the  Detroit 
Symphony.  Mstislav  Rostropovich  was  named  to  succeed  to  the 
position,  beginning  in  1977-1978. 


The  afi  Theater  has  presented  more  than  2,400  different  motion 
pictures  to  an  audience  of  nearly  500,000  since  its  opening  in  April 
1973.  Operated  by  the  American  Film  Institute,  which  maintains  its 
national  headquarters  within  the  building,  the  theater's  programs 
have  ranged  from  silent  films  to  avant-garde  American  and  foreign 
productions.  Showings  regularly  include  rare  archival  works — 
many  saved  from  destruction  by  the  afi's  preservation  program — 
and  film  classics  seldom  available  for  general  distribution. 

Among  the  1976-1977  film  series  were  a  tribute  to  rko  Radio 
Pictures,  retrospective  salutes  to  Katherine  Hepburn,  Buster  Kea- 
ton,  Bette  Davis,  and  Fred  Astaire,  "Love  Stories:  A  Hundred 
Movie  Romances,"  "The  Lubitsch  Touch,"  and  classic  and  con- 
temporary films  of  Sweden,  Finland,  India,  and  the  Soviet  Union. 

In  November  1977,  the  Film  Institute  will  celebrate  its  tenth  an- 
niversary with  a  major  film  festival  that  will  utilize  virtually  all  of 
the  Center's  projection  capability.  More  than  160  different  films 
and  tapes  are  scheduled  to  be  shown  in  the  afi  Theater  and  Screen- 
ing Room  and  the  Eisenhower  Theater  over  a  twelve-day  period. 
Participating  guests  will  include  Gene  Kelly,  Elizabeth  Taylor, 
Irene  Dunne,  Michael  Cacoyannis,  and  Bernardo  Bertolucci.  The 
anniversary  celebration  will  conclude  on  November  17  with  an 
Opera  House  Gala  saluting  America's  most  memorable  films.  The 
evening's  program  will  be  taped  for  nationwide  television  broad- 
cast on  November  21. 

John  F.  Kennedy  Center  for  the  Performing  Arts  I  209 

Educational  and  Public  Service  Programming 

In  response  to  its  congressional  mandate  and  in  keeping  with  the 
concept  of  a  living  memorial,  the  Kennedy  Center  has  undertaken 
extensive  educational  and  public  service  programming.  During  fis- 
cal year  1977,  an  estimated  414,000  people,  nearly  9  percent  of  all 
those  who  visited  the  Center,  attended  595  free  events,  including 
special  performances,  symposia,  lectures,  and  exhibitions,  of  which 
491  were  presented  by  the  Center  itself  and  104  by  constituent  or- 
ganizations and  other  public  service  groups.  In  addition,  this  year 
the  Center  developed  major  programs  to  further  extend  its  out- 
reach and  to  foster  new  talent,  new  works,  and  new  audiences 
throughout  the  country. 


Since  its  opening  in  1971,  the  Center  has  maintained  a  Specially 
Priced  Ticket  Program,  through  which  15  percent  of  tickets  for 
regular  Center  performances  are  made  available  at  half-price  to 
students,  the  handicapped,  senior  citizens,  low-income  groups,  and 
military  personnel  in  grades  E-l  through  E-4.  The  Program  is  de- 
signed to  make  the  Center's  performances  accessible  to  everyone, 
regardless  of  economic  circumstances.  Attendant  costs,  in  terms  of 
reduced  revenue  potential  and  administrative  overhead,  are  borne 
by  the  Center  itself  without  public  subsidy. 

In  fiscal  year  1977, 114,847  tickets  for  Center-produced  or  Center- 
presented  attractions  were  sold  at  half-price  through  the  Program. 
The  Center  also  requires  that  independent  producers  participate  in 
the  Program  by  making  a  percentage  of  their  tickets  available  for 
half-price  sale.  During  the  year,  combined  half-price  ticket  sales  for 
the  Center's  own  attractions  and  those  of  independent  producers 
totaled  137,927  representing  a  total  price  reduction  of  $760,142. 


The  Alliance  for  Arts  Education  (aae)  is  a  joint  project  of  the  Ken- 
nedy Center  and  the  United  States  Office  of  Education  committed 
to  making  the  arts  a  basic  part  of  the  educational  experience  of 
every  child.  Operating  at  both  the  state  and  national  level,  the  aae 
seeks  to  identify  and  support  exemplary  arts-education  programs 

210  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

and  to  promote  greater  cooperation  between  arts  organizations  and 
educational  institutions  by  serving  as  a  public  forum  and  a  channel 
of  information.  As  one  part  of  its  national  commitment,  the  aae 
recognizes  and  supports  the  work  of  its  member  organization,  the 
National  Committee,  Arts  for  the  Handicapped,  an  affiliate  of  the 
Kennedy  Center. 

Within  the  Center,  the  aae  produces  children's  programming 
designed  to  serve  as  a  practicable  model  for  other  arts  institutions. 
During  1976-1977,  the  Center  offered,  for  the  first  time,  a  contin- 
uing series  of  children's  programs  scheduled  throughout  the  school 
year.  The  twenty-seven  week  series  featured  117  free  performances 
of  music,  theater,  dance,  poetry,  and  puppetry  by  performing  groups 
from  around  the  country  and  attracted  more  than  36,000  young 

The  series  culminated  in  the  Center's  first  National  Children's 
Festival,  a  week-long  "Imagination  Celebration,"  with  29  free  per- 
formances attended  by  18,000  children,  parents,  and  teachers. 
Commissioned  for  the  Festival  were  three  new  theater  works  for 
children:  Light  Sings,  a  multi-media  production  devised  by  Patricia 
Birch  and  Doris  Chase,  in  cooperation  with  Will  Holt  and  Gary 
William  Friedman;  Jim  Thorpe,  All  American,  by  Saul  Levitt  and 
Harrison  Ficher;  and  Sir  Cawain  and  the  Green  Knight,  written  by 
Dennis  Scott  and  performed  by  the  Little  Theatre  of  the  Deaf. 


The  American  College  Theatre  Festival,  presented  annually  by  the 
Kennedy  Center  and  the  Alliance  for  Arts  Education,  recognizes 
America's  2,300  college  and  university  theaters  and  the  more  than 
150,000  students  enrolled  in  formal  theater  classes.  Each  year,  more 
than  10,000  productions  are  staged  on  college  and  university  cam- 
puses, and  the  Festival  seeks  to  honor  the  best  efforts,  strengthen 
the  rest,  and  encourage  all  students  to  take  an  active  role  in  their 
theaters  as  writers,  designers,  performers,  directors,  and  audiences. 
During  1976-1977,  400  schools  participated  in  13  regional  fes- 
tivals, from  which  8  productions  were  selected  for  presentation  in 
noncompetitive  showcase  at  the  Center  in  April:  Historias  Para  ser 
Contadas,  Texas  A&I  University;  Meg,  Cornell  University;  Lear, 
University  of  Alabama;  Hay  Fever,  Webster  College;  Upstream 
Toward  Lethe,  University  of  California,  Los  Angeles;  Who's  Happy 

John  F.  Kennedy  Center  for  the  Performing  Arts  I  211 

Mikhail  Baryshnikov  in  the  world  premiere  of  his  production  of  The  Nut- 
cracker, December  1976.  Facing  page,  upper:  Winter  twilight  view  of  the  John 
F.  Kennedy  Center  for  the  Performing  Arts.  (Photo  by  Richard  Braaten) 
Lower:  El  Ballet  Folklorico  de  Tourismo  from  the  Dominican  Republic  per- 
forming in  the  Grand  Foyer  during  the  1977  Spring  Festival.  (Photo  by  Rich- 
ard Braaten) 

■  - 

Now?,  Midwestern  State  University;  Waiting  for  Godot,  Virginia 
Polytechnic  Institute  and  State  University;  and  Round  Trip  Ticket, 
Mankato  State  University. 

The  Festival  program  also  included  a  series  of  awards  for  indi- 
vidual excellence  in  performing  and  playwriting.  In  its  ninth  year, 
the  Festival  was  sponsored  by  the  American  Oil  Company  and 
produced  by  the  American  Theatre  Association. 


In  1966,  the  Center's  Board  of  Trustees  established  as  its  official 
auxiliary  the  Friends  of  the  Kennedy  Center,  and  for  eleven  years, 
the  Friends  have  provided  invaluable  assistance  to  a  wide  range  of 
Center  projects  and  program  activities. 

Through  the  Friends,  the  Center  currently  presents  free  weekly 
symposia  focusing  on  all  areas  of  the  performing  arts  and  drawing 
upon  the  expertise  of  such  visiting  artists  as  Marcel  Marceau, 
Mary  Martin,  Isaac  Stern,  and  Marcia  Haydee.  The  Friends  also 
help  to  present  an  ongoing  program  of  free  organ  demonstrations 
that  explain  the  workings  of  the  Concert  Hall's  Filene  Memorial 
Organ  and  feature  recitals  by  Washington-area  organists. 

Within  the  Friends  membership,  which  now  numbers  nearly 
8,000,  are  275  active  volunteers  whose  combined  contribution  to 
the  Center  totaled  more  than  63,000  hours  during  fiscal  year  1977. 
The  Volunteer  Office,  which  functions  as  an  information  and  as- 
sistance center  for  visitors  and  performance-goers,  is  staffed  365 
days  a  year  from  9:00  a.m.  until  9:00  p.m.  Each  day,  more  than 
1,000  visitors  participate  in  tours  conducted  by  volunteer  guides, 
and  for  the  benefit  of  foreign  visitors,  volunteers  have  prepared  tour 
scripts  in  Spanish,  German,  Dutch,  French,  Italian,  Hebrew,  and 

The  Friends  also  aid  in  the  administration  of  the  Specially  Priced 
Ticket  Program,  manage  souvenir  sales,  help  to  coordinate  special 
arrangements  for  the  handicapped,  and  assist  the  Center's  mail- 
order department. 

Proceeds  from  Friends'  memberships  and  the  sale  of  souvenirs 
help  to  underwrite  the  Center's  educational  and  public-service  pro- 
gramming. The  Friends  have  recently  embarked  upon  a  national 
membership  drive  designed  to  generate  new  funds  for  expanded 
educational  activities  over  the  next  several  years. 

214  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

The  Friends  work  closely  with  the  National  Park  Service,  which 
is  responsible  for  maintaining  the  Center  as  a  presidential  memo- 
rial, and  from  October  1,  1976,  through  September  30,  1977,  the 
Friends  and  Park  Service  personnel  offered  information,  assistance, 
and  hospitality  to  nearly  4.8  million  visitors. 

Activities  of  the  Friends  are  guided  by  Mrs.  Polk  Guest,  who 
has  served  as  chairman  continuously  since  1968. 


As  a  national  institution,  the  Kennedy  Center  is  dedicated  to  in- 
volving all  segments  of  society  in  its  programming  activities.  To 
assess  and  increase  its  effectiveness  with  respect  to  the  black  com- 
munity and,  in  so  doing,  to  develop  methods  potentially  beneficial 
to  other  minority  groups,  the  Center  has  established  the  National 
Commission  to  Expand  the  Scope  and  Constituency  of  Black  Par- 
ticipation at  the  John  F.  Kennedy  Center  for  the  Performing  Arts. 

The  Commission,  composed  of  performers  and  national  leaders  in 
the  arts,  education,  and  business,  began  in  March  to  forge  program 
recommendations  to  increase  black  awareness,  interest,  and  in- 
volvement in  the  Center  and  the  performing  arts,  locally  and  across 
the  nation. 

Participating  as  Commission  members  are:  Kathryn  Bloom,  Di- 
rector, Arts  and  Education  Program,  JDR  III  Fund;  Shirley  Trusty 
Corey,  Supervisor,  Office  of  Cultural  Resources,  New  Orleans 
Public  Schools;  Matiwilda  Dobbs,  opera  singer,  Professor  of  Voice, 
University  of  Georgia;  Katherine  Dunham,  dancer,  composer,  ac- 
tress, Director,  Performing  Arts  Training  Center,  Southern  Illinois 
University;  John  M.  Ehle,  novelist;  Roberta  Flack,  singer;  James  O. 
Gibson,  Public  Policy  Analyst,  Potomac  Institute;  Jesse  Hill,  Presi- 
dent, Atlanta  Life  Insurance  Company;  Marvin  Holloway,  Insti- 
tute for  Policy  Studies,  Washington,  D.C.;  Thomas  Hoving,  Direc- 
tor, Metropolitan  Museum  of  Art;  Quincy  Jones,  arranger,  com- 
poser; Jack  Morrison,  Executive  Director,  American  Theatre  Asso- 
ciation; Budd  Schulberg,  author,  screenwriter;  Elie  Siegmeister, 
composer;  Ellen  Stewart,  Executive  Director,  La  Mama  Experimen- 
tal Theatre  Company,  New  York;  Billy  Taylor,  jazz  pianist;  Nancy 
Wilson,  singer.  Dr.  Archie  L.  Buffkins,  Assistant  Dean  of  Gradu- 
ate Studies,  University  of  Maryland,  serves  as  President  of  the 

John  F.  Kennedy  Center  for  the  Performing  Arts  I  215 


The  American  musical  theater  is  suffering  the  effects  of  spiraling 
production  costs,  and,  as  a  result,  fewer  and  fewer  musicals  are 
mounted  each  year.  In  an  effort  to  reverse  the  trend  and  to  ensure 
the  survival  of  this  country's  most  unique  contribution  to  the  per- 
forming arts,  the  Kennedy  Center  joined  with  the  Stuart  Ostrow 
Foundation  this  year  to  create  within  the  Center  the  Musical 
Theatre  Laboratory. 

The  Laboratory,  which  occupies  a  10,000-square-foot  area  of  the 
Roof  Terrace  level,  is  designed  to  enable  authors,  composers,  lyri- 
cists, choreographers,  directors,  and  actors  to  develop  new  musi- 
cals, without  the  commercial  pressures  of  full-scale  productions, 
through  a  work-in-progress  process.  By  reducing  to  a  minimum 
such  production  elements  as  sets  and  costumes,  full  time  and  at- 
tention is  focused  on  the  works  themselves. 

The  Laboratory's  first  season  included  four  new  musicals:  Hot 
Grog,  by  Jim  Wann  and  Bland  Simpson;  Neverland,  by  Jim  Stein- 
man;  Amerika,  by  Yoram  Porat  and  Shlomo  Gronich,  from  the 
novel  by  Franz  Kafka;  and  Up  from  Paradise,  by  Arthur  Miller 
and  Stanley  Silverman. 

Basic  to  the  development  process  is  the  opportunity  to  perform 
each  work  before  public  audiences.  The  Laboratory  seats  100,  and 
all  performances  are  free. 


As  a  part  of  its  commitment  to  the  encouragement  of  American 
performers  and  composers,  the  Center  has  participated  in  the  estab- 
lishment of  two  new  award  programs. 

The  John  F.  Kennedy  Center-Rockefeller  Foundation  Interna- 
tional Competitions  for  Excellence  in  the  Performance  of  American 
Music  are  intended  to  call  attention  to  skilled  performers  of  recital 
music  written  by  American  composers  since  1900.  Pianists  will  be 
eligible  to  participate  in  the  1978  competition,  and,  in  subsequent 
years,  instrumentalists  and  singers  will  compete  on  an  alternating 
basis.  It  is  hoped  that  the  program  will  stimulate  greater  interest 
in  the  large  body  of  American  recital  music.  The  Competitions 
will  be  made  possible  by  a  grant  from  the  Rockefeller  Foundation. 

The  Kennedy  Center  Friedheim  Awards  will  annually  recognize 

216  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

outstanding  American  achievement  in  the  composition  of  orches- 
tral and  chamber  music.  Entries  will  be  judged  by  a  panel  of  music 
critics,  and  the  works  of  the  five  finalists  will  be  performed  each 
year  at  the  Center.  The  award  program  is  named  in  honor  of  the 
late  pianist,  Arthur  Friedheim,  and  is  sponsored  by  a  grant  from 
the  Eric  Friedheim  Foundation. 


The  Bicentennial  Parade  of  American  Music,  sponsored  by  the 
National  Music  Council  and  funded  by  a  grant  from  exxon,  con- 
cluded on  December  31,  1976,  with  a  concert  tribute  to  John  Philip 
Sousa.  The  Parade  program,  which  was  administered  by  the  Na- 
tional Federation  of  Music  Clubs,  brought  to  the  Center  more  than 
6,000  performers  in  a  year-long  series  of  free  State  Day  concerts 
celebrating  music  written  by  composers  from  each  of  the  fifty 
states  and  the  District  of  Columbia. 

The  Center's  Bicentennial  Exhibition,  America  on  Stage:  200 
Years  of  Performing  Arts,  continued  through  January  23,  1977. 
Sponsored  by  ibm  Corporation,  America  on  Stage  occupied  nearly 
20,000  square  feet  of  the  Roof  Terrace  and  traced  the  history  of 
the  American  performing-arts  experience  from  the  colonial  period 
to  the  present.  Attendance  at  the  twelve-month  long,  admission- 
free  exhibition  totaled  more  than  800,000. 


The  Center's  1976  Holiday  Festival  featured  25  free  performances, 
including  Foyer  "Rug  Concerts,"  daily  puppet  shows,  and  the 
annual  "Messiah  Sing-Along."  The  Festival  also  brought  to  the 
Concert  Hall  six  performances  of  the  Emmett  Kelly  Circus  and 
a  New  Year's  Eve  "Night  in  Old  Vienna,"  available  to  the  public 
at  a  modest  admission  charge. 

The  Spring  Festival,  sponsored  for  the  third  year  by  McDonald's 
Corporation,  saluted  the  music  of  the  Western  Hemisphere  with 
thirty-five  performances  by  artists  from  nine  Latin  American  coun- 
tries, the  United  States,  and  Canada.  The  Festival,  presented  in 
association  with  the  Organization  of  American  States,  opened  with 
a  concert  by  the  Curtis  Institute  Orchestra  dedicated  to  the  mem- 
ory of  Pablo  Casals  and  concluded  six  days  later  with  a  day-long 
band  and  folk-dance  concert  in  the  Grand  Foyer. 

John  F.  Kennedy  Center  for  the  Performing  Arts  I  217 

Building  Repairs 

On  June  8,  1977,  Congress  authorized  an  appropriation  of  $4.7 
million  to  the  National  Park  Service  for  repair,  renovation,  and 
reconstruction  necessitated  by  serious  water  leaks  from  the  Cen- 
ter's terraces,  East  Plaza  Drive,  kitchen,  and  roof.  During  fiscal 
year  1977,  roof  repairs  were  undertaken  and  completed,  and  re- 
maining repairs  are  scheduled  over  a  period  of  eighteen  to  twenty- 
four  months. 

Studio  Theater /Recital  Hall  — 
Performing  Arts  Library  Complex 

The  Center's  Studio  Theater/ Recital  Hall,  left  unfinished  during 
original  construction  for  lack  of  funds,  is  scheduled  to  be  com- 
pleted during  1978  as  the  result  of  a  three-million-dollar  Bicenten- 
nial gift  to  the  United  States  from  Japan.  The  500-seat  facility,  de- 
signed by  Philip  Johnson,  will  be  located  on  the  Roof  Terrace  level 
and  used  for  drama,  chamber  music,  poetry  readings,  films,  lec- 
tures, children's  programming,  and  experimental  works. 

A  performing-arts  library  is  scheduled  to  be  constructed  in  the 
North  Gallery,  adjacent  to  the  new  theater.  The  library,  created 
under  the  joint  sponsorship  of  the  Center  and  the  Library  of  Con- 
gress, will  function  as  a  research  facility  for  Center  performers  and 
artistic  staff  and  the  general  public.  A  core  of  reference  materials 
will  be  supplemented  by  a  computer  link  to  the  vast  resources  of 
the  Library  of  Congress.  The  facility  will  also  house  the  Center's 
archives  and  periodic  performing-arts  exhibitions. 

National  Gifts 

A  Kennedy  Center  African  Room  has  been  created  on  the  Box 
Tier  of  the  Opera  House  through  the  generosity  of  African  na- 
tions which  have  contributed  more  than  $80,000  for  its  construc- 
tion and  decoration. 

218  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Developed  by  Kenneth  B.  Walker  and  Frank  Sanchis,  the  African 
Room  features  slanted,  textured  walls  decorated  with  African  tex- 
tiles and  handicrafts.  President  Carter  and  United  Nations  Ambas- 
sador Andrew  Young  participated  in  dedication  ceremonies  on 
April  24,  1977. 

During  1976-1977,  the  Center  also  received  individual  gifts  from 
the  following  countries:  Bulgaria — sculpture,  Maritsa  River,  by 
Professor  V.  Minekov;  Luxembourg — sculpture,  Ascension  by  Lu- 
cien  Wercollier;  Malaysia — shadow-puppets  from  the  Ramayana 


The  Kennedy  Center  receives  no  federal  funding  for  its  performing- 
arts  programming  and  administrative  expenses.  In  addition,  its  edu- 
cational and  public  service  programs  are  carried  out  largely  without 
public  subsidy.  The  single  exception  is  an  annual  congressional 
appropriation  to  the  Department  of  Health,  Education  and  Welfare 
for  the  Alliance  for  Arts  Education,  a  joint  project  of  the  Center  and 
the  United  States  Office  of  Education.  While  aae  funds  partially 
subsidize  children's  programming  and  the  American  College  Theatre 
Festival,  they  are  supplemented  substantially  by  funds  raised  by 
the  Center  from  private  sources. 

During  this  fiscal  year,  the  Center's  operating  budget  exceeded 
$16  million,  and,  in  meeting  its  budget  obligations,  the  Center  was 
almost  entirely  dependent  upon  revenue  from  theater  operations, 
concession  income,  and  private  contributions. 

The  Center  reimburses  the  National  Park  Service  a  pro-rata 
share  of  annual  maintenance  costs  on  the  basis  of  a  formula  de- 
vised by  independent  accountants  for  the  House  Public  Works 
Committee.  Reimbursement  payments  totaled  $563,325  for  fiscal 
year  1977. 

Lacking  an  endowment  fund,  the  Center  must  look  each  year  to 
the  national  community  for  the  financial  support  necessary  to 
carry  out  its  programming  activities.  Since  the  Center  opened  in 
1971,  individuals,  foundations,  and  corporations  have  contributed 
a  total  of  more  than  $8.6  million. 

John  F.  Kennedy  Center  for  the  Performing  Arts  I  219 

In  recognition  of  the  Center's  national  significance  and  to  stim- 
ulate needed  funding  continuity,  a  number  of  America's  business 
leaders  this  year  formed  the  Corporate  Fund  for  the  Performing 
Arts  and  projected  an  annual  goal  of  $1  million  from  the  business 
community  for  Center  programming. 

Participation  in  the  Corporate  Fund  is  open  to  any  business  en- 
terprise which  makes  an  annual  contribution  of  $5,000  or  more  to 
the  Center.  Four  classes  of  participation  have  been  established: 
Corporate  Leadership  Circle — $50,000  or  more;  Corporate  Patron 
— $25,000  or  more;  Corporate  Sponsor — $10,000  or  more;  Corpo- 
rate Donor — $5,000  or  more. 

During  fiscal  year  1977,  contributions  were  received  from  the 

Corporate  Leadership  Circle 

at&t,  Atlantic  Richfield  Company,  exxon  Corporation,  ibm,  Mobil  Oil 
Corporation,  Prudential  Insurance  Company  of  America. 

Corporate  Patrons 

cbs,  Inc.,  Canteen  Corporation,  E.  I.  DuPont  de  Nemours,  General  Elec- 
tric Company,  General  Motors  Corporation,  Reynolds  Industries,  Inc., 
United  States  Steel  Corporation,  and  Xerox  Corporation. 

Corporate  Sponsors 

Amerada  Hess,  Anheuser-Busch,  Chrysler  Corporation,  Coca  Cola  Com- 
pany, Ford  Motor  Company,  Gulf  Oil  Company,  Hoffman-LaRoche,  Inc., 
mca,  Inc.,  Merck  &  Company,  Metropolitan  Life  Insurance,  Philip  Morris, 
Reynolds  Metals  Company,  Rockwell  International,  Sears  Roebuck  & 
Company,  Shell  Oil  Company,  Texaco,  Inc.,  and  United  Technologies 

Corporate  Donors 

Allbritton  Foundation,  Allied  Chemical  Foundation,  American  Can  Com- 
pany, American  Security  Bank,  Arthur  Anderson  &  Company,  Ashland 
Oil  Company,  C&P  Telephone  Company,  Celanese  Corporation,  Dresser 
Industries,  Federated  Department  Stores,  Fruehauf  Corporation,  Getty 
Oil,  Haskins  &  Sells,  International  Paper  Company,  Johnson  &  Higgins, 
S.  C.  Johnson  and  Company,  Kellogg's,  Kerr-McGee,  LTV  Corporation, 
Martin  Marietta  Corporation,  National  Geographic  Society,  Neiman 
Marcus,  pepco,  Inc.,  Perpetual  Federal  Savings  &  Loan  Association, 
Phelps-Dodge  Corporation,  Price,  Waterhouse  &  Company,  Riggs  Na- 
tional Bank,  Sun  Company,  Inc.,  Textron,  Union  Carbide  Company, 
Washington  Post  Company. 

220  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Board  of  Trustees 

Although  organizationally  a  bureau  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution, 
the  Kennedy  Center  is  administered  separately  by  a  forty-five- 
member  Board  of  Trustees  composed  of  thirty  members  appointed 
by  the  President  of  the  United  States  to  ten-year  overlapping  terms 
and  fifteen  members  ex-officio  from  pertinent  government  agen- 
cies, the  Senate,  and  the  House  of  Representatives. 

Members  of  the  Kennedy  Center  Board  of  Trustees  are  as  fol- 

Roger  L.  Stevens,  Chairman 

Mrs.  Howard  H.  Baker,  Jr. 

Daniel  J.  Boorstin 

Ernest  Boyer 

J.  Carter  Brown 

Joseph  A.  Califano,  Jr. 

Robert  S.  Carter 

Mrs.  Edward  Finch  Cox 

Mrs.  J.  Clifford  Folger 

Abe  Fortas 

Peter  H.  B.  Frelinghuysen 

J.  William  Fulbright 

Leonard  H.  Goldenson 

R.  Philip  Hanes,  Jr. 

Orval  Hansen 

Mrs.  Rebekah  Harkness 

Mrs.  Paul  H.  Hatch 

William  K.  Hitchcock 

Mrs.  Bob  Hope 

Frank  Ikard 

Edward  M.  Kennedy 

Thomas  H.  Kuchel 

Melvin  R.  Laird 

Mrs.  Michael  J.  Mansfield 
Mrs.  J.  Willard  Marriott 
Robert  I.  Millonzi 
Ronald  H.  Nessen 
Charles  H.  Percy 
Mrs.  Donna  Stone  Pesch 
Albert  H.  Quie 
S.  Dillon  Ripley  II 
Teno  Roncalio 
Mrs.  Jouett  Shouse 
Mrs.  Jean  Kennedy  Smith 
John  G.  Spatuzza 
Henry  Strong 
William  H.  Thomas 
Frank  Thompson,  Jr. 
Benjamin  A.  Trustman 
Jack  J.  Valenti 
Walter  E.  Washington 
Lew  R.  Wasserman 
William  J.  Whalen 
Harrison  A.  Williams,  Jr. 
Mrs.  Jack  Wrather 
Mrs.  George  A.  Garrett, 
Honorary  Trustee 

John  F.  Kennedy  Center  for  the  Performing  Arts  I  221 

An  appreciative  audience  reading  their  new  RIF  books, 
proving  once  again  that  Reading  Is  FUNdamental. 

Smithsonian  Year  •  1977 


In  a  period  which  has  seen  the  trial  and  failure  of  countless  pre- 
scriptions for  literacy,  Reading  Is  Fundamental,  Inc.,  (rif)  has 
passed  all  tests  since  1966,  emerging  as  a  recognized  and  much 
honored  leader  in  the  campaign  to  give  each  American  child  the 
right  to  read,  rif  was  organized  in  the  Washington,  D.C.,  public 
schools  by  Mrs.  Robert  McNamara  and  took  up  residence  in  the 
Smithsonian  Institution  in  1968.  There  are  now  over  700  reading 
motivation  programs,  operating  in  48  states,  in  communities  both 
large  and  small,  each  introducing  children  to  the  joy  of  selecting 
and  keeping  their  own  books.  Using  fiscal  1976  funds,  rif  expects 
to  distribute  about  9  million  inexpensive  paperback  books  to  ap- 
proximately 1.8  million  children — a  long  way  indeed  from  the  days 
when  a  single  pilot  program  served  District  of  Columbia  school 

rif  recognizes  that  effective  teaching  is  indispensable,  but  it  also 
recognizes  one  thing  more:  without  the  will  to  read,  even  the  most 
imaginative  teaching  cannot  coax  a  child  into  literacy,  rif  aims  to 
develop  the  desire  to  read  by  circling  exciting  reading  activities 
around  book  distributions,  occasions  when  children  freely  choose 
paperback  books  and  keep  them  for  their  own. 

The  success  of  Reading  Is  Fundamental's  method  has  been  widely 
acclaimed.  In  September  1976,  rif  distinguished  itself  by  winning 
a  contract  with  the  United  States  Office  of  Education  Right  to  Read 
Program,  assuming  the  responsibility  to  administer  the  Federal  In- 
expensive Book  Distribution  Program.  This  contract  marks  a  mile- 
stone in  rif's  history.  Local  reading  motivation  programs  which 
formerly  depended  on  local  funds  may  now  apply  to  rif  for  federal 
funds  to  match  each  locally  raised  dollar  one  for  one.  The  combined 
attraction  of  federal  funds  and  rif's  reputation  has  sparked  an  im- 


pressive  response.  In  the  first  year  of  its  operation,  thousands  of 
inquiries  about  the  Inexpensive  Book  Distribution  Program  have 
been  received  by  rif.  The  national  office  reviewed  over  800  pro- 
posals to  establish  reading  motivation  programs  and  approved 
nearly  650. 

Leaders  in  business,  education,  and  government  have  joined  pri- 
vate citizens  in  supporting  rif.  Secretary  of  Health,  Education  and 
Welfare  Joseph  A.  Califano,  Jr.,  has  endorsed  rif's  efforts.  For  the 
second  consecutive  year,  Reading  Is  Fundamental  has  won  the 
United  States  Office  of  Education  Literacy  Day  Award.  United 
States  Commissioner  of  Education  Ernest  L.  Boyer  has  written,  "I 
endorse  wholeheartedly  the  remarkable  private  volunteer  effort  that 
Reading  Is  Fundamental  has  become.  ...  I  commend  it  to  educators 
everywhere  for  their  cooperation  and  support." 

Other  organizations  have  cooperated  in  the  rif  effort.  The  Asso- 
ciation of  Library  Services  for  Children  of  the  American  Library 
Association  (formerly  the  Children's  Services  Division)  publicly 
endorsed  rif,  urging  local  libraries  to  establish  reading  motivation 
programs  in  their  communities.  The  Boys  Clubs  of  America  have 
similarly  endorsed  the  program,  rif  has  worked  with  dozens  of 
other  organizations,  including  the  General  Federation  of  Women's 
Clubs,  the  International  Reading  Association,  the  Educational 
Paperback  Association,  the  National  School  Volunteer  Program,  the 
National  Association  of  Elementary  School  Principals,  the  Chief 
State  School  Officers,  and  the  National  Urban  League. 

The  children's  publishing  community  has  also  supported  Reading 
Is  Fundamental.  Nearly  150  publishers  and  distributors — major 
houses  and  small  presses  and  distributors — have  qualified  to  supply 
books  to  the  Inexpensive  Book  Distribution  Program.  The  indus- 
try's trade  magazine,  Publishers  Weekly,  has  willingly  publicized 
the  new  federal  program,  as  have  such  magazines  as  the  School 
Library  Journal.  And  rif  enjoys  the  friendly  cooperation  of  the 
Association  of  American  Publishers  and  prominent  figures  in  the 
children's  book  world. 

In  addition  to  organizing  a  network  of  programs,  Reading  Is 
Fundamental  has  researched  the  theory  and  practice  of  reading 
motivation  and  forged  the  results  into  tools  for  volunteers.  With  a 
grant  from  the  W.K.  Kellogg  Foundation,  rif  produced  a  series  of 
tapes  and  a  manual  to  guide  intensive  volunteer  training  sessions. 

224  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

rif  created  the  film  Read,  Read,  Read  to  dramatize  the  rif  concept, 
as  well  as  a  training  manual  and  periodic  bulletins  to  refine  volun- 
teer skills.  Through  its  ability  to  translate  research  into  tools,  rif 
has  made  a  major  contribution  to  the  education  and  recruitment  of 
America's  volunteer  movement. 

rif's  volunteers  are  the  brightest  token  of  its  success.  In  1976, 
alone,  over  25,000  people  were  actively  engaged  in  rif  programs. 
For  those  who  rely,  as  rif  does,  on  the  common  sense  and  dedica- 
tion of  private  citizens,  the  support  of  these  volunteers  is  the  clear- 
est, most  telling  evidence  of  the  program's  practical  ability  to  con- 
vince children  of  all  backgrounds,  from  every  region  of  the  coun- 
try, that  reading  is  a  joy  worth  pursuing. 

Reading  Is  Fundamental,  Inc.  I  225 

-    r.iar.    I  Uon. 

James  Renwick,  Jr.,  who  designed  the  original  Smithsonian  Building,  also  de- 
signed this  gateway  that  was  to  open  into  a  garden  on  the  south  side  of  the 
building.  Last  year  the  garden  became  a  reality.  This  charming  print  is  from 
Hints  on  Public  Architecture  by  Robert  Dale  Owen,  1849. 

Smithsonian  Year  •   7977 


The  range  of  activities  and  programs  of  the  Smithsonian  Science 
Information  Exchange,  Inc.,  developed  in  a  significant  way  this  year 
in  the  following  three  major  areas. 

First,  the  scientifically  related  subject  indexing  which  has  been 
developed  and  applied  to  projects  by  the  scientific  staff,  predomi- 
nantly for  the  purposes  of  retrieving  projects  from  the  data  base, 
has  been  utilized  in  a  new  way  which  should  have  far-reaching  im- 
plications for  those  who  require  a  better  basis  for  monitoring  and 
evaluating  program  progress  in  scientific  research,  both  within  and 
outside  the  federal  structure. 

Second,  the  Exchange  has  continued  to  expand  the  availability 
and  usefulness  of  the  basic  source  document  of  the  Exchange,  the 
Notice  of  Research  Project  (nrp),  by  its  increased  interactions  with 
government  agencies  and  individual  users. 

A  third  significant  feature  of  this  year's  activities  included  a  spe- 
cial project  to  solicit  and  organize  for  publication  a  directory  of 
worldwide  ongoing  research  information  systems  in  cooperation 
with  unesco,  unisist  and  with  the  support  of  the  National  Science 
Foundation.  This  project  represents  the  Exchange's  continuing  role 
in  the  area  of  international  activities  directed  toward  improving  the 
development  and  exchange  of  ongoing  research  information. 

The  first  area  of  development  in  the  new  application  of  scientific 
subject  indexing  applied  to  project  abstracts  in  support  of  program 
planning  and  evaluation  efforts  depends  on  a  statistical  analysis  of 
the  index  points  applied  to  a  group  of  projects  defined  by  subject 
or  administrative  limits.  The  unique  hierarchial  structure  of  the 
indexing  and  the  consistency  of  its  application  allow  a  meaningful 
statistical  analysis  of  the  total  set  of  index  points  on  any  defined 


groups  of  projects,  which  provides  a  basis  for  expert  panels  to  more 
reliably  identify  the  components  of  scientific  activity  contributing 
to  a  program  or  research  objective.  Analyzed  on  a  year-to-year 
basis,  or  across  program  components,  this  approach  will  provide  an 
improved  method  to  identify  areas  of  over-  or  under-emphasis 
which  will  allow  research  programs  to  be  better  balanced  and  indi- 
cate areas  where  additional  support  may  be  needed  to  ensure  a  high 
probability  of  success  for  completion  or  breakthrough  in  major 
scientific  or  technological  endeavor.  Further  testing  of  this  ana- 
lytical approach  will  be  made  in  the  coming  year. 

The  Exchange  has  continued  a  number  of  programs  which  have 
evolved  in  several  ways  to  meet  user  needs.  A  major  program,  the 
Current  Cancer  Research  Project  Analysis  Center  (ccrespac),  has 
continued  in  its  third  year.  In  addition  to  providing  retrospective 
searches  of  the  data  base  on  highly  specialized  topics  of  cancer 
research,  the  Exchange  has  also  provided  searches  which  help  three 
cidac  Centers  of  the  National  Cancer  Institute's  (nci)  International 
Cancer  Research  Data  Bank  (icrdb)  Program  to  define  the  scope  of 
certain  areas  of  cancer  research  and  identify  the  recipients  of  re- 
search grants  in  these  areas  in  order  to  locate  articles  in  the  pub- 
lished literature  on  cancer. 

During  the  year  the  Exchange  completed  the  preparation  for 
publication  of  sixty  Special  Listings  of  Current  Research  Topics  in 
selected  areas  of  cancer  research.  These  publications  included  all 
ongoing  research  registered  with  the  Exchange  and  were  distributed 
by  the  National  Cancer  Institute  worldwide  to  principal  research 
investigators  whose  work  was  included  in  the  Exchange's  data  base. 

The  year  also  saw  the  further  development  of  the  cancerproj 
on-line  file  through  cancerline,  sponsored  by  nci  through  the  Na- 
tional Library  of  Medicine.  This  computerized  file  has  approxi- 
mately 17,000  current  research  projects,  3,000  of  which  are  from 
sources  other  than  the  United  States. 

This  year  also  marked  the  second  full  year  on  the  preparation 
and  publication  of  the  Directory  of  Toxicology  Research  in  Prog- 
ress. In  an  effort  to  make  the  publication  of  these  directories  more 
useful  to  those  concerned  with  scientific  research  in  toxicology,  a 
new  format  for  the  directory  was  evolved  for  the  new  year  includ- 
ing publication  on  a  monthly  rather  than  quarterly  basis. 

The  Exchange  continued  to  prepare  and  provide  information  for 

228  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

publications  of  ongoing  research  in  aerospace  research,  dental  re- 
search, and  international  energy  research. 

The  Exchange  has  seen  a  dramatic  increase  in  the  use  of  its  data 
base  which  has  now  been  available  for  on-line  use  for  the  past  two 
years.  Use  in  the  current  year  was  almost  double  that  of  the  pre- 
vious year.  The  data  base  will  be  available  in  the  fall  of  1977 
through  another  commercial  system  thus  allowing  users  a  choice 
of  on-line  systems. 

Significant  improvements  were  made  in  the  data-processing  area 
during  the  year  to  add  additional  information  to  be  included  in  the 
research  projects  which  will  increase  the  usefulness  of  the  Ex- 
change's data  base  and  provide  greater  flexibility  to  the  Exchange 
in  responding  to  user  needs.  A  recent  study  of  a  sampling  of  the 
Exchange's  users  carried  out  by  the  Denver  Research  Institute  for 
the  ssie  has  provided  new  insight  into  users'  needs  and  the  way  in 
which  on-going  research  information  is  used.  This  information  is 
expected  to  play  a  significant  role  in  the  development  of  new  out- 
put products  and  services  developed  in  the  coming  year. 

Smithsonian  Science  Information  Exchange,  Inc.  I  229 





David  and  Saul  with  the  Head  of  Goliath,  by  Giovanni  Benedetto  Castiglione, 
new  addition  to  the  print  collection  of  the  National  Gallery  of  Art  made  pos- 
sible by  the  Andrew  W.  Mellon  Purchase  Fund. 

Smithsonian  Year  •   1977 



The  national  gallery  of  art,  although  formally  established  as 
a  bureau  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution,  is  an  autonomous  and 
separately  administered  organization.  It  is  governed  by  its  own 
Board  of  Trustees,  the  statutory  members  of  which  are  the  Chief 
Justice  of  the  United  States,  Chairman;  the  Secretary  of  State;  the 
Secretary  of  the  Treasury;  and  the  Secretary  of  the  Smithsonian 
Institution,  all  ex  officio;  and  five  general  trustees.  Paul  Mellon 
continued  in  1977  as  president  of  the  Gallery  and  John  Hay  Whit- 
ney as  vice  president.  The  other  general  trustees  continuing  to 
serve  were  Carlisle  H.  Humelsine,  Dr.  Franklin  D.  Murphy,  and 
John  R.  Stevenson. 

During  the  year,  the  Gallery  counted  3,083,920  visitors.  Attend- 
ance at  the  exhibition  "The  Treasures  of  Tutankhamun"  during  its 
seventeen-week  run  was  835,924. 

A  number  of  important  works  of  art  were  acquired.  Notable 
paintings  donated  were  Gauguin's  The  Invocation,  a  Rothko,  and 
a  seminal  work  by  Andrew  Wyeth  entitled  Snow  Flurries.  An  early 
still  life,  Flowers  in  an  Urn,  by  Jan  van  Huysum  was  purchased. 

Of  the  twenty-one  works  of  sculpture  added  to  the  collection 
during  the  year,  twenty  postdate  the  year  1900,  dramatically  en- 
hancing the  Gallery's  twentieth-century  sculpture  holdings.  In- 
cluded among  them  are  six  Giacomettis  and  a  Henry  Moore. 

Acquisitions  of  works  of  graphic  art  included  nineteen  draw- 
ings, among  them  several  important  drawings  illustrating  the  early 
development  of  Dutch  landscape,  and  a  Longhi  portrait.  Signifi- 
cant additions  to  the  print  collection  were  The  Letter  "Y,"  by  Mas- 
ter ES;  an  enormous  woodcut,  Fall  of  the  Giants,  by  Coriolano;  and 


a  monotype  by  Castiglione,  David  and  Saul  with  the  Head  of  Go- 
liath. Castiglione  invented  the  process  of  monotype  and  was  the 
only  important  old  master  to  practice  it. 

Ten  exhibitions  were  offered  by  the  Gallery  during  the  year. 
Overshadowing  the  others  was  the  "Treasures  of  Tutankhamun" 
displaying  fifty-five  of  the  most  precious  and  artistic  objects  found 
in  the  boy-king's  tomb.  This  exhibition,  arranged  by  a  high-level 
agreement  between  the  Arab  Republic  of  Egypt  and  the  United 
States,  had  its  inaugural  run  at  the  Gallery  and  will  have  been  dis- 
played in  six  other  American  museums  by  1979.  Another  notable 
though  briefer  exhibition  was  that  of  No  Robes  and  Masks  used 
during  the  three  centuries  of  Shogunate  rule  in  Japan.  It  marked 
the  first  time  this  collection,  owned  by  the  Tokugawa  family,  had 
been  seen  in  the  United  States.  Other  exhibitions  included  "Morris 
Louis:  Major  Themes  and  Variations"  and  six  exhibitions  devoted 
to  graphics  from  Titian  and  sixteenth-century  Venice  to  twentieth- 
century  France. 

The  Gallery  made  loans  to  forty-three  exhibitions  at  fifty-six 
institutions  including  fifteen  abroad.  Among  the  objects  lent  were 
seventy-six  paintings,  three  sculptures,  and  fifty-three  graphics. 

The  Department  of  Extension  Programs,  relocated  in  new  quar- 
ters in  the  connecting  link,  completed  a  program  of  refurbishing, 
revising,  and  repackaging  all  existing  programs  some  of  which 
were  originally  prepared  more  than  twenty  years  earlier.  Four  new 
programs  consisting  of  color  slides,  audio  cassettes  and  printed 
text  were  issued,  and  six  new  films  on  major  artists.  A  new  com- 
pletely revised  illustrated  catalogue  vividly  presents  the  range  and 
diversity  of  the  free-loan  materials  available.  Total  bookings  were 
29,984,  witnessed  by  an  aggregate  estimated  audience  of  2,370,000. 

Total  attendance  at  talks  given  by  the  Gallery's  Education  De- 
partment and  at  the  programs  presented  in  the  auditorium  was 
153,298.  These  included  the  regularly  scheduled  auditorium  lec- 
tures and  films;  the  Introduction  to  the  Collection,  the  Tour  of  the 
Week  and  Painting  of  the  Week  talks;  as  well  as  special  introduc- 
tory presentations  keyed  to  four  of  the  exhibitions.  There  were 
thirty-one  guest  lecturers  including  the  twenty-fifth  annual  An- 
drew W.  Mellon  Lecturer  in  the  Fine  Arts,  Andre  Chastel,  the 
eminent  French  authority  on  the  Italian  Renaissance  whose  lec- 
tures analyzed  the  causes  and  events  of  the  Sack  of  Rome  in  1527 

232  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

by  the  army  of  the  Emperor  Charles  V  and  the  resultant  diaspora 
of  the  art  and  artists  of  that  city.  Other  distinguished  scholars  who 
lectured  included  Wolfgang  Lotz,  Kress  Professor-in-Residence; 
Michael  Jaffe,  director  of  the  Fitzwilliam  Museum  in  Cambridge; 
and  David  Rosand  of  Columbia  University. 

The  Conservation  staff,  preparing  to  move  into  its  new  labora- 
tory space  in  what  was  the  old  cafeteria,  has  been  expanded  to 
nine  professionals  compared  to  just  three  part-timers  five  years 
ago.  During  the  year,  it  completed  major  restoration  on  8  paintings 
and  did  minor  work  on  134  others.  The  paper  conservator  per- 
formed major  treatment  on  6  works  of  graphic  art  and  under  her 
supervision  more  than  2,000  works  were  mounted,  framed,  or 
given  limited  restoration.  The  new  conservation  scientist  directed 
her  attention  primarily  to  investigations  attending  the  removal  of 
the  dark  varnish  from  Rembrandt's  The  Mill  and  took  on  the  in- 
house  portion  of  continuing  research  into  artists'  pigments  and 
other  materials. 

The  Library  staff,  preparing  to  move  into  larger  and  far  more 
efficient  space  in  the  East  Building,  increased  its  professional  staff 
to  nineteen  compared  to  twelve  in  1972.  During  the  year,  over 
6,000  items  were  received  including  several  important  encyclope- 
dias to  build  up  the  reference  collection.  The  Photographic  Ar- 
chives added  more  than  130,000  photographs,  most  of  them  pur- 
chased with  funds  provided  by  the  Kress  Foundation. 

The  sales  facilities,  augmented  for  the  "Treasures  of  Tutank- 
hamun"  exhibition,  handled  375,122  over-the-counter  orders  and 
5,114  mail  orders. 

The  Music  Program  consisted  of  forty  Sunday  evening  concerts 
in  the  East  Garden  Court,  two  string  recitals  at  exhibition  open- 
ings, and,  by  means  of  a  special  grant  from  Exxon  Corporation,  a 
marathon  of  rotating  string  performances  during  the  last  eight 
days  of  the  Tutankhamun  exhibition  for  the  benefit  of  those  wait- 
ing in  line. 

By  the  end  of  September,  the  Concourse  connecting  the  original 
building  with  the  new  East  Building  had  been  occupied  for  fifteen 
months  and  the  Cafe/Buffet  eating  facilities  that  virtually  fill  the 
public  space  therein  served  1,127,740  patrons.  The  East  Building 
has  reached  96  percent  completion  and  is  scheduled  for  dedication 
and  opening  to  the  public  on  June  1,  1978. 

National  Gallery  of  Art  I  233 


Morris  Louis:  Major  Themes  &  Variations 

Continued  from  the  previous  fiscal  year  through  January  9, 1977. 
Titian  and  the  Venetian  Woodcut 

October  30,  1976,  through  January  2,  1977. 
Treasures  of  Tutankhamun 

November  17,  1976,  through  March  15,  1977. 
Seventeenth  Century  Dutch  Drawings  from  American  Collections 

January  28  through  March  13,  1977. 
The  Tokugawa  Collection:  No  Robes  and  Masks 

April  10  through  May  22,  1977. 
Paper  in  Prints 

May  1  through  July  31,  1977. 
Prints  of  Paris:  The  1890s 

May  1  through  July  31,  1977. 
Accessible  Arts  (Photo  exhibit  on  handicapped  persons  and  the  arts) 

May  20-22,  1977. 
Henri  Matisse  Paper  Cut-outs 

September  10,  1977,  to  the  end  of  the  fiscal  year. 
French  Prints  By  20th-century  Masters 

September  11, 1977,  to  the  end  of  the  fiscal  year. 



The  Chief  Justice  of  the  United  States 

Warren  E.  Burger,  Chairman 
The  Secretary  of  State 

Cyrus  R.  Vance 
The  Secretary  of  the  Treasury 

W.  Michael  Blumenthal 
The  Secretary  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution 

S.  Dillon  Ripley 


Carlisle  H.  Humelsine 
Paul  Mellon 
hranklin  D.  Murphy 
John  R.  Stevenson 
John  Hay  Whitney 

234  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Smithsonian  Year  •   7977 

Organization  Chart  page     236 

1.  Members  of  the  Smithsonian  Council,  238 
Boards,  and  Commissions,  September  30, 1977 

2.  Smithsonian  Special  Foreign  Currency  Program  244 
Research  Supported  in  Fiscal  Year  1977 

3.  National  Museum  Act  Grants  Awarded  in  247 
Fiscal  Year  1977 

4.  Progress  on  Building  Construction,  Restoration,  251 
and  Renovation 

5.  Publications  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution  252 
Press  in  Fiscal  Year  1977 

6.  Publications  of  the  Staff  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution  264 
and  Its  Subsidiaries  in  Fiscal  Year  1977 

7.  Academic  Appointments  in  Fiscal  Year  1977  330 

8.  Benefactors  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution  343 
in  Fiscal  Year  1977 

9.  List  of  Donors  to  the  Smithsonian  Institution  367 
in  Fiscal  Year  1977 

10.  Visitors  to  the  Smithsonian  Institution,  October  1,  1976,  428 
through  December  31,  1977 

11.  Staff  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution  and  Its  Subsidiaries,  429 
September  30, 1977 







Administration  •  Science 

History  and  Art  •  Public  Service 

Museum  Programs 












Chesapeake  Bay  Center  for 

Environmental  Studies 
Fort  Pierce  Bureau 
National  Air  and  Space  Museum 
National  Museum  of  Man 

Center  for  the  Study  of  Man 
National  Museum  of  Natural  History 
Smithsonian  Oceanographic 
Sorting  Center 
National  Zoological  Park 
Office  of  International  Programs 
Radiation  Biology  Laboratory 
Smithsonian  Astrophysical 

Smithsonian  Tropical  Research 



Archives  of  American  Art 
Cooper-Hewitt  Museum  of 

Design  and  Decorative  Arts 
Freer  Gallery  of  Art 
Hirshhorn  Museum  and 

Sculpture  Garden 
Joseph  Henry  Papers 
National  Collection  of 

Fine  Arts 

Renwick  Gallery 
National  Museum  of  History 

and  Technology 
National  Portrait  Gallery 
Office  of  Academic  Studies 
Office  of  American  and 

Folklife  Studies 


Conservation  Analytical  Laboratory* 
National  Museum  Act  Programs 
Office  of  Exihibits  Central 
Office  of  Horticulture 
Office  of  Museum  Programs 
Office  of  the  Registrar 
Smithsonian  Archives 
Smithsonian  Institution  Libraries 
Smithsonian  Institution 

Traveling  Exhibition  Service 

Under  Separate  Boards  of  Trustees: 






L i 





Advisory  Board  of  the 
Cooper-Hewitt  Museum  of 
Design  and  Decorative  Arts 

Advisory  Council  for  the 
National  Museum  Act 

Archives  of  American  Art 
Board  of  Trustees 

Freer  Visiting  Committee 

Hirshhorn  Museum  and 
Sculpture  Garden 
Board  of  Trustees 

National  Air  and  Space  Museum 
Advisory  Board 

National  Armed  Forces 
Museum  Advisory  Board 

National  Board  of  the 
Smithsonian  Associates 

National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts 

National  Portrait  Gallery 

Smithsonian  Council 


Foreign  Currency  Program 

Advisory  Councils 


Anacostia  Neighborhood  Museum 
Division  of  Performing  Arts 
Office  of  Elementary  and 

Secondary  Education 
Office  of  Smithsonian  Symposia 

and  Seminars 
Office  of  Telecommunications 
Smithsonian  Resident  Associates 
Smithsonian  Institution  Press 
Smithsonian  Magazine 
Visitors  Information  and 

Associates  Reception  Center 



Business  Management 

Belmont  Conference  Center 
Product  Development  Program 
Smithsonian  Museum  Shops 

Grants  and  Insurance 

Investments  Accounting 

Programming  and  Budget 


Computer  Services 
Equal  Opportunity 
Facilities  Planning 

and  Engineering  Services 
International  Exchange  Service 
Management  Analysis 
Personnel  Administration 
Plant  Services 
Printing  and  Photographic 

Protection  Services 
Supply  Services 
Travel  Services 

APPENDIX  1.  Members  of  the  Smithsonian  Council,  Boards, 
and  Commissions,  September  30,  1977 

Smithsonian  Institution  Board  of  Regents 

Warren  E.  Burger,  Chief  Justice  of  the  United  States,  Chancellor 

Walter  F.  Mondale,  Vice  President  of  the  United  States 

Henry  M.  Jackson,  Member  of  the  Senate 

Barry  Goldwater,  Member  of  the  Senate 

Claiborne  Pell,  Member  of  the  Senate 

George  H.  Mahon,  Member  of  the  House  of  Representatives 

Elford  A.  Cederberg,  Member  of  the  House  of  Representatives 

Corinne  C.  Boggs,  Member  of  the  House  of  Representatives 

J.  Paul  Austin,  citizen  of  Georgia 

John  Nicholas  Brown,  citizen  of  Rhode  Island 

William  A.  M.  Burden,  citizen  of  New  York 

Murray  Gell-Mann,  citizen  of  California 

Caryl  P.  Haskins,  citizen  of  the  District  of  Columbia 

A.  Leon  Higginbotham,  Jr.,  citizen  of  Pennsylvania 

Thomas  J.  Watson,  Jr.,  citizen  of  Connecticut 

James  E.  Webb,  citizen  of  the  District  of  Columbia 

Executive  Committee,  Board  of  Regents 

Warren  E.  Burger,  Chancellor  (Board  of  Regents),  ex  officio 

William  A.  M.  Burden 

Caryl  P.  Haskins 

James  E.  Webb  (Chairman) 

The  Smithsonian  Council 

Roger  D.  Abrahams 
George  A.  Bartholomew 
Milton  W.  Brown 
Reid  A.  Bryson 
Frederick  H.  Burkhardt 
Archie  F.  Carr,  Jr. 
Carl  W.  Condit 
Mrs.  Camille  W.  Cook 
Miss  Anne  d'Harnoncourt 
Richard  M.  Dorson 
A.  Hunter  Dupree 
Fred  R.  Eggan 
Murray  Gell-Mann 
Frank  B.  Golley 

Stephen  Jay  Gould 
David  C.  Hawkins 
August  Heckscher 
Nathan  Huggins 
George  F.  Lindsay 
Giles  W.  Mead 
Ruth  Patrick 
Gordon  N.  Ray,  (Chairman 

of  the  Smithsonian  Council) 
Harold  Rosenberg 
Carl  E.  Sagan 
Andre  Schiffrin 
Barbara  W.  Tuchman 

238  /  Smithsonian  Year  1Q77 


H.  Harvard  Arnason 
Muriel  M.  Berman 
Herman  R.  Branson 
Donald  5.  Farner 
Anthony  N.  B.  Garvan 
Peter  C.  Goldmark 
Philip  Handler 
Jan  LaRue 
James  Liverman 
Clifford  L.  Lord 

Charles  D.  Michener 
Peter  M.  Millman 
Philip  C.  Ritterbush 
George  C.  Seybolt 
Cyril  S.  Smith 
John  D.  Spikes 
Stephen  E.  Toulmin 
William  von  Arx 
Warren  H.  Wagner,  Jr. 
Rainer  Zangerl 

Board  of  Academic  Studies 

Ira  Rubinoff,  Chairman 
Brooke  Hindle 
Porter  M.  Kier 
Abram  Lerner 

W.  Shropshire,  Jr. 
Charles  Blitzer,  ex  officio 
David  Challinor,  ex  officio 

Archives  of  American  Art  Board  of  Trustees 

Mrs.  Otto  L.  Spaeth,  Chairman 
Irving  F.  Burton,  President 
Gilbert  H.  Kinney,  Vice  President 
Mrs.  Nancy  B.  Negley,  Vice  President 
Mrs.  E.  Bliss  Parkinson,  Vice  President 
Mrs.  Dana  M.  Raymond,  Secretary 
Henry  de  Forest  Baldwin,  Treasurer 
Edwin  A.  Bergman 
Mrs.  John  L.  Bradley 
Joel  S.  Ehrenkranz 
Mrs.  Walter  B.  Ford  II 
Joseph  Hirshhorn 
Milka  Iconomoff 

Howard  W.  Lipman 
Harold  O.  Love 
Russell  Lynes 
Richard  Manoogian 
Porter  A.  McCray 
Abraham  Melamed 
Mrs.  William  L.  Mitchell 
Frederic  A.  Sharf 
Mrs.  Louise  Talbot  Trigg 
Edward  M.  M.  Warburg 
George  H.  Waterman  III 
S.  Dillon  Ripley,  ex  officio 
Charles  Blitzer,  ex  officio 


Lawrence  A.  Fleischman 

Mrs.  Edsel  B.  Ford 

E.  P.  Richardson 


Mrs.  William  L.  Richards 

National  Museum  of  Man,  Center  for  the  Study  of  Man 
National  Anthropological  Film  Center  Advisory  Council 

Margaret  Mead 
Mrs.  Roma  S.  Crocker 
William  H.  Crocker 
Gordon  D.  Gibson 
Edward  T.  Hall 
Paul  Hockings 
Matthew  Huxley 

Mrs.  Constantine  B.  Mellon 

Jay  W.  Ruby 

George  D.  Spindler 

Mrs.  Marion  Stirling 

Sol  Tax 

E.  Fuller  Torrey 

Carroll  W.  Williams 


Appendix  1.  Smithsonian  Council,  Boards  and  Commissions  I  239 

Advisory  Board  of  the  Cooper-Hewitt  Museum 
of  Design  and  Decorative  Arts 

Thomas  E.  Murray  II,  Chairman 
Albert  I.  Edelman,  Vice  Chairman 
Mrs.  Miles  Pennybacker,  Secretary 
Sidney  Gruson,  Treasurer 
Cass  Canfield,  Jr.,  Member 

Mrs.  Howard  J.  Sachs,  Member 
Robert  C.  Weaver,  Member 
S.  Dillon  Ripley,  Secretary, 

Smithsonian  Institution,  ex  officio 

honorary  member         Mrs.  Margaret  Carnegie  Miller 

Freer  Visiting  Committee 

Mrs.  Jackson  Burke 
Kwang-Chih  Chang 
Marvin  Eisenberg 
Mrs.  Katherine  Graham 
Charles  Greenfield 

John  M.  Rosenfield 
Hugh  Scott 
Laurence  Sickman 
John  Thacher 

Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden 
Board  of  Trustees 

Daniel  P.  Moynihan,  Chairman  1  Thomas  M.  Evans 

Leigh  B.  Block,  Vice-Chairman  Sydney  Lewis 

H.  Harvard  Arnason  Dorothy  C.  Miller 

Anne  d'Harnoncourt  Jerome  Greene  2 

Warren  E.  Burger,  Chief  Justice  of  the  United  States,  ex  officio 
S.  Dillon  Ripley,  Secretary,  Smithsonian  Institution,  ex  officio 

Horticultural  Advisory  Committee 

S.  Dillon  Ripley,  ex  officio 
James  R.  Buckler 
Robert  Baker 
Jimmie  L.  Crowe 
Mrs.  Belva  Jensen 


James  R.  Buckler 
Edward  Ayensu 
Paul  Desautels 

Carlton  B.  Lees 

Donald  Parker 

Mrs.  Frances  Patteson-Knight 

Robert  Read 

Russell  Seibert 

Lauranne  C.  Nash 

Robert  Read 

Mrs.  S.  Dillon  Ripley 

National  Air  and  Space  Museum  Advisory  Board 


S.  Dillon  Ripley 

Jefferson  W.  Cochran 

Brigadier  General  James  L.  Collins 

Lieutenant  General  Thomas  E.  Miller,  Jr. 

Major  General  William  C.  Morris 
Herbert  J.  Rowe 
Rear  Admiral  James  S.  Gracey 
Vice  Admiral  Frederick  C.  Turner 


Mrs.  O.  A.  Beech 

Lieutenant  General  Elwood  R.  Quesada,  US  AT  (Ret) 

1  Reelected  at  meeting  of  Board  of  Trustees,  June  21, 1977. 

2  Elected  at  meeting  of  Board  of  Trustees,  June  21,  1977. 

240  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

National  Air  and  Space  Museum  Visiting  Committee 

Alexander  H.  Flax 
Gerard  K.  O'Neill 
Russell  L.  Schweickart 

Lyon  T.  Silver 

Lieutenant  General  James  T.  Stewart,  USAF  (Ret) 

Richard  Y.  Whitcomb 

National  Armed  Forces  Museum  Advisory  Board 

John  Nicholas  Brown,  Chairman 

Clifford  L.  Alexander,  Jr.,  Secretary  of  the  Army 

W.  Graham  Claytor,  Secretary  of  the  Navy 

John  C.  Stetson,  Secretary  of  the  Air  Force 

Fred  L.  Dixon 

William  I.  Greener,  Jr. 

William  H.  Perkins,  Jr. 


Theodore  Ropp 
James  M.  Stone,  Sr. 

Harold  Brown,  Secretary  of  Defense 

S.  Dillon  Ripley,  Secretary  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution 

Advisory  Council  for  the  National  Museum  Act 

Robert  Feller 
Russell  Fridley 
Bonnie  Pitman  Gelles 
Julia  Hotton 
Philip  S.  Humphrey 
Thomas  W.  Leavitt 

Joseph  Veach  Noble 
Richard  H.  Randall 
Mitchell  Wilder 
Vernal  L.  Yadon 
Paul  N.  Perrot,  Chairman 

National  Board  of  the  Smithsonian  Associates 

William  S.  Anderson 
Harry  Hood  Bassett 
George  C.  McGhee,  Chairman 
Robert  O.  Anderson 
Henry  C.  Beck,  Jr. 
Keith  S.  Brown 
Mrs.  Jackson  Burke 
William  T.  Coleman,  Jr. 
Gaylord  Donnelley 
Thomas  M.  Evans 
Charles  T.  Fisher  III 
Mrs.  David  L.  Guyer 
Mrs.  Karl  G.  Harr,  Jr. 


Richard  P.  Cooley 
Joseph  F.  Cullman  3rd 
Leonard  K.  Firestone 
Alfred  C.Glassell,  Jr. 
William  A.  Hewitt 

Henry  J.  Heinz  II 
John  N.  Irwin  II 
James  M.  Kemper,  Jr. 
Mrs.  Robert  A.  Magowan 
Mrs.  Robert  S.  McNamara 
Scott  McVay 
Ruben  F.  Mettler 
John  R.  Norton  III 
Charles  M.  Pigott 
George  S.  Pillsbury 
Arthur  A.  Seeligson,  Jr. 
Vernon  Taylor,  Jr. 
James  O.  Wright 

Mrs.  Lyndon  B.  Johnson 
Lewis  A.  Lapham 
Nelson  A.  Rockefeller 
Francis  C.  Rooney,  Jr. 
Merritt  Kirk  Ruddock 
Thomas  J.  Watson,  Jr. 

National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts  Commission 

George  B.  Tatum,  Chairman 
Otto  Wittmann,  Vice  Chairman 

S.  Dillon  Ripley,  Secretary 
Mrs.  Elizabeth  Brooke  Blake 

Appendix  1.  Smithsonian  Council,  Boards  and  Commissions  I  241 

en     ,4,„or  David  Lloyd  Kreeger 
Thomas  S.  Buechner  ' 

Lloyd  Goodrich  Abram  L,  rner 

Walker  Hancock  Mrs.  Robert  A.  Magowan 

R.  Philip  Hanes,  Jr.  Mrs.  Hiram  W  McKee 

Bartlett  H.  Hayes,  Jr.  Harold  Rosenberg 

August  Heckscher  Charles . H  Sawyer 

Thomas  C.  Howe  Mrs.  Otto  L.  Spaeth 
Mrs.  Jaquelin  H.  Hume 


Martin  Friedman  Stow  Wengenroth 

Henry  Mcllhenny  Alexander  Wetmore 

Paul  Mellon  Andrew  Wyeth 

National  Portrait  Gallery  Commission 

John  Nicholas  Brown,  Chairman  E.  P.  Richardson 

Ralph  Ellison  Robert  Hilton  Smith 

David  E.  Finley  »  Katie  Louchheim 

Wilmarth  Sheldon  Lewis  2  Barry  Bingham,  Sr. 

Robert  L.  McNeil,  Jr.  Joe  L.  Allbritton  3 

Andrew  Oliver 

Warren  E.  Burger,  Chief  Justice  of  the  United  States,  ex  officio 
S.  Dillon  Ripley,  Secretary,  Smithsonian  Institution,  ex  officio 
J.  Carter  Brown,  Director,  National  Gallery  of  Art,  ex  officio 

Office  of  International  Programs, 

Smithsonian  Foreign  Currency  Program  Advisory  Councils 


Esin  Atil  Daniel  H.  H.  Ingalls 

Daniel  G.  Bates  Thomas  Jacobsen 

George  F.  Dales  John  Yellen  (observer) 
George  Hughes 


Felix  Chayes  William  Melson 

Henry  Faul  Thornton  Page 

George  Field  Victor  Szebehely 

Paul  Hodge  Louis  Walter 
William  H.  Klein 


D.  A.  Livingstone  Herbert  H.  Ross 

Robert  P.  Mcintosh  (observer)  R-  Ruibal 

Robert  Ornduff  Richard  W.  Thorington,  Jr. 

Norman  D.  Newell 

1  Deceased  February  1, 1977. 
■  Resigned  August  25, 1976. 
3  Appointed  January  24, 1977. 

242  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Woodrow  Wilson  International  Center  for  Scholars 
Board  of  Trustees 

William  J.  Baroody,  Chairman 

Paul  W.  McCracken,  Vice  Chairman 

James  A.  Baker  III,  Houston,  Texas 

Daniel  J.  Boorstin,  Librarian  of  Congress 

Robert  H.  Bork,  New  Haven,  Connecticut 

Joseph  A.  Califano,  Secretary  of  Health,  Education  and  Welfare 

Bryce  N.  Harlow,  Washington,  D.C. 

A.  James  Reichley,  Yardley,  Pennsylvania 

James  B.  Rhoads,  Archivist  of  the  United  States 

S.  Dillon  Ripley,  Secretary  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution 

Dean  Rusk,  Athens,  Georgia 

Cyrus  R.  Vance,  Secretary  of  State 

Rawleigh  Warner,  Jr.,  New  York,  New  York 

Kennedy  Center  Board  of  Trustees 

Roger  L.  Stevens,  Chairman 

Mrs.  Howard  H.  Baker,  Jr. 

Daniel  J.  Boorstin 

Ernest  Boyer 

J.  Carter  Brown 

Joseph  A.  Califano,  Jr. 

Robert  5.  Carter 

Mrs.  Edward  Finch  Cox 

Mrs.  J.  Clifford  Folger 

Abe  Fortas 

Peter  H.  B.  Frelinghuysen 

J.  William  Fulbright 

Leonard  H.  Goldenson 

R.  Philip  Hanes,  Jr. 

Orval  Hansen 

Mrs.  Rebekah  Harkness 

Mrs.  Paul  H.  Hatch 

William  K.  Hitchcock 

Mrs.  Bob  Hope 

Frank  Ikard 

Edward  M.  Kennedy 

Thomas  H.  Kuchel 

Melvin  B.  Laird 

Mrs.  Michael  J.  Mansfield 

Mrs.  J.  Willard  Marriott 

Robert  I.  Millonzi 

Ronald  H.  Nessen 

Charles  H.  Percy 

Mrs.  Donna  Stone  Pesch 

Albert  H.  Quie 

S.  Dillon  Ripley  II 

Teno  Roncalio 

Mrs.  Jouett  Shouse 

Mrs.  Jean  Kennedy  Smith 

John  G.  Spatuzza 
Henry  Strong 
William  H.  Thomas 
Frank  Thompson,  Jr. 
Benjamin  A.  Trustman 
Jack  J.  Valenti 
Walter  E.  Washington 
Lew  R.  Wasserman 
William  J.  Whalen 
Harrison  A.  Williams,  Jr. 
Mrs.  Jack  Wrather 
Mrs.  George  A.  Garrett, 
Honorary  Trustee 

National  Gallery  of  Art  Board  of  Trustees 


The  Chief  Justice  of  the  United  States  Warren  E.  Burger,  Chairman 

The  Secretary  of  State  Cyrus  R.  Vance 

The  Secretary  of  the  Treasury  W.  Michael  Blumenthal 

The  Secretary  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution  S.  Dillon  Ripley 


Carlisle  H.  Humelsine 
Paul  Mellon 
Franklin  D.  Murphy 

John  R.  Stevenson 
John  Hay  Whitney 

Appendix  1.  Smithsonian  Council,  Boards  and  Commissions  I  243 

APPENDIX  2.  Smithsonian  Special  Foreign  Currency  Program 
Research  Supported  in  Fiscal  Year  1977 


American  Institute  of  Indian  Studies,  Chicago,  Illinois.  Continued  support 
for  administration;  research  fellowships;  Center  for  Art  and  Archeology. 
American  Research  Center  in  Egypt,  Princeton,  New  Jersey.  Operation  of 
Center  in  Cairo;  fellowship  program  in  the  study  of  archeology  and  related 
disciplines  in  Egypt;  survey  of  Arabic  scientific  manuscripts  in  Cairo;  the 
Middle  Commentaries  on  Aristotle's  Organon  by  Averroes;  continuation  of 
the  architectural  and  epigraphic  survey  of  Egypt;  excavation  at  the  site  of 
Mendes  in  the  Nile  delta;  an  archeological  map  of  the  Theban  necropolis; 
preparation  for  publication  of  a  manuscript  by  the  lates  Georges  Legrain  on 
Egyptian  sculpture  from  Karnak  in  the  Cairo  Museum;  archeological  research 
at  the  site  of  Hierakonpolis  (Nekhen)  in  Edfu  District;  a  historical  and  archi- 
tectural study  of  the  Bayt  al-Razzas;  electronic  survey  at  Tell  Es-Shugafiya. 

American  Schools  of  Oriental  Research,  Cambridge,  Massachusetts.  Excava- 
tion in  salient  areas  of  Punic  and  Roman  Carthage  (Tunisia). 

Brown  University,  Providence,  Rhode  Island.  Epigraphic  recording  and  archi- 
tectural survey  of  the  pharaonic  and  prepharaonic  remains  at  Gebel  es- 
Silsilah  (Egypt). 

Dumbarton  Oaks  Center  for  Byzantine  Studies,  Washington,  D.C.  A  corpus 
of  the  mosaics  of  Tunisia. 

Freer  Gallery  of  Art,  Washington,  D.C.  Studies  on  the  art  of  the  Mamluks 

Herbert  H.  Lehman  College,  Bronx,  New  York.  The  long-range  effects  of 
resettlement  and  economic  expansion  in  an  Egyptian  delta  village. 

Indo-U.S.  Subcommission  on  Education  and  Culture,  New  York,  New  York. 
Indo-U.S.  Fellowship  Program. 

National  Anthropological  Film  Center,  Washington,  D.C.  Pan-Pashtoon  no- 
mad studies  (India). 

National  Museum  of  Natural  History,  Washington,  D.C.  A  metallurgical  site 
survey  of  the  Western  Chagai  District  (Pakistan). 

Oriental  Institute,  University  of  Chicago,  Chicago,  Illinois.  Excavation  of  the 
foundations  of  some  of  the  monuments  of  Philae  (Egypt). 

Southern  Methodist  University,  Dallas,  Texas.  Prehistory  of  the  Western 
Desert,  Egypt. 

State  University  of  New  York,  Buffalo,  New  York.  Investigation  on  the  Neo- 
lithic sites  in  southeastern  Poland. 

244  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

University  of  Louisville,  Louisville,  Kentucky.     Exploration  of  an  early  Me- 
dieval settlement  complex  in  the  Kujawy  Region  in  Poland. 

University   of  Wisconsin,   Madison,   Wisconsin.   Contemporary   South   Asian 
civilization  films  (India). 

Washington   State  University,  Pullman,  Washington.     Prehistoric  studies  of 
northern  Egypt. 


Academy  of  Natural  Sciences,  Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania.  Distribution,  lar- 
val ecology  and  population  balance  in  Polish  water  frogs  (the  Rana  esculenta 

California  Academy  of  Sciences,  San  Francisco,  California.  Systematic  studies 
on  scorpion  fishes  (India). 

Duke  University,  Durham,  North  Carolina.  Anthropological  and  paleonto- 
logical  on  the  fossil  anthropoid  sites  of  the  Egyptian  oligocene. 

Howard  University,  Washington,  D.C.     Fossil  Cenozoic  mammals  of  Pakistan. 

National  Museum  of  Natural  History,  Washington,  D.C.  Biological  produc- 
tivity in  some  tropical  lakes  of  South  India,  biosystematic  studies  of  the 
insects  of  Ceylon;  gene  pools  for  Indian  plants  of  economic  value;  revision  of 
Trimen's  Handbook  to  the  Flora  of  Ceylon;  and,  the  natural  history  of  ground 
beetles  at  a  temperate  forest  site,  Bialowieza  Primeval  Forest,  Poland. 

National  Zoological  Park,  Washington,  D.C.  Cooperative  zoo  exchanges 

Texas  Tech  University,  Lubbock,  Texas.  Forage  potential  of  arid-zone  halo- 
phytes  (Egypt). 

University  of  California,  Berkeley,  California.  Stratigraphic  and  paleobio- 
logy investigations  of  fossil  anthrapoid  sites  in  Burma. 

University  of  California,  Riverside,  California.  Cytotaxonomy  of  the  Yugo- 
slavian flora. 

University  of  Michigan,  Ann  Arbor,  Michigan.  Fossil  mammals  in  Paleocene 
and  Eocene  continental  sediments  of  Pakistan;  and,  molluscan  genus  Bulinus, 
intermediate  hosts  of  Schistosoma  haematobium  (Egypt). 

University  of  Pittsburgh,  Pittsburgh,  Pennsylvania.  Desert  rodent  ecology 

University    of   Toledo,    Toledo,    Ohio.     Limnological    investigations    of   Lake 
Ohrid  (Yugoslavia);  and  limnological  investigations  of  Polish  freshwaters. 
University  of  Washington,  Pullman,  Washington.     United  States  participation 
in  the  First  International  Symposium  on  Avian  Endocrinology  (India). 

University  of  Wisconsin,  Milwaukee,  Wisconsin.  Limnological  investigations 
of  Skadar  Lake  (Yugoslavia). 

Utah  State  University,  Logan,  Utah.  Systems  analysis  of  the  pre-Saharan 
ecosystem  of  Southern  Tunisia. 

Yale  University,  New  Haven,  Connecticut.  Paleonthropology,  paleontology, 
and  stratigraphy  of  Neogene  deposits  in  Pakistan. 

Appendix  2.  Smithsonian  Foreign  Currency  Program  I  245 


National  Air  and  Space  Museum,  Washington,  D.C.  Desert  erosion  and  sand 
movement  in  Egypt. 

National  Museum  of  Natural  History,  Washington,  D.C.  Gravity  survey  of 
the  Lonar  Impact  Crater,  India. 

Ohio  State  University,  Columbus,  Ohio.  Absolute  energy  distribution  of 
giant  red  stars  (Poland). 

Smithsonian  Astrophysical  Observatory,  Cambridge,  Massachusetts.  Continu- 
ation of  operation  of  Uttar  Pradesh  State  Observatory/Smithsonian  Astro- 
physical  Observing  Station,  Naini  Tal,  India. 

University  of  Chicago,  Chicago,  Illinois.  Nucleosynthesis  and  the  advanced 
stages  of  stellar  evolution  (Poland). 

University  of  Colorado,  Boulder,  Colorado.  Geochronology  of  Upper  Creta- 
ceous to  Upper  Miocene  marine  and  continental  sediments  (Poland). 

University  of  Pennsylvania,  Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania.  Geochronology  of 
the  alkaline  complexes  of  the  Southeastern  Desert  of  Egypt;  laboratory  studies 
of  Libyan  Desert  silica  glass  (Egypt). 

University  of  Wisconsin,  Madison,  Wisconsin.  Geodynamic  evolution  of 


American  Research  Center  in  Egypt,  Princeton,  New  Jersey.  Luxor  Museum 
multilingual  catalog  and  labeling  (Egypt). 

Carnegie  Museum  of  Natural  History,  Pittsburgh,  Pennsylvania.  Plant  Prep- 
arator  Training  Seminar  (India). 

Franklin  Institute,  Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania.  The  History  of  American  In- 
dustrial Technology  exhibition  (India). 

Maryland  Institute,  College  of  Art,  Baltimore,  Maryland.  Polish  posters  and 

National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology,  Washington,  D.C.  Cooperative 
museum  exchange  (India). 

National  Trust  for  Historic  Preservation,  Washington,  D.C.  United  States 
participation  in  unesco/icomos  meeting  on  inventory  of  cultural  property  sys- 
tems (Poland). 

Woodrow  Wilson  International  Center  for  Scholars,  Washington,  D.C.  Fel- 
lowship travel  support  (Poland  and  India). 

246  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

APPENDIX  3.  National  Museum  Act  Grants  Awarded 
in  Fiscal  Year  1977 


The  American  Association  for  State  and  Local  History,  Nashville,  Tennessee. 

The  Hawaii  Museums  Association,  Honolulu,  Hawaii. 

The  Foundation  of  the  American  Institute  for  Conservation,  Winterthur,  Dela- 

The  Pacific  Regional  Conservation  Center,  Honolulu,  Hawaii. 

The  Oakland  Museum  Association,  Oakland,  California. 

The  Norwegian-American  Museum,  Decorah,  Iowa. 

The  State  Historical  Society  of  Colorado,  Denver,  Colorado. 

The  New  England  Aquarium  Corporation,  Boston,  Massachusetts. 

The  Association  of  Science-Technology  Centers,  Washington,  D.C. 


Miss  Julia  Seton,  The  University  of  London  Institute  of  Archaeology,  London, 

Mr.  Alexander  W.  Katlan,  Rosary  College  Graduate  School  of  Fine  Arts,  Flor- 
ence, Italy. 

Miss  Mayda  S.  Goodberry,  The  Philadelphia  College  of  Textiles  and  Science, 

Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania. 

Miss  Margaret  J.  Hoffman,  The  University  of  Arkansas,  Fayetteville,  Arkansas. 

Mr.  Harry  J.  Hunderman,  The  United  States  National  Committee  of  the  Inter- 
national Council  of  Monuments  and  Sites,  Washington,  D.C. 

Miss  Amy  Hecker,  The  University  of  York,  Heslington,  York,  England. 

Miss  Rhoda  J.  R.  Komuro,  Honolulu  Academy  of  Arts,  Honolulu,  Hawaii. 

Miss   Lisa   Minette  Morriss,  The  Textile  Conservation  Centre  Limited,  East 
Molesey,  Surrey,  England. 

Miss  Linda  Ellen  Pillers,  The  Textile  Conservation  Centre  Limited,  East  Mo- 
lesey, Surrey,  England. 

Mr.  Geoffrey  Martin,  College  of  the  Holy  Cross,  Worcester,  Massachusetts. 

Mrs.  Lilly  Hollander,  New  York  Public  Library,  New  York,  New  York. 

Mr.  Gary  Stewart,  The  University  of  South  Dakota,  Vermillion,  South  Dakota. 

Miss  Marlys  Franc  Thurber,  School  of  Architecture  and  Planning,  University 
of  New  Mexico,  Albuquerque,  New  Mexico. 

Appendix  3.  National  Museum  Act  Grants  Awarded  I  247 

Miss  Kendra  D.  Lovette,  Missouri  Botanical  Garden,  Saint  Louis,  Missouri. 

Miss  Stephanie  Weinreich,  Kelsey  Museum,  The  University  of  Michigan,  Ann 

Arbor,  Michigan. 

Miss  Lorena  Orvananos,  Dwight  D.  Eisenhower  Presidential  Library,  Abilene, 

Mr.    Rodney   Slemmons,   International   Museum   of   Photography,   Rochester, 
New  York. 

Miss  Christine  Leback,  The  University  of  Delaware,  Newark,  Delaware. 


Cooperstown  Graduate  Programs,  Cooperstown,  New  York. 

The  Museum  of  Texas  Tech  University,  Lubbock,  Texas. 

Yale  University  Art  Gallery,  New  Haven,  Connecticut. 

The  University  of  Michigan,  Ann  Arbor,  Michigan. 

The  University  of  Delaware,  Newark,  Delaware. 

The  George  Washington  University,  Washington,  D.C. 

The  Museum  of  Early  Southern  Decorative  Arts,  Winston-Salem,  North  Caro- 

The  University  of  Delaware,  Newark,  Delaware. 

Conservation  Center  of  the  Institute  of  Fine  Arts,  New  York,  New  York. 

The  University  of  Minnesota,  Minneapolis,  Minnesota. 

The  University  of  Denver,  Denver,  Colorado. 

The  University  of  Vermont,  Burlington,  Vermont. 


Cooperstown  Graduate  Programs,  Cooperstown,  New  York. 

The  University  of  Delaware,  Newark,  Delaware. 

The  Pacific  Regional  Conservation  Center,  Honolulu,  Hawaii. 

The  Philadelphia  Museum  of  Art,  Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania. 

The  Yale  University  Art  Gallery,  New  Haven,  Connecticut. 

The  University  of  Minnesota,  Minneapolis,  Minnesota. 

The  Museum  of  Fine  Arts,  Boston,  Massachusetts. 

The  Rochester  Museum  and  Science  Center,  Rochester,  New  York. 


Miss  Ellen  Jacobowitz,  The  Philadelphia  Museum  of  Art,  Philadelphia,  Penn- 

Miss  Marjorie  Swain,  The  University  of  Michigan,  Ann  Arbor,  Michigan. 

Mr.  C.  Tung  Wu,  The  Museum  of  Fine  Arts,  Boston,  Massachusetts. 

248  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Mr.  Frederick  Lamp,  The  Museum  of  African  Art,  Washington,  D.C. 

Miss  Patricia  Kane,  Yale  University,  New  Haven,  Connecticut. 

Mr.  David  Park  Curry,  The  University  of  Kansas,  Museum  of  Art,  Lawrence, 


Miss  Susan  Ferleger,  The  Solomon  R.  Guggenheim  Museum,  New  York,  New 

Mr.  Michael  L.  Mock,  California  Museum  of  Science  and  Industry,  Los  An- 
geles, California. 

Mr.  Terrell  Hillebrand,  Santa  Barbara  Museum  of  Art,  Santa  Barbara,  Cali- 

Mr.   Charles   Thomas   Bargeron,   Georgia   Agrirama   Development  Authority, 

Tifton,  Georgia. 

Miss  Barbara  J.  Burgan,  Sedgwick  County  Zoological  Society,  Inc.,  Wichita, 

Mrs.  Jacqueline  Y.  Miller,  Allyn  Museum  of  Entomology,  Sarasota,  Florida. 

Miss  Linda  D.  Marschner,  The  New  York  Botanical  Garden,  Bronx,  New  York. 

Miss  Janet  A.  Kamien,  The  Children's  Museum,  Boston,  Massachusetts. 

Mr.  Robert  A.  Whyte,  The  San  Francisco  Museum  of  Art,  San  Francisco,  Cali- 

Miss  Yin-wah  Ashton,  The  Seattle  Art  Museum,  Seattle,  Washington. 

Miss  Judith  Sims,  The  Laguna  Gloria  Art  Museum,  Austin,  Texas. 

Mr.   Alan   H.   Shoemaker,  The   Columbia  Zoological  Park,  Columbia,  South 

Miss  Joy  Dell  Mastrogiuseppe,  Marion  Ownbey  Herbarium,  Washington  State 
University,  Pullman,  Washington. 

Miss  Eileen  K.  Schofield,  New  York  Botanical  Garden,  Bronx,  New  York. 

Mr.  Carney  E.  S.   Gavin,   Harvard   University  Semitic  Museum,   Cambridge, 


The  Historical  Society  of  York  County,  York,  Pennsylvania 

The  Conservation  Center  of  the  Institute  of  Fine  Arts,  New  York,  New  York. 

The  University  of  California,  Institute  of  Geophysics  and  Planetary  Physics, 

Los  Angeles,  California. 

The    North   Carolina    State    University,    School   of   Textiles,    Raleigh,   North 

The  University  of  California,  Riverside,  California. 


The  American  Association  of  Museums,  Washington,  D.C. 

The  National  Conservation  Advisory  Council,  Washington,  D.C. 

Appendix  3.  National  Museum  Act  Grants  Awarded  I  249 

The  American  Association  for  State  and  Local  History,  Nashville,  Tennessee. 

The  New  England  Regional  Conference  of  the  American  Association  of  Mu- 
seums, Lincoln,  Massachusetts. 

The  Alaska  State  Museum,  Juneau,  Alaska. 

The  Contemporary  Arts  Museum  of  Houston,  Houston,  Texas. 

The  National  Bureau  of  Standards/The  University  of  Pennsylvania. 

The  Johnstown  Flood  Museum,  Johnstown,  Pennsylvania. 

250  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

APPENDIX  4.  Progress  on  Building  Construction,  Restoration 
and  Renovation 

Arts  and  Industries  Building.  Design  and  engineering  for  the  major  phase  of 
roof  repair  have  been  completed.  Construction  work  will  be  initiated  in  fiscal 
year  1978. 

Chesapeake  Bay  Center  for  Environmental  Studies.  Construction  of  a  new 
laboratory  facility  will  begin  in  early  fiscal  year  1978.  In  addition,  a  new 
sewage-treatment  plant  is  being  developed  for  the  cbces  site. 

Cooper-Hewitt  Museum  of  Design  and  Decorative  Arts.  Major  restoration 
was  completed  in  fiscal  year  1977.  Exterior  repairs,  canopy  installation,  a  fire- 
detection  system,  fourth-floor  decoration,  and  several  other  projects  will  be 
addressed  in  the  coming  year. 

History  and  Technology  Building.  Design  of  the  sixth-floor  addition  is  95 
percent  complete.  Congressional  appropriations  have  not  yet  been  provided 
for  construction.  Plans  and  specifications  for  major  repairs  to  the  terrace  are 
in  progress. 

National  Zoological  Park.  In  addition  to  the  new  lion-tiger  facility,  polar-bear 
and  bear  exhibits,  and  the  new  education-administration  building,  wheel  chair 
ramps  in  various  buildings  were  constructed,  and  extensive  sidewalk  improve- 
ments were  made.  A  glockenspiel  dedicated  by  the  Pelzman  Foundation  was 
erected.  Restaurant  and  other  food  service  locations  were  improved. 

Smithsonian  Tropical  Research  Institute.  The  Tivoli  Building  restoration  has 
been  completed.  Furnishing  and  equipping  will  be  accomplished  in  fiscal  year 
1978.  The  initial  phase  of  library  facility  started  in  fiscal  year  1977.  Scheduled 
completion  of  design  is  fiscal  year  1978. 

Appendix  4.  Progress  on  Building  Construction  I  251 

APPENDIX  5.  Publications  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution  Press 
in  Fiscal  Year  1977. 



Agnes  Chase.  First  Book  of  Grasses:  The  Structure  of  Grasses  Explained  for 
Beginners.  127  pages,  94  black-and-white  illustrations.  Third  edition.  Reissued 
February  23,  1977.  $6.95. 

Frederick  Gutheim.  Worthy  of  the  Nation:  The  History  of  Planning  for  the 
National  Capital,  xvii  +  417  pages,  22  black-and-white  illustrations.  Septem- 
ber 16,  1977.  Cloth:  $22.50.  Paper:  $8.95. 

Allan  A.  Hodges  and  Carol  A.  Hodges,  Editors.  Washington  on  Foot.  208 
pages,  124  black-and-white  illustrations.  Revised  edition.  May  20,  1977.  Paper: 


Cynthia  J.  McCabe.  The  Golden  Door:  Artist-Immigrants  of  America,  1876- 
1976.  432  pages,  39  color  and  243  black-and-white  illustrations.  October  1, 
1976.  $25.00. 

Lillian  B.  Miller.  "The  Dye  Is  Now  Cast  .  .  ." :  The  Road  to  American  Inde- 
pendence, 1774-1776.  xvi  +  328  pages,  166  black-and-white  illustrations.  Re- 
print. January  3,  1977.  $25.00. 

National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts.  Robert  Rauschenberg.  218  pages,  21  color 
and  259  black-and-white  illustrations.  March  29,  1977.  $25.00. 

Phyllis  D.  Rosenzweig.  The  Thomas  Eakins  Collection  of  the  Hirshhorn  Mu- 
seum and  Sculpture  Garden.  300  pages,  6  color  and  246  black-and-white  illus- 
trations. September  30,  1977.  $25.00. 

Susanne  Steinem  Patch.  Blue  Mystery:  The  Story  of  the  Hope  Diamond.  64 
pages,  4  color  and  24  black-and-white  illustrations.  November  4,  1976.  $6.95. 

Jan  E.  Skrentny.  Zoobook.  80  pages,  104  color  and  42  black-and-white  illustra- 
tions. December  13,  1976.  Cloth:  $8.95.  Paper:  $3.95. 


American  Historical  Association.  Annual  Report,  1975.  viii  +  175  pages. 
November  23,  1976.  Paper:  $1.65. 

Chesapeake  Bay  Center  for  Environmental  Studies.  Annual  Report,  1976.  16 
pages.  August  16,  1977. 

National  Zoological  Park.  Three-Year  Report,  January  1,  1973-December  31, 
1975.  138  pages,  22  black-and-white  illustrations.  July  1,  1977. 

Smithsonian  Institution  International  Exchange  Service.  Annual  Report,  1976. 
9  pages.  March  1,  1977. 

252  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Smithsonian  Institution.  Smithsonian  Year,  1976.  Report  of  the  Smithsonian 
Institution  for  the  Period  July  1,  1975,  through  September  30,  1976.  viii  -f  540 
pages,  125  black-and-white  illustrations.  August  30,  1977.  Paper:  $6.80. 

.  Statement  by  the  Secretary.  The  Smithsonian  Institution,  1976.  "The 

Attic  Refurbished"  by  S.  Dillon  Ripley  and  "Financial  Report"  by  T.  Ames 
Wheeler.  75  pages,  17  black-and-white  illustrations.  January  25,  1977. 

Smithsonian  Tropical  Research  Institute.  Annual  Report,  1976.  20  pages,  black- 
and-white  illustrations.  June  15,  1977. 


Anacostia  Neighborhood  Museum 

Anacostia  Neighborhood  Museum,  Smithsonian  Institution,  September  1967/ 
1977.  42  pages,  122  black-and-white  illustrations.  September  15,  1977. 

The  Anacostia  Story,  xxviii  +  158  pages,  4  color  and  116  black-and-white 
illustrations,  12  maps.  March  3,  1977.  Paper:  $8.95. 

Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden 

Andrew  Hudson.  14  Canadians:  A  Critic's  Clioice.  80  pages,  14  color  and  28 
black-and-white  illustrations.  February  3,  1977.  Paper:  $3.25. 

Phyllis  D.  Rosenzweig.  The  Thomas  Eakins  Collection  of  the  Hirshhorn  Mu- 
seum and  Sculpture  Garden.  240  pages,  5  color  and  250  black-and-white  illus- 
trations. May  23,  1977.  Paper:  $8.25. 

The  Photography  of  Leland  Rice.  12  pages,  1  color  and  7  black-and-white  illus- 
trations. June  13,  1977.  Paper:  $.55. 

National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts 

Jacob  Kainen:  Prints,  a  Retrospective.  96  pages,  2  color  and  152  black-and- 
white  illustrations.  November  19,  1976.  Paper:  $4.00. 

Renwick  Gallery  of  the  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts 

The  Designs  of  Raymond  Loeioy.  56  pages,  29  black-and-white  illustrations. 
Reprint.  October  1,  1976.  Paper:  $2.50. 

The  Object  as  Poet.  85  pages,  6  color  and  58  black-and-white  illustrations. 
December  30,  1976.  Paper:  $5.00. 

Paint  on  Wood.  36  pages,  14  color  and  19  black-and-white  illustrations.  May 
11,  1977.  Paper:  $2.25. 

Smithsonian  Institution  Traveling  Exhibition  Service 

Anthony  N.  Landreau.  America  Underfoot:  The  History  of  Floor  Coverings. 
ix  +  76  pages,  8  color  and  84  black-and-white  illustrations.  October  12,  1976. 


Hirshhorn  Mriseum  and  Sculpture  Garden 

The  Arthur  B.  Carles  Collection  of  the  Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture 
Garden.  4  pages,  7  black-and-white  illustrations.  August  18,  1977. 

Appendix  5.  Publications  of  the  Smithsonian  Press  I  253 

E.  £.  Cummings:  The  Poet  as  Artist.  16  pages,  71  black-and-white  illustrations. 
November  23,  1976. 

Peter  Plagens:  Works  on  Paper.  8  pages,  1  color  and  4  black-and-white  illus- 
trations. November  23,  1976. 

National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts 

The  Art  of  Poetry.  16  pages,  10  black-and-white  illustrations.  November  23, 

Arthur  Wesley  Dow.  10  pages,  3  black-and-white  illustrations.  July  25,  1977. 

China  Revisited:  Ink  Paintings  by  Thomas  George.  12  pages,  6  black-and-white 
illustrations.  February  17,  1977.  Paper:  $1.25. 

John  White  Alexander,  1856-1915.  16  pages,  9  black-and-white  illustrations. 
March  4,  1977. 

Painting  and  Sculpture  in  California:  The  Modern  Era.  23  pages,  July  1,  1977. 

Raices  y  Visiones/Roots  and  Visions.  16  pages,  10  black-and-white  illustra- 
tions. July  8,  1977. 


Anacostia  Neighborhood  Museum 

Zora  Martin  Felton.  A  Walk  through  "Old"  Anacostia.  iv  -f-  44  pages,  34 
black-and-white  illustrations.  Reprint.  October  1,  1976. 

National  Museum  of  Natural  History 

J.  Meester  and  H.  W.  Setzer,  Editors.  The  Mammals  of  Africa:  An  Identifica- 
tion Manual.  Fascicle  V  of  V.  Parts  1,  3.1,  6.8,  8,  Conclusion,  and  Index.  Loose- 
leaf  inserts.  August  11,  1977.  $5.00. 

Office  of  Academic  Studies 

Smithsonian  Opportunities  for  Research  and  Study  in  History,  Art,  Science. 
152  pages.  September  15,  1977. 

Radiation  Biology  Laboratory 

David  L.  Correll,  John  L.  Edwards,  and  W.  Shropshire,  Jr.  Phyto chrome:  A 
Bibliography.  411  pages.  July  27,  1977. 

Solar  Radiation  Measurements/1975-1976.  56  pages.  October  1,  1976. 

Research  Institute  on  Immigration  and  Ethnic  Studies 

Paul  Meadows,  Mark  LaGory,  Linda  Leue,  and  Peter  Meadows.  Recent  Immi- 
gration to  the  United  States:  The  Literature  of  the  Social  Sciences.  112  pages. 
October  22,  1976. 

Renwick  Gallery  of  the  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts 

Elizabeth  Wilder  Weismann.  Americas:  The  Decorative  Arts  in  Latin  America 
in  the  Era  of  the  Revolution.  80  pages,  4  color  and  71  black-and-white  illus- 
trations. October  12,  1976.  Paper:  $6.80. 

254  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 


Chesapeake  Bay  Center  for  Environmental  Studies 

Bibliography  of  Research  Conducted  at  the  Chesapeake  Bay  Center  for  En- 
vironmental Studies,  1968-1976.  9  pages.  February  15,  1977. 

National  Air  and  Space  Museum 

Wiley  Post's  "Winnie  Mae."  Reprint.  March  31,  1977. 
The  Wright  Brothers.  Reprint.  January  15,  1977. 

National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts 

Education  Programs.  18  pages,  6  black-and-white  illustrations.  Revised  reprint. 
October  22,  1976. 

Information  for  Docents.  17  pages.  Reprint.  March  15,  1977. 

National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology 

Rita  J.  Adrosko  and  Grace  R.  Cooper.  Spinning  and  Weaving.  11  pages,  27 
black-and-white  illustrations.  January  15,  1977.  $.85. 

Don  H.  Berkebile.  Horse-Drawn  Vehicles.  12  pages,  30  black-and-white  illus- 
trations. June  9,  1977.  $.85. 

Franklin  Burns.  American  Stamps.  12  pages,  58  black-and-white  illustrations. 
June  9,  1977.  $.85. 

Tobia   Frankel.   Steam  Engines   and  Turbines.   16   pages,   40   black-and-white 
illustrations.  June  9,  1977.  $.85. 

Paul  V.  Gardner.  American  Class.  11  pages,  34  black-and-white  illustrations. 
January  15,  1977.  $.85. 

David  A.   Hounshell.   Telegraph,  Telephone,  Radio  and  Television.  16  pages, 
36  black-and-white  illustrations.  June  9,  1977.  $.85. 

Peter  Marzio.  Perfect  Likenesses.  28  pages,  2  illustrations.  April  4,  1977. 

Reidar  Norby.  Foreign  Stamps.  12  pages,  75  black-and-white  illustrations.  June 
9,  1977.  $.85. 

Eugene  Ostroff.  Photography.  16  pages,  32  black-and-white  illustrations.  Feb- 
ruary 11,  1977.  $.85. 

Carl  Scheele.  American  Post  Offices.  12  pages,  39  black-and-white  illustrations. 
June  9,  1977.  $.85. 

The  Doll's  House.  32  pages,  48  black-and-white  illustrations.  Revised  reprint. 
March  31,  1977. 

Pochoir.  22  pages,  5  color  and  8  black-and-white  illustrations.  September  26, 

Office  of  Elementary  and  Secondary  Education 

Let's  Co  to  the  Smithsonian:  Learning  Opportunities  for  Schools,  1977-1978. 
28  pages,  44  black-and-white  illustrations.  August  5,  1977. 

Appendix  5.  Publications  of  the  Smithsonian  Press  I  255 

Office  of  Museum  Programs 

The  Museum  Support  Center.  16  pages,  30  black-and-white  illustrations.  March 
11,  1977. 

National  Museum  Act  Guidelines  for  1978  Grant  Programs.  32  pages.  July  5, 

Office  of  Public  Affairs 

Smithsonian  Institution  Welcome  (In  French,  German,  Spanish,  and  Japanese). 
17  pages,  3  color  illustrations.  July  29,  1977. 

Smithsonian  Institution  Welcome.  16  pages,  3  color  illustrations.  September 
29,  1977. 


Chesapeake  Bay  Center  for  Environmental  Studies 

Chesapeake  Bay  Center  for  Environmental  Studies.  6  black-and-white  illustra- 
tions. December  23,  1976. 

Microtrails/Macrotrails.  6  black-and-white  illustrations.  December  23,  1976. 

Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden 
Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden.  Reprint.  July  13,  1977. 

National  Air  and  Space  Museum 

Amelia  Earhart.  Reprint.  March  30,  1977. 

Charles  A.  Lindbergh  and  the  Spirit  of  St.  Louis.  Reprint.  June  10,  1977. 

National  Air  and  Space  Museum  (In  French,  German,  and  Spanish).  April  5, 

North  American  P-51  Mustang.  Reprint.  June  9,  1977. 

Otto  Lilienthal  and  Octave  Chanute.  Reprint.  June  9,  1977. 

The  T-2  Airplane  and  the  First  Nonstop  Coast-to-Coast  Flight.  Reprint.  April 
15,  1977. 

National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts 

From  the  Left  Bank  to  Soho:  Interactions  in  American  Art  and  Literature, 
1920-1970.  March  15,  1977. 

Inventory  of  American  Paintings  Executed  before  1914.  Revised  reprint.  March 
15,  1977. 

National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology 

The  Honey  Bee.  Reprint.  January  15,  1977. 

Welcome  to  the  National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology.  Reprint.  Janu- 
ary 15,  1977. 

256  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

National  Museum  of  Natural  History 

Indian  Pipes   by  George  Catlin.  4  color  and  3  black-and-white  illustrations. 
April  4,  1977. 

National  Museum  of  Natural  History.  February  21,  1977. 

National  Portrait  Gallery 

The  Catalog  of  American  Portraits.  February  4,  1977. 
Smithsonian  Institution  National  Speakers  Bureau.  June  28,  1977. 

Office  of  Elementary  and  Secondary  Education 

Art-to-Zoo  (Newsletter).  Published  several  times  during  the  year. 
Let's  Co  to  the  Smithsonian.  Published  several  times  during  the  year. 

Office  of  Museum  Programs 

Smithsonian  Institution  Office  of  Museum  Programs  Workshop  Series,  April- 
September,  1977.  January  21,  1977. 

Smithsonian  Institution  Office  of  Museum  Programs  Workshop  Series,  October 
1977-April  1978.  June  30,  1977. 

Office  of  Public  Affairs 
The  Smithsonian  Institution.  15  black-and-white  illustrations.  August  9,  1976. 

Renwick  Gallery  of  the  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts 
Renwick  Gallery  of  the  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts.  Reprint.  May  2,  1977. 

Smithsonian  Associates 

Smithsonian  Institution  (Building  Guide  in  French,  German,  Spanish,  and 
Japanese).  Reprint.  August  5,  1977. 

Smithsonian  Tropical  Research  Institute 
Smithsonian  Tropical  Research  Institute.  Revised  reprint.  March  1,  1977. 

Smithsonian  Institution  Peace  Corps  Environmental  Program.  April  15,  1977. 

Office  of  Academic  Studies 

Smithsonian  Institution  1977-78  Programs  in  Higher  Education  and  Research 
Training  in:  American  History  and  Material  Culture,  Earth  Sciences,  Biological 
Sciences,  Anthropology,  Science  and  Technology,  History  of  Art,  and  the 
Epply  Smithsonian  Fellowships.  August  1,  1977. 

Appendix  5.  Publications  of  the  Smithsonian  Press  I  257 


Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden 

Thomas  Eakins  Collection  of  the  Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden. 
April  20,  1977. 

National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts 

Arthur  Wesley  Dow.  July  7,  1977. 

The  Art  of  Poetry.  October  23,  1976. 

Daniel  Chester  French:  An  American  Sculptor.  January  13,  1977. 

High  School  Graphics  V:  Through  the  Eyes  of  New  Printmakers.  May  2,  1977. 

Jacob  Kainen:  Prints,  a  Retrospective.  October  19,  1976. 

Mauricio  Lansansky.  March  1,  1977. 

Painting  and  Sculpture  in  California.  April  1,  1977. 

Raices  y  Visiones/Roots  and  Visions.  June  9,  1977 

Raphael  Soyer.  September  8,  1977. 

Robert  Rauschenberg.  October  1,  1976. 

25th  National  Exhibition  of  Prints.  May  5,  1977. 

Renwick  Gallery  of  the  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts 

Grass.  July  11,  1977. 

The  Object  as  Poet  and  Stitch  Pictures  by  Ethel  Mohamed.  November  11,  1976. 

Paint  on  Wood.  February  23,  1977. 

22  Polish  Textile  Artists.  May  27,  1977. 

Smithsonian  Associates 

Treasures  of  Tutankhamun.  October  28,  1976. 
A  Victorian  Evening.  April  15,  1977. 

Smithsonian  Institution  Press 
Worthy  of  the  Nation.  August  24,  1977. 


National  Air  and  Space  Museum 
To  Fly.  January  1977. 

National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology 

Everyday  Life  of  a  Soldier  and  Ben  Franklin's  Experiments  with  Electricity. 
October  15,  1976. 

National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology  (Exterior  building  inscriptions). 
July  25,  1977. 

258  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Renwick  Gallery  of  the  National  Collection  of  Tine  Arts 

Americas:   As   Artes   Decorativas   na   America    Latina   na  Era   da   Revolucao. 
October  10,  1977. 

Las  Americas:  las  artes  decorativas  en  America  Latina  en  la  era  de  la  Revo- 
lution. October  10,  1976. 

Anacostia  Neighborhood  Museum 
Certificate  of  Distinguished  Achievement.  September  15,  1977. 

Chesapeake  Bay  Center  for  Environmental  Studies 
Cover  for  Work-Learn  Programs  in  Environmental  Studies.  December  12,  1976. 

National  Collectio7i  of  Fine  Arts 
Portfolio  Jacket  for  Docent  Information.  March  15,  1977. 
Labels  for  pictures  of  the  Collection.  March  15,  1977. 

National  Zoological  Park 
Cards  requesting  that  visitors  not  feed  the  animals.  July  8,  1977. 
Trail  Map  of  the  Zoo.  July  8,  1977. 

Office  of  Plant  Services 
Smithsonian  Institution  Telephone  Directory.  February  3,  1977. 



20.  Dennis  J.  Stanford.  "The  Walakpa  Site,  Alaska:  Its  Place  in  the  Birnirk 
and  Thule  Cultures."  226  pages,  29  figures,  119  plates,  10  tables.  December  1, 

21.  Owen  S.  Rye  and  Clifford  Evans.  "Traditional  Pottery  Techniques  of  Pakis- 
tan: Field  and  Laboratory  Studies."  283  pages,  38  figures,  82  plates,  15  tables. 
November  1,  1976. 


33.  Mason  E.  Hale,  Jr.  "A  Monograph  of  the  Lichen  Genus  Parmelina  Hale 
(Parmeliaceae)."  60  pages,  21  figures.  October  22,  1976. 

36.  F.  Raymond  Fosberg  and  Marie-Helene  Sachet.  "Flora  of  Micronesia,  3: 
Convolvulaceae."  34  pages,  1  figure.  February  2,  1977. 

37.  Joan  W.  Nowicke  and  John  J.  Skvarla.  "Pollen  Morphology  and  the  Rela- 
tionship of  the  Plumbaginaceae,  Polygonaceae,  and  Primulaceae  to  the  Order 
Centrospermae."  64  pages,  200  figures,  5  tables.  August  18,  1977. 

Appendix  5.  Publications  of  the  Smithsonian  Press  I  259 


18.  Arthur  Roe  and  John  S.  White,  Jr.  "A  Catalog  of  the  Type  Specimens  in 
the  Mineral  Collection,  National  Museum  of  Natural  History."  43  pages. 
November  22,  1976. 

19.  Brian  Mason,  editor.  "Mineral  Sciences  Investigations  1974-1975."  125 
pages,  48  figures,  37  tables.  March  9,  1977. 


1.  George  J.  Hollenberg  and  James  N.  Norris.  "The  Red  Alga  Polysiphonia 
(Rhodomelaceae)  in  the  Northern  Gulf  of  California."  21  pages,  10  figures. 
August  25,  1977. 


30.  Porter  M.  Kier.  "Triassic  Echinoids."  88  pages,  16  figures,  21  plates,  2 
tables.  January  28,  1977. 

31.  Martin  A.  Buzas,  Roberta  K.  Smith,  and  Kenneth  A.  Beem.  "Ecology  and 
Systematics  of  Foraminifera  in  Two  Thalassia  Habitats,  Jamaica,  West  Indies." 
139  pages,  38  figures,  8  plates,  34  tables.  July  11,  1977. 

33.  Richard  H.  Benson.  "Evolution  of  Oblitacythereis  from  Paleocosta  (Ostra- 
coda:  Trachyleberididae)  during  the  Cenozoic  in  the  Mediterranean  and  At- 
lantic." 47  pages,  11  figures,  4  plates.  August  29,  1977. 


219.  Louis  S.  Kornicker  and  I.  G.  Sohn.  "Phylogeny,  Ontogeny,  and  Mor- 
phology of  Living  and  Fossil  Thaumatocypridacea  (Myodocopa:  Ostracoda)." 
124  pages,  93  figures,  14  tables.  December  20,  1976. 

221.  Kristian  Fauchald.  "Polychaetes  from  Intertidal  Areas  in  Panama,  with  a 
Review  of  Previous  Shallow-Water  Records."  81  pages,  13  figures,  2  tables. 
April  25,  1977. 

226.  Daryl  P.  Domning.  "Observations  on  the  Myology  of  Dugong  dugong 
(Miiller)."  57  pages,  54  figures,  2  tables.  January  5,  1977. 

227.  Ginter  Ekis.  "Classification,  Phylogeny,  and  Zoogeography  of  the  Genus 
Perilypus  (Coleoptera:  Cleridae)."  138  pages,  386  figures,  2  tables.  March  31, 

228.  Ned  E.  Strenth.  "A  Review  of  the  Systematics  and  Zoogeography  of  the 
Freshwater  Species  of  Palaemonetes  Heller  of  North  America  (Crustacea: 
Decapoda)."  27  pages,  6  figures,  1  table.  October  22,  1976. 

232.  William  D.  Field  and  Jose  Herrera.  "The  Pierid  Butterflies  of  the  Genera 
Hypsochila  Ureta,  Phulia  Herrich-Shaffer,  Infraphulia  Field,  Pierphulia  Field, 
and  Piercolias  Staudinger."  64  pages,  198  figures,  5  maps.  April  25,  1977. 

235.  Herbert  Friedmann,  Lloyd  E.  Kiff,  and  Stephen  I.  Rothstein.  "A  Further 
Contribution  to  Knowledge  of  the  Host  Relations  of  the  Parasitic  Cowbirds." 
75  pages.  February  17,  1977. 

237.  Robert  H.  Gore  and  Lawrence  G.  Abele.  "Shallow  Water  Porcelain  Crabs 
from  the  Pacific  Coast  of  Panama  and  Adjacent  Caribbean  Waters  (Crustacea: 
Anomura:  Porcellanidea)."  30  pages,  4  figures,  3  tables.  October  22,  1976. 

260  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

238.  A.  G.  K.  Menon.  "A  Systematic  Monograph  of  the  Tongue  Soles  of  the 
Genus  Cynoglossus  Hamilton-Buchanan  (Pisces:  Cynoglossidae)."  129  pages, 
48  figures,  21  plates.  April  25,  1977. 

239.  Christen  M.  Wemmer.  "Comparative  Ethology  of  the  Large-spotted  Genet 
(Genetta  tigrina)  and  Some  Related  Viverrids."  93  pages,  37  figures,  18  tables. 
August  10,  1977. 

240.  H.  H.  Hobbs  III  and  Horton  H.  Hobbs,  Jr.  "On  the  Troglobitic  Shrimps 
of  the  Yucatan  Peninsula,  Mexico  (Decapoda:  Atyidae  and  Palaemonidae)." 
23  pages,  8  figures,  2  maps.  October  22,  1976. 

241.  Louis  S.  Kornicker  and  Francisca  Elena  Caraion.  "West  African  Myodo- 
copid  Ostracoda  (Cyprindinidae,  Philomedidae)."  100  pages,  52  figures,  28 
plates,  1  table.  March  31,  1977. 

242.  W.  Ronald  Heyer.  "Studies  in  Larval  Amphibian  Habitat  Partitioning." 
27  pages,  3  figures,  14  tables.  October  29,  1976. 

243.  Arthur  G.  Humes.  "Pseudanthessiid  Copepods  (Cyclopoida)  Associated 
with  Crinoids  and  Echinoids  (Echinodermata)  in  the  Tropical  Western  Pacific 
Ocean."  43  pages,  25  figures.  January  21,  1977. 

244.  Horton  H.  Hobbs,  Jr.,  H.  H.  Hobbs  III,  and  Margaret  A.  Daniel.  "A  Re- 
view of  the  Troglobitic  Decapod  Crustraceans  of  the  Americas."  183  pages,  70 
figures,  1  table.  May  31,  1977. 

246.  Roman  Kenk.  "Freshwater  Triclads  (Turbellaria)  of  North  America,  IX: 
The  Genus  Sphalloplana."  38  pages,  62  figures,  1  table.  February  2,  1977. 

247.  Horton  H.  Hobbs,  Jr.,  and  Daniel  J.  Peters.  "The  Entocytherid  Ostracods 
of  North  Carolina."  73  pages,  33  figures,  3  tables,  12  maps.  February  17,  1977. 

248.  Robert  P.  Higgens.  "Redescription  of  Echinoderes  dujardinii  (Kinorhyn- 
cha)  with  Descriptions  of  Closely  Related  Species."  26  pages,  31  figures,  2 
tables.  May  17,  1977. 

252.  Victor  G.  Springer,  C.  Lavett  Smith,  and  Thomas  H.  Fraser.  "  Anisochro- 
mis  straussi,  New  Species  of  Protogynous  Hermaphroditic  Fish,  and  Synonymy 
of  the  Anisochromidae,  Pseudoplesiopidae,  and  Pseudochromidae."  15  pages, 
2  figures,  4  tables.  August  25,  1977. 


34.  Peter  C.  Marzio.  "The  Art  Crusade:  An  Analysis  of  American  Drawing 
Manuals,  1820-1860."  94  pages,  47  figures.  October  27,  1976. 

35.  Thomas  Parke  Hughes.  "Science  and  the  Instrument-makers:  Michelson, 
Sperry,  and  the  Speed  of  Light."  18  pages,  9  figures,  2  tables.  October  5,  1976. 

38.  Helen  R.  Hollis.  "The  Musical  Instruments  of  Joseph  Haydn:  An  Intro- 
duction." 33  pages,  18  figures.  May  23,  1977. 


192.  A.  Binion  Amerson,  Jr.,  and  Philip  C.  Shelton.  "The  Natural  History  of 
Johnston  Atoll,  Central  Pacific  Ocean."  xix  +  479  pages,  117  figures,  91 
tables.  December  1976. 

193-205.  In  one  volume,  as  follows.  Febuary  1977. 

193.  Edward  A.  Drew.  A  Photographic  Survey  Down  the  Seaward  Reef-Front 
of  Aldabra  Atoll,  ii  +  17  pages,  6  figures,  3  plates. 

Appendix  5.  Publications  of  the  Smithsonian  Press  I  261 

194.  Carden  C.  Wallace  and  E.  R.  Lovell.  "Topography  and  Coral  Distribu- 
tion of  Bushy  and  Redbill  Islands  and  Surrounding  Reef,  Great  Barrier  Reef, 
Queensland."  27  pages,  3  figures,  3  plates. 

195.  P.  G.  Flood.  "Coral  Cays  of  the  Capricorn  and  Bunker  Groups,  Great 
Barrier  Reef  Province,  Australia."  24  pages,  8  figures,  10  plates. 

196.  Lee  C.  Gerhard.  "Submarine  Cementation  of  Grainstone  Fabric,  St.  Croix, 
U.S.  Virgin  Islands.  9  pages,  5  figures. 

197.  Mark  J.  Valencia.  "Christmas  Island  (Pacific  Ocean) :  Reconnaissance  Geo- 
logic Observations."  17  pages,  5  figures. 

J  98.  Roger  B.  Clapp.  "Notes  on  the  Vertebrate  Fauna  of  Tongareva  Atoll."  8 
pages,  1  table. 

199.  Mary  E.  Gillham.  "Observations  on  Vegetation  of  Blue-Faced  Booby 
Colonies  on  Cosmoledo  Atoll,  Western  Indian  Ocean."  11  pages. 

200.  Mary  E.  Gillham.  "Vegetation  of  Sea  and  Shore-Bird  Colonies  on  Al- 
dabra  Atoll."  19  pages,  1  table. 

201.  C.  B.  Frith.  "Life  History  Notes  on  Some  Aldabran  Land  Birds."  17 
pages,  1  figure. 

202.  D.  R.  Stoddart  and  L.  U.  Mole.  "Climate  of  Aldabra  Atoll."  27  pages,  6 
figures,  15  tables. 

203.  Gerard  Faure.  "Annotated  Check  List  of  Corals  in  the  Mascarene  Archi- 
pelago, Indian  Ocean."  26  pages,  1  table. 

204.  Gerard  Faure.  "Annotated  Check  List  of  Octocorallia  in  the  Mascarene 
Archipelago,  Indian  Ocean."  13  pages. 

205.  A.  J.  Bruce.  "The  Hosts  of  the  Coral-Associated  Indo-West-Pacific  Pon- 
toniine  Shrimps."  19  pages  with  frontispiece. 

206-207.  In  one  volume,  as  follows.  May  1977. 

206.  Roger  B.  Clapp  and  Eugene  Kridler.  "The  Natural  History  of  Necker 
Island,  Northwestern  Hawaiian  Islands."  iv  +  102  pages,  16  figures,  25  tables. 

207.  Roger  B.  Clapp,  Eugene  Kridler,  and  Robert  R.  Fleet.  "The  Natural  His- 
tory of  Nihoa  Island,  Northwestern  Hawaiian  Islands."  v  +  147  pages,  32 
figures,  34  tables. 

208-219.  In  one  volume,  as  follows.  May  1977. 

208.  Wm.  Randolph  Taylor.  "Notes  on  Plants  on  the  Genus  Caulerpa  in  the 
Herbarium  of  Maxwell  S.  Doty  at  the  University  of  Hawaii."  17  pages. 

209.  Wm.  Randolph  Taylor.  "Marine  Algae  of  the  Te  Vega  1965  Expedition  in 
the  Western  Pacific  Ocean."  16  pages. 

210.  H.  E.  Hackett.  "Marine  Algae  Known  from  the  Maldive  Islands."  32 
pages,  2  figures. 

211.  Judith  L.  Connor  and  Walter  H.  Adey.  "The  Benthic  Algal  Composition, 
Standing  Crop,  and  Productivity  of  a  Caribbean  Algal  Ridge."  40  pages,  17 
figures,  5  tables. 

212.  Roy  T.  Tsuda,  Steven  S.  Amesbury,  and  Steven  C.  Moras.  "Preliminary 
Observations  on  the  Algae,  Corals,  and  Fishes  Inhabiting  the  Sunken  Ferry 
'Fujikawa  Maru'  in  Truk  Lagoon."  6  pages. 

213.  A.  Donaldson  and  B.  A.  Whitton.  "Chemistry  of  Freshwater  Pools  on 
Aldabra."  28  pages,  9  figures,  7  tables. 

262  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

214.  B.  A.  Whitton  and  M.  Potts.  "Observation  of  Redox  Potential  in  Fresh- 
water Pools  on  Aldabra."  6  pages,  1  table. 

215.  A.  Donaldson  and  B.  A.  Whitton.  "Algal  Flora  of  Freshwater  Habitats 
on  Aldabra."  26  pages,  1  figure,  2  tables. 

216.  B.  A.  Whitton  and  A.  Donaldson.  "Terrestrial  and  Freshwater  Algae  of 
Three  Western  Indian  Ocean  Islands  (Astove,  Farquhar  and  St.  Pierre)."  8 
pages,  1  table. 

217.  B.  A.  Whitton,  A.  Donaldson,  D.  J.  Bellamy,  and  C.  Sheppard.  "Terres- 
trial and  Swamp  Algae  from  Three  Islands  in  the  Chagos  Archipelago,  Indian 
Ocean."  9  pages,  5  tables. 

218.  Walter  H.  Adey,  Patricia  J.  Adey,  Randolph  Burke,  and  Leslie  Kaufman. 
"The  Holocene  Reef  Systems  of  Eastern  Martinique,  French  West  Indies."  40 
pages,  14  figures,  4  tables. 

219.  "Island  News  and  Comment."  30  pages. 

Appendix  5.  Publications  of  the  Smithsonian  Press  I  263 

APPENDIX  6.  Publications  of  the  Staff  of  the  Smithsonian 

Institution  and  Its  Subsidiaries  in  Fiscal  Year  1977 

Publications  are  by  staff  members  unless  otherwise  noted. 



National  Anthropological  Film  Center 

Sorenson,  E.  Richard.  "Growing  Up  As  A  Fore  Is  To  Be  'In  Touch'  And  Free." 

Smithsonian  Magazine,  May  1977. 

Sorenson,  E.  Richard.  "Growing  Up  As  A  Fore  Is  To  Be  'In  Touch'  And  Free." 
culturation:  A  Preliminary  Report."  In  Enculturation  in  Latin  America:  An 
Anthology,  edited  by  Johannes  Wilbert.  Los  Angeles:  UCLA  Latin  Ameri- 
can Center  Publications,  1976. 

Research  Institute  on  Immigration  and  Ethnic  Studies 

Bryce-Laporte,  Roy  S.,  and  Stephen  R.  Couch,  editors.  Exploratory  Fieldwork 
on  Latino  Migrants  and  Indochinese  Refugees.  Washington,  D.C. :  Smith- 
sonian Institution,  1976. 

Bryce-Laporte,  Roy  S.,  and  Delores  M.  Mortimer,  editors.  Caribbean  Immigra- 
tion to  the  United  States.  Washington,  D.C:  Smithsonian  Institution,  1976. 

Hune,  Shirley.  Pacific  Migration  to  the  United  States:  Trends  and  Themes  in 
Historical  and  Sociological  Literature.  Washington,  D.C:  Smithsonian  In- 
stitution, 1977. 

Meadows,  Paul,  Mark  LaGory,  Linda  Leue,  and  Peter  Meadows.  Recent  Im- 
migration to  the  United  States:  The  Literature  of  the  Social  Sciences. 
Washington,  DC:  Smithsonian  Institution  Press,  1976. 


Allan,  J.  David,  Thomas  G.  Kinsey,  and  Melody  C.  James.  "Abundances  and 

Production   and  Copepods   in  the  Rhode   River  Subestuary  of   Chesapeake 

Bay."  Chesapeake  Bay  Science,  volume  17,  number  2  (1976),  pages  86-92. 
Atterbury,  G.    E.    "'CBCES':   Help   for   Bay    Communities."   Chesapeake   Bay 

Magazine,  volume  6,  number  4   (1976),  pages  20-21. 
Beane,   Marjorie.   "Forest   Fragmentation   Leads   to  a  Decline   in  Bird  Species 

Diversity."  Research  Reports,  Smithsonian  Institution,  Summer  1977,  pages 

.  Assessing  Non-Point  Source  Pollution:  A  Detailed  Study  of  a  Rural 

Watershed  in   the  Coastal   Plain   of  Maryland.   Washington,   D.C. :   Smith- 
sonian Institution,  1977. 
.  The  Effects  of  Land  Use  on  Water  Quality:  A  Summary  of  Research 

Findings   on  Non-Point  Source  Pollution.   Washington,  DC:    Smithsonian 

Institution,  1977. 

264  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

.  Environmental  Cornmunications  and  the  Information  Transfer  Proc- 
ess: A  Model  Approach  for  the  Chesapeake  Bay  Region.  Washington,  D.C. : 
Smithsonian  Institution,  1977. 

Branscomb,  E.  S.  "Proximate  Causes  of  Mortality  Determining  the  Distribu- 
tion and  Abundance  of  the  Barnacle  Balanus  improvisus  Darwin  in  Chesa- 
peake Bay."  Chesapeake  Bay  Science,  volume  17,  number  4  (1976),  pages 

Carney,  J.  F.,  and  R.  R.  Colwell.  "Heterotrophic  Utilization  of  Glucose  and 
Glutamate  in  an  Estuary:  Effect  of  Season  and  Nutrient  Load."  Applied 
and  Environmental  Microbiology,  volume  31,  number  2  (1976),  pages  227- 

Chirlin,  Gary  R.  Non-Point  Source  Studies  on  Chesapeake  Bay:  IV.  Weekly 
Surface  Hydrology  of  Seven  Sub-Basins  within  the  Rhode  River  Watershed, 
Calendar  Years  1974-76.  Chesapeake  Research  Consortium,  publication 
number  57,  1977. 

Chirlin,  Gary  R.,  and  D.  L.  Correll.  "A  Linear  Approach  to  the  Calculation  of 
Area  Yield  Coefficients  Based  on  Land  Use."  In  Watershed  Research  in 
Eastern  North  America.  Washington,   D.C:  Smithsonian   Institution,  1977. 

Chirlin,  Gary  R.,  and  R.  W.  Schaffner.  "Observations  on  the  Water  Balance 
for  Seven  Sub-Basins  of  the  Rhode  River,  Maryland."  In  Watershed  Re- 
search in  Eastern  North  America.  Washington,  D.C:  Smithsonian  Institu- 
tion, 1977. 

Correll,  D.  L.,  "The  Relative  Contribution  of  Point  and  Non-Point  Sources  of 
Nutrients  and  Pathogens."  In  Water  Quality  Coals  for  Chesapeake  Bay — 
What  Are  They  and  How  Can  They  Be  Achieved?  Virginia  Polytechnic 
Institute  and  State  University,  publication  number  708,  pages  19-31.  Blacks- 
burg,  Virginia,  1976. 

Correll,  D.  L.  and  J.  J.  Miklas.  "Phosphorus  Cycling  in  a  Maryland  Deciduous 
Forest  Subjected  to  Various  Levels  of  Mineral  Nutrient  Loading."  In  Min- 
eral Cycling  in  Southeastern  Ecosystems,  edited  by  F.  G.  Howell,  J.  B.  Gen- 
try, and  M.  H.  Smith,  erda  Symposium  Series  Conference — 740513.  1976. 

Correll,  D.  L.,  E.  S.  Friebele,  and  J.  Miklas.  Non-Point  Source  Studies  on 
Chesapeake  Bay:  II.  Nutrients  in  Land  Runoff  from  Rhode  River  Water- 
sheds in  1975  and  1976.  Chesapeake  Research  Consortium,  publication 
number  55,  1977. 

Correll,  D.  L.,  J.  W.  Pierce,  and  M.  A.  Faust.  "A  Quantitative  Study  on  the 
Nutrient,  Sediment  and  Coliform  Bacterial  Constituents  of  Water  Runoff 
from  the  Rhode  River  Watershed."  In  Proceedings  of  a  Southeastern  Re- 
gional Conference  on  Non-Point  Sources  of  Water  Pollution.  Virginia  Poly- 
technic Institute  and  State  University,  pages  131-143.  Blacksburg,  Virginia, 

Correll,  D.  L.,  T.  L.  Wu,  E.  S.  Friebele,  and  J.  Miklas.  "Nutrient  Discharges 
from  Rhode  River  Watersheds  and  Their  Relationship  to  Land  Use  Pat- 
terns." In  Watershed  Research  in  Eastern  North  America.  Washington, 
DC:  Smithsonian  Institution,  1977. 

Drake,  B.  J.  "Estimating  Water  Status  and  Biomass  of  Plant  Communities  by 
Remote  Sensing."  Ecological  Studies,  19  pages.  Berlin:  Springer-Verlag, 

.   "Seasonal  Changes   in   Reflectances   and   Standing   Crop   Biomass   in 

Three  Salt  Marsh  Communities."  Plant  Physiology,  volume  58  (1976),  pages 

Falk,  J.  H.  "The  Frenetic  Life  Forms  that  Flourish  in  Suburban  Lawns." 
Smithsonian,  April  1977,  pages  90-86. 

Faust,  M.  A.  "Coliform  Bacteria  from  Diffuse  Sources  as  a  Factor  in  Estuarine 
Pollution."  Water  Research,  volume   L0  (1976),  pages  619-627. 

.  Non-Point  Source  Studies  on  Chesapeake  Bay:  I.  Bacterial  Contami- 

Appendix  6.  Publications  of  the  Staff  I  265 

nation  from  the  Rhode  River  Watershed,  Concentrations  and  Survival  Stud- 
ies in  the  Estuary.  Chesapeake  Research  Consortium,  publication  number 
53,  1976. 

Faust,  M.  A.,  and  D.  L.  Correll.  "Comparison  between  Bacterial  and  Algal 
P-Uptake  in  an  Estuarine  Environment."  Marine  Biology,  volume  34  (1976), 
pages  151-162. 

.  "Autoradiographic  Study  to  Detect  Metabolically  Active  Phytoplank- 

ton  and  Bacteria  in  the  Rhode  River  Estuary."  Marine  Biology,  volume  41 
(1977),  pages  293-305. 

Faust,  M.  A.,  and  N.  M.  Goff.  "Basin  Size,  Water  Flow  and  Land  Use  Affects 
on  Fecal  Coliform  Pollution  from  a  Rural  Watershed."  In  Watershed  Re- 
search in  Eastern  North  America.  Washington,  D.C. :  Smithsonian  Institu- 
tion, 1977. 

Faust,  M.  A.,  N.  M.  Goff,  and  A.  C.  Jackson.  Non-Point  Source  Studies  on 
Chesapeake  Bay:  III.  Relationship  between  Bacterial  Contamination  and 
Land  Use  in  the  Rhode  River  Watershed,  and  Survival  Studies  of  Strepto- 
coccus Faecalis  in  the  Estuary.  Chesapeake  Research  Consortium,  publica- 
tion number  56,  1977. 

Miklas,  J.,  T.  L.  Wu,  A.  Hiatt,  and  D.  L.  Correll.  "Nutrient  Loading  of  the 
Rhode  River  Watershed  via  Land  Use  Practice  and  Precipitation."  In  Water- 
shed Research  in  Eastern  North  America.  Washington,  D.  C. :  Smithsonian 
Institution,  1977. 

Pierce,  J.  W.  Non-Point  Source  Studies  on  Chesapeake  Bay:  IV.  Particulates. 
Chesapeake  Research  Consortium,  publication  number  59,  1977. 

Pierce,  J.  W.,  and  F.  T.  Dulong.  "Dischcharge  of  Suspended  Particulates  from 
Rhode  River  Subwatersheds."  In  Watershed  Research  in  Eastern  North 
America.  Washington,  D.C:  Smithsonian  Institution,  1977. 

Roberts,  W.  P.,  and  J.  W.  Pierce.  "Deposition  in  the  Upper  Patuxent  Estuary, 
Maryland,  1968-69."  Estuarine  and  Coastal  Marine  Science,  volume  4 
(1976),  pages  267-280. 

Wu,  T.  L.,  and  M.  Hoopes.  "Land  Utilization  and  Metals  Discharge  from 
Rhode  River  Watersheds."  In  Watershed  Research  in  Eastern  North  Amer- 
ica. Washington,  D.C:  Smithsonian  Institution,  1977. 

.  Non-Point  Source  Studies  on  Chesapeake  Bay:  VII.  Cations.  Chesa- 
peake Research  Consortium,  publication  number  60,  1977. 

Wu,  T.  L.,  and  N.  Mick.  "Runoff  Studies  of  the  Agricultural  Herbicides, 
Alachlor  and  Atrazine  from  Rhode  River  Watershed  during  the  1976  Grow- 
ing Season."  In  Watershed  Research  in  Eastern  North  America.  Washing- 
ton, DC:  Smithsonian  Institution,  1977. 


Collins,  Michael.  "Showing  Lindbergh  the  Air  and  Space  Museum."  Saturday 

Review,  April  1977. 

.  "The  Space  Shuttle."  Smithsonian,  May  1977. 

Zisfein,   M.   B.   "The  National   Air   and   Space   Museum."   Museum,   Summer 


Center  for  Earth  and  Planetary  Studies 

Andre,  C.   G.,   I.   Adler,  R.    W.   Wolfe,  J.   R.    Weidner,   and  J.   A.   Philpotts. 

"Chemical   Character  of   the   Partially   Flooded   Smythii   Basin   from   Al/Si 

Orbital  X-ray  Data."  [Abstract]  Lunar  Science  VIII,  Lunar  Science  Institute, 

Houston,  Texas,  pages  37-39.  1977. 
D'Alli,  R.   E.   "The   Significance   of  Bright   Spots  Observed  During   the   1971 

Martian  Dust  Storm."  Icarus,  volume  31  (1977),  pages  146-156. 

266  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

El-Baz,  Farouk.  "Evolution  of  the  Lunar  Crust:  The  Stratigraphic  Approach." 
[Abstract]  In  Chemical  Evolution-Comparative  Planetology,  College  Park 
Colloquium  (September-October  1976),  University  of  Maryland,  page  21. 

.   "Dirasat  Al-Ard   min   Al-Fada    (Study   of   the   Earth    from   Space,   in 

Arabic)."   From   the   Fruits   of   Thought,   The   First   Cultural   Season — 1976, 
Qatar  National  Press,  Doha,  Qatar,  pages  85-97. 

"Lunar  Stratigraphy."  In  The  Moon — A  New  Appraisal  from  Space 

Missions  and  Laboratory  Analyses.  Philosophical  Transactions  of  the  Royal 
Society,  London,  England.  A  285  (1977),  pages  549-553. 

"Dune  Migration  on  Earth  and  Mars."  Internet  Reports,  number  75. 

Concord,  Massachusetts:  Internet,  1977. 

"La  recolte  'Apollo'  sur  la  lune  (Results  of  the  Apollo  Lunar  Missions, 

in  French)."  Journal  D'Egypt,  February  1977,  pages  4-6. 

"Harvest  of  Apollo  Science."  Education,  Qatar  National  Commission 

for   Education,    Culture   and   Science,   Number   19    (February    1977),    pages 

"Al-Tarikh  Al-Geology  le  Sath  Al-Qamar  wa   Elm  Muqgaranat  Al- 

Kawakib  (The  Geologic  History  of  the  Moon  and  Comparative  Planetology, 
in  Arabic)."  Al-Elm  (Science),  Cairo,  Egypt,  volume  13  (March  1977),  pages 

"Risala   (A  Message,  in  Arabic)."   [Introduction]   Al-Shabab   ela   ayn 

(Youth),  by  H.  Tantawi,  pages  11-14.  Cairo:  Dar  El-Shab  Press,  1977. 

-.[Review]   Space  Geology:  An  Introduction,  by  Elbert  A.   King.  EOS, 

Transcripts   of   the   American   Geophysical    Union,    volume    58,    number    3 
(1977),  page  133. 

"NASA-Lunar   Polar  Orbiter."   Witness   Testimony   before   the   Sub- 

committee of  the  Committee  on  Appropriations,  House  of  Representatives, 
95th  Congress,  First  Session.  Department  of  Housing  and  Urban  Develop- 
ment— Independent  Agencies  Appropriations  for  1978,  Part  7,  pages  289- 
291,  1977. 

"Expanding  Desert  Creates  Grim  Beauty  But  Also  Threatens  Crucial 

Cropland."  Smithsonian,  volume  8,  number  3  (June  1977),  pages  34-41  and 

"Onslaught  on  the  Nile:  Shifting  Dunes  Threaten  Egypt's  Breadbas- 

ket." [Also  published  in  French,  Spanish,  Russian,  German,  Arabic,  Japa- 
nese, Italian,  Hindi,  Tamil,  Hebrew,  Persian,  Dutch,  Portugese,  Turkish, 
and  Urdu  translations]  The  UNESCO  Courier,  July  1977,  pages  23-24  and 

El-Baz,  F.,  and  D.  E.  Wilhelms.  Geologic  Map  of  the  East  Side  of  the  Moon. 
Map  1-948.  Washington,  D.C:  U.S.  Geological  Survey,  1977. 

Head,  J.  W.,  and  A.  W.  Gifford.  "Lunar  Mare  Domes:  Classification  and 
Modes  of  Origin."  In  Lunar  Science  VIII,  Lunar  Science  Institute,  Houston, 
Texas,  pages  418-420.  1977. 

Maxwell,  T.  A.  Stratigraphy  and  Tectonics  of  Southeastern  Serenitatis.  [Ph.D. 
Dissertation]   Salt  Lake  City,  Utah:  University  of  Utah,  1977. 

Maxwell,  T.  A.,  and  F.  El-Baz.  "Mare  Stratigraphy  of  Southeastern  Sereni- 
tatis." In  Lunar  Science  VIII,  Lunar  Science  Institute,  Houston,  Texas,  pages 
631-633.  1977. 

Maxwell,  T.  A.,  P.  L.  Strain,  and  F.  El-Baz.  "Analysis  of  Low  Altitude  X-Ray 
Fluorescence  Data  From  Mare  Crisium  and  Mare  Smythii."  In  Lunar  Sci- 
ence VIII,  Lunar  Science  Institute,  Houston,  Texas,  pages  634-636.  1977. 

Strain,  P.  L.,  and  F.  El-Baz.  "Topography  of  Sinuous  Rilles  in  the  Harbinger 
Mountains  Region  of  the  Moon."  The  Moon,  volume  16  (1977),  pages  221- 

Wolfe,  R.  W.,  and  F.  El-Baz.  "Photogeology  of  the  Multi-Ringed  Crater  Hal- 
dane  in  Mare  Smythii."  In  Proceedings  of  the  Seventh  Lunar  Science  Con- 

Appendix  6.  Publications  of  the  Staff  I  267 

ference,   [Supplement  7,  Geochim.   et  Cosmoshim.   Acta],  volume  3,  pages 
2903-2912.  Cambridge,  Massachusetts:  M.I.T.  Press,  1976. 

Department  of  Aeronautics 

Boyne,   Walter   J.    "The    New   National    Air    and    Space    Museum."   Aviation 

Quarterly,  volume  2,  number  3. 
.  "The  Gallery  of  Air  Transportation."  Aviation  Quarterly,  volume  2, 

number  4. 

"Aircraft — Great  and  Not  So  Great."  Aviation  Quarterly,  volume  3, 

number  1. 

"Howell  Miller  and  the  Gee  Bee  Story."  Aviation  Quarterly,  volume 

3,  number  2. 

.  "Renaissance  at  Silver  Hill."  Airpower,  January  1977. 

.  "The  Custer  Channel  Wing."  Airpower,  May  1977. 

.  "Odd  Aircraft."  Airpower,  May  1977. 

.  "The  Hughes  D-2."  Wings,  June  1977. 

— .  "The  Next  50  Years."  Pan  American  Clipper,  July  1977. 
"The  Hughes  H-l."  Wings,  September  1977. 

Casey,  Louis  S.,  and  John  Batchelor.  Naval  Aircraft  1911-1938.  London: 
Phoebus  Publishing  Co.,  1977. 

.  "Naval  Aircraft  1911-1945.  London:  Hamlyn  Publishing  Co.,  1977. 

Mikesh,  Robert  C.  Japanese  Cockpit  Interiors,  Part  1.  Monogram  Books,  1976. 

.  "Bicentennial  Warhawk."  Wings,  October  1976. 

.  "Restoring  the  P-40."  Koku  Fan,  October  1976. 

.  "Emily:  She  Was  No  Lady."  Air  Classics  Quarterly,  November  1976. 

.  "Tachikawa's  Flying  Gas  Tanks."  Koku  Fan,  December  1976. 

.  "Japan's  Exported  War  Booty."  Koku  Fan,  February  1977. 

.  "00,"  Year  of  the  Tiger.  Airpower,  March  1977. 

.  "The  Smithsonian's  Zero,"  Part  I.  Koku  Fan,  March  1977. 

.  "The  Smithsonian's  Zero,"  Part  II.  Koku  Fan,  April  1977. 

.  "The  Japanese  'Gooney'."  Air  Line  Pilot,  April  1977. 

.  "How  England's  Canberra  Joined  the  USAF."  Wings,  August  1977. 

.  "Building  the  Canberra,  Part  II  of  the  B-57  Story."  Airpower,  Sep- 
tember 1977. 

Department  of  Astronautics 

Crouch,  Tom  D.  "Americans  and  the  Airplane,  part  3."  Aviation  Quarterly, 

volume  2,  number  3  (Third  Quarter  1976). 
.  Americans  and  the  Airplane,  part  4."  Aviation  Quarterly,  volume  3, 

number  4   (Fourth  Quarter  1976). 

-.  Washington  Harrison  Donaldson:  Aerial  Showman."  Aviation  Quar- 

terly, volume  4,  number  1  (First  Quarter  1977). 
Durant,   F.   C,   III.   "Wernher  von   Braun — In   Memoriam."   Astronautics  and 

Aeronautics,  volume  15,  number  7  (July-August  1977). 
Winter,  Frank  H.   "Buffalo  Balloon   Carries   Airmail   Postage."   Linn's  Stamp 

News,  volume  50,  number  25  (June  13,  1977),  pages  50-51. 
.   "Birth  of  the  Vfr:  The   Start  of  Modern   Astronautics."  Spaceflight, 

volume  19,  numbers  7-8,  pages  243-256. 

Department  of  Science  and  Technology 

Hallion,  Richard  P.  Legacy  of  Flight:  The  Guggenheim  Contribution  to  Amer- 
ican Aviation.  Seattle:  University  of  Washington  Press,  1977. 

268  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

.  "The  American  Buzz  Bombs."  Aeroplane  Monthly,  volume  4,  number 

11   (November  1976),  pages  566-571. 

"American   Flight  Research   and  Flight  Testing:   An  Overview   from 

the  Wright  Brothers  to  the  Space  Shuttle."  Cockpit:  The  Magazine  of  the 
Society  of  Experimental  Test  Pilots,  January-February  1977. 

.  "The  Northrop  X-4."  Air  Enthusiast  Quarterly,  number  3  (1976). 

.  "The  Douglas  X-3."  Air  Enthusiast  Quarterly,  number  4  (1977). 

-.  "Twilight  of  the  Piston-Powered  Airplane:  The  Republic  XF-12/RC-2 

Rainbow."  Aviation  Quarterly,  volume  3,  number  1,  (1977). 
Hanle,  Paul  A.  [Review]  The  History  of  Quantum  Theory,  by  Friedrich  Hund. 

1515,  volume  67  (December  1976),  pages  625-626. 
.  "The  Coming  of  Age  of  Erwin  Schrodinger:  His  Quantum  Statistics 

of  Ideal  Gases."  Archive  for  History  of  Exact  Sciences,  volume  17. 

Presentation  and  Education  Division 

Bondurant,  Russell  Lynn.  "A  Grave  Situation."  Instructor,  volume  86,  num- 
ber 8  (April  1977),  page  111-114. 

.  "From  Kitty  Hawk  to  the  Moon  and  Beyond — A  Visit  to  the  New 

National  Air  and  Space  Museum."  AIAA  Student  Journal,  volume  15,  num- 
ber 1   (Spring  1977),  pages  22-24. 

Chamberlain,  Von  Del.  "Sky  Interpretation  Update."  In  Touch,  National  Park 
Service  Newsletter,  May  1977,  pages  16-17. 

.  "Sky  Interpretation:   A  Project  of  the  American  Astronomical  Soci- 
ety." Journal  of  the  Association  of  Interpretive  Naturalists,  August  1977. 
-,  editor.  Sky  Interpretation  Resource  Bidletin,  Volume  II  (1977).  Pub- 

lished and  distributed  by  the  American  Astronomical  Society  with  funds 
by  the  National  Science  Foundation. 

Snider,  Harold.  "The  Inviting  Air  of  an  Accessible  Space."  Museum  News, 
January-February  1977,  pages  18-23. 

.  "Museums  &  the  Blind."  Arts  for  the  Blind  &  Visually  Impaired  Edu- 
cational Facilities  Laboratory,  June  1977. 

.  "Museums  &  the  Blind — A  Look  Ahead."  Braille  Monitor,  September 


Department  of  Anthropology 

Angel,  J.  Lawrence.  "Colonial  to  Modern  Skeletal  Change  in  the  U.S.A." 
American  Journal  of  Physical  Anthropology,  volume  45,  number  3  (1976), 
pages  723-736. 

.  "Introduction  to  Symposium  in  Honor  of  T.  Dale  Stewart  (ed.  J.  L. 

Angel.)"  American  Journal  of  Physical  Anthropology,  volume  45,  number 
3  (1976),  pages  519-530. 

Angel,  J.  Lawrence,  and  Donald  G.  Cherry.  "Personality  Reconstruction  From 
Unidentified  Remains."  FBI  Law  Enforcement  Bulletin,  volume  46,  number 
8  (1977),  pages  12-15. 

Briggs,  Marion  F.,  and  Sarah  D.  McAnulty.  The  Ghost  Dance  Tragedy  at 
Wounded  Knee.  Washington,  D.C. :  Smithsonian  Institution,  Office  of  Print- 
ing and  Photographic  Services,  1977. 

Crocker,  William  H.  "O  Movimento  Messianco  dos  Canelas:  Uma  Intro- 
ducao."  In  Leituras  de  Etnologia  Brasileira,  edited  by  E.  Schaden,  pages 
515-527.  Sao  Paulo :  Companhia  Editora  Nacional  (Biblioteca  Universitaria, 
Serie  2a — Ciencias  Sociais,  volume  7),  1976. 

Appendix  6.  Publications  of  the  Staff  I  269 

Evans,  Clifford.  "Background  and  Introduction."  In  Symposium:  New  Re- 
search Designs  Applied  to  Paleo-lndian  Problems:  Some  Preliminary  Re- 
sults. Adas  del  XL1  Congresso  Internacional  de  Americanist  as,  volume  3 
(1976),  pages  458-461. 

Ewers,  John  C.  "Spanish  Cattle  in  Plains  Indian  Art."  Great  Plains  Journal, 
volume  16,  number  1  (Fall  1976),  pages  66-76. 

.  "Foreword."  In  Cyrus  E.  Dallin,  Let  Justice  Be  Done,  by  Rell  G.  Fran- 
cis. Springville,  Utah:  Springville  Museum  of  Art  in  cooperation  with  Utah 
American  Bicentennial  Committee,  1976. 

"Five  Strings  to  his  Bow.  The  Remarkable  Career  of  William  (Lone 

Star)  Dietz:  Artist,  Athlete,  Actor,  Teacher,  Football  Coach."  Montana: 
The  Magazine  of  Western  History,  volume  27,  number  1  (Winter  1977), 
pages  2-13. 

"The   Making   and   Uses   of   Maps   by    Plains   Indian   Warriors."   By 

Valor  and  Arms,  volume  3,  number  1   (1977),  pages  36-43. 

Fitzhugh,  William.  "William  Fitzhugh  Comments  on  David  Yesner's  Review 
of  Prehistoric  Maritime  Adaptations  of  the  Circumpolar  Zone."  Reviews  in 
Anthropology,  volume  3,  number  5  (1976),  pages  486-495. 

.  "Tribute  to  Explorer  Lost  in  Labrador,"  Smithsonian  Magazine,  De- 
cember 1976,  pages  109-119. 

"Population  Movement  and  Cultural  Change  on  the  Central  Labrador 

Coast."  Annals  of  the  New  York  Academy  of  Sciences,  volume  288  (Febru- 
ary 1977),  pages  481-497. 

"Regional  Repositories:  A  View  from  the  Smithsonian."  In  Regional 

Centers  in  Archaeology:  Prospects  and  Problems,  edited  by  William  H. 
Marquardt,  pages  18-19.  Missouri  Archaeological  Society  Research  Series, 
number  14,  1977. 

Gibson,  Bethune  M.  "Conservation  of  a  Fan."  Journal  of  the  American  Insti- 
tute for  Conservation,  volume  16,  number  2  (February  1977),  pages  3—11. 

Gibson,  Gordon  D.  "Himba  Epochs."  History  in  Africa,  volume  4  (1977), 
page  67-121. 

Goddard,  R.  H.  Ives,  III.  "Some  Early  Examples  of  American  Indian  Pidgin 
English."  International  Journal  of  American  Linguistics,  volume  43  (1977), 
pages  37-41. 

.  "The  Morphologization  of  Algonquian  Consonant  Mutation."  In  Pro- 
ceedings of  the  Third  Annual  Meeting  of  the  Berkeley  Linguistics  Society, 
pages  241-250.  Berkeley,  California,  1977. 

"Philological   Approaches   to    the   Study   of   North    American   Indian 

Languages:  Documents  and  Documentation."  In  Native  Languages  of  the 
Americas,  edited  by  Thomas  A.  Sebeok,  volume  I,  pages  73-91.  New  York 
and  London:  Plenum  Press. 

-.  [Review]  Riding  on  the  Frontier's  Crest:  Mahican  Indian  Culture  and 

Culture  Change,"  by  Ted  J.  Brasser.  Ethnohistory,  volume  22  (1975  [1976]), 
page  185-187. 

[Review]    Indian  Names  in   Connecticut,  by   J.   Hammond  Trumbull. 

International  Journal  of  American  Linguistics,  volume  43  (1977' 

Hassan,  Afifa  A.,  and  Donald  J.  Ortner.  "Inclusions  in  Bone  Material  as  a 
Source  of  Error  in  Radiocarbon  Dating."  Archaeometry,  volume  19  (1977). 

Houchins,  Chang-Su.  "Konch'uk  kwa  hoehwa:  ch'oech'o  iii  Man'guk  minhwa 
sujip  (Architecture  and  Graphics:  Introduction  to  the  Bernadou  Collection 
of  Korean  Folk  Paintings  in  U.  S.  National  Museum.)"  Konch'uk  Man'guk 
(Korean  Architecture),  pages  50-51.  Seoul,  Korea,  September  1976. 

.    "The    Five   Blessings    and   Korean   Coin    Charms:    A   Phychocultural 

Analysis."  Korea  Journal,  volume  17,  number  2  (February  1977),  pages  12- 
26.  Seoul,  Korea:  UNESCO  Korean  Commission. 

Koritzer,  Richard  T.  [Abstract]  "Dental  Caries."  American  Journal  of  Physi- 
cal Anthropology,  volume  47,  number  1  (1976),  page  143. 

270  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

.  "An  Anthropological  Approach  to  the  Study  of  Dental  Pathology." 

In  Orofacial  Growth  and  Development,  edited  by  Albert  A.  Dahlberg  and 
Thomas  Graber,  pages  283-299.  1977. 

.    "Dental   Caries   and   Enamel   Trace    Elements    in    Potomac    Indians." 

Georgetown  Dental  Journal,  volume  41,  number  2  (1977). 

Laughlin,  Robert  M.  "Of  Wonders  Wild  and  New:  Dreams  from  Zinacantan." 
Smithsonian  Contributions  to  Anthropology,  number  22,  1976. 

Levy,  John  D.,  and  Richard  T.  Koritzer.  "Enamel,  Silicon,  and  Fluoride  Rela- 
tionships Demonstrating  a  Surface  Silicon  Effect  and  Facilitating  Fluoride 
Uptake."  Journal  of  Dental  Research,  volume  55,  number  5  (1976),  pages 

McAnulty,  Sarah  D.  "Angel  DeCora:  American  Indian  Artist  and  Educator." 
Nebraska  History,  volume  57  (1976),  pages  143-199. 

Meggers,  Betty  J.  "Introductions"  and  "Concluding  Remarks."  In  Symposium: 
Effects  of  Environmental  Differences  on  the  Transition  from  Hunting  and 
Gathering  to  Settled  Life  in  the  Peruvian  Highlands.  Adas  del  XL1  Con- 
gresso  Internacional  de  Americanistas,  volume  3  (1976),  pages  530-531  and 

.    "Vegetational    Fluctuation    and    Prehistoric    Cultural    Adaptation    in 

Amazonia:    Some   Tentative   Correlations."   World  Archaeology,   volume   8 
(1977),  pages  287-303. 

Meggers,  Betty  ].,  and  Clifford  Evans.  "Early  Formative  Period  Chronology  of 
the  Ecuadorian  Coast:  A  Correction."  American  Antiquity,  volume  42 
(1977),  pages  266. 

Ortner,  Donald  J.  "The  Paleopathology  Program  at  the  Smithsonian  Institu- 
tion: Purposes  and  Present  Status."  Bulletin  of  the  New  York  Academy  of 
Medicine,  volume  52,  number  10  (1976),  pages  1197-1206. 

.  "Microscopic  and  Molecular  Biology  of  Human  Compact  Bone:   An 

Anthropological  Perspective."  Yearbook  of  Physical  Anthropology,  volume 
19  (1976). 

Ortner,  Donald  J.,  and  Robert  S.  Corruccini.  "The  Skeletal  Biology  of  the  Vir- 
ginia Indians."  American  Journal  of  Physical  Anthropology,  volume  45, 
number  3  (1976),  pages  717-722. 

Ortner,  Donald  J.,  David  W.  von  Endt,  and  M.  S.  Robinson.  "The  Effect  of 
Temperature  on  Protein  Decay  in  Bone:  Its  Significance  in  Nitrogen  Dating 
of  Archeological  Material."  In  Experimental  Archeology.  New  York:  Co- 
lumbia University  Press  (1977). 

Riesenberg,  Saul  H.  "The  Organization  of  Navigational  Knowledge  on  Pulu- 
wat."  In  Pacific  Navigation  and  Voyaging,  by  The  Polynesian  Society  In- 
corporated, pages  91-128.  Wellington,  New  Zealand,  1976. 

Rose,  Carolyn  L.  "Comments  on  the  Exchange  of  Information  on  Conserva- 
tion Methods  and  Practices  Between  Conservators  and  Archeologists."  In 
Pacific  Northwest  Wet  Site  Wood  Conservation  Conference,  volume  2 
(1977),  pages  83-87. 

.  "The  Training  of  Conservation  Specialists  Within  a  Museum  Studies 

Program."    In    American    Institute    for    Conservation    Conference,    Boston, 
Massachusetts,  1977. 

Rye,  Owen  S.,  and  Clifford  Evans.  "Traditional  Pottery  Techniques  of  Paki- 
stan: Field  and  Laboratory  Studies."  Smithsonian  Contributions  to  Anthro- 
pology, number  21,  1976. 

St.  Hoyme,  L.  E.,  and  Richard  T.  Koritzer.  "Ecology  of  Dental  Disease." 
American  Journal  of  Physical  Anthropology,  volume  45,  number  3  (1976), 
pages  673-686. 

Stewart,  T.  Dale.  "Are  Supra-Inion  Depressions  Evidence  of  Prophylactic 
Trephination?"  Bulletin  of  the  History  of  Medicine,  volume  50  (1976), 
pages  414-434. 

Appendix  6.  Publications  of  the  Staff  I  271 

.   "Adolpho   Hans   Schultz    (1891-1976)."   Yearbook    of    the    American 

Philosophical  Society,  1976,  pages  118-122. 

"The   Neanderthal   Skeletal   Remains   from   Shanidar   Cave,   Iraq:    A 

Summary  of  Findings  to  Date.  In  Proceedings  of  the  American  Philosophi- 
cal Society,  volume  121   (1977),  pages  121-165. 

Sturtevant,  William  C.  "Perfect  Likenesses:  Portraits  for  History  of  the  Indian 
Tribes  of  North  America  (1837-44)."  [Exhibition  Catalogue]  Washington, 
D.C. :  National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology,  1977. 

.   [Review]   "Sacred  Circles:  Two  Thousand  Years  of  North  American 

Indian  Art."    [Exhibition]    Council  for  Museum  Anthropology  Newsletter, 
volume  1,  number  2  (1977),  pages  18-20. 

[Review]    The    Invasion    of   America,   by    R.    Jennings.    William    and 

Mary  Quarterly,  volume  34,  number  2  (1977),  pages  312-314. 

Ubelaker,  Douglas  H.  "Analysis  of  the  Human  Skeletal  Remains  from  the 
Rosenkrans  Site,  Sussex  County,  New  Jersey."  In  The  Rosenkrans  Site,  An 
Adena-Related  Mortuary  Complex  in  the  Upper  Delaware  Valley,  New 
Jersey.  [Appendix  II]  Archaeology  of  Eastern  North  America,  volume  4 
(1976),  pages  45-50. 

.  "Prehistoric  New  World  Population  Size:  Historical  Review  and  Cur- 
rent Appraisal  of  North  American  Estimates."  American  Journal  of  Physi- 
cal Anthropology,  volume  45,  number  3  (1976),  pages  661-666. 

"The   Sources   and  Methodology   for   Mooney's   Estimates   of  North 

American  Indian  Populations."  In  The  Native  Population  of  the  Americas 
in  1492,  edited  by  William  M.  Denovan,  pages  243-288.  Madison,  Wiscon- 
sin: The  University  of  Wisconsin  Press,  1976. 

Ubelaker,  Douglas  H.,  and  Marianne  Bouvier.  "A  Comparison  of  Two  Meth- 
ods for  the  Microscopic  Determination  of  Age  at  Death."  American  Journal 
of  Physical  Anthropology,  volume  46,  number  3  (1977),  pages  391-394. 

Ubelaker,  Douglas  H.,  and  Virginia  L.  Merchant.  "Skeletal  Growth  of  the 
Protohistoric  Ankara."  American  Journal  of  Pliysical  Anthropology,  volume 
46,  number  1  (1977),  pages  61-72. 

Ubelaker,  Douglas  H,  and  P.  Willey,  "Notched  Teeth  from  the  Texas  Pan- 
handle." Journal  of  the  Washington  Academy  of  Sciences,  volume  66,  num- 
ber 4  (1976),  pages  239-246. 

.  "Human  Skeletal  Remains  from  Cramer  Park,  St.  Croix."  Bulletin  26, 

Office  of  the  Territorial  Archaeologist,  Government  of  the  Virgin  Islands  of 
the  United  States  (1977),  pages  1-2. 

"Human  Skeletal  Remains  from  Botany  Bay,  St.  Thomas."  Bulletin 

29,  Office  of  the  Territorial  Archaeologist,  Government  of  the  Virgin  Is- 
lands of  the  United  States  (1977),  pages  1-3. 

Viola,  Herman  J.  The  Indian  Legacy  of  Charles  Bird  King.  Washington,  D.C: 
Smithsonian  Institution  Press,  1976. 

.  "How  Did  an   Indian  Chief  Really  Look?"   Smithsonian,  June   1977, 

pages  100-104. 

Wedel,  Waldo  R.  "The  Education  of  a  Plains  Archeologist."  The  Plains  An- 
thropologist, volume  22,  number  75  (1977),  pages  1-11. 

.  "Native  Astronomy  and  the  Plains  Caddoans."  In  Native  American 

Astronomy,  edited  by  Anthony  F.  Aveni,  pages  131-145.  Austin:  University 
of  Texas  Press,  1977. 

-.  "An  Introduction  to  Pawnee  Archeology."  [Reprint]  Bureau  of  Ameri- 

can Ethnology  Bulletin  112,  Smithsonian  Institution,  1936  by  J  &  L  Reprint 
Company,  Lincoln,  Nebraska,  1977. 
Wedel,  Waldo  R.,  and  Mildred  M.  Wedel.  "Wichita  Archeology  and  Ethno- 
history."  In  Kansas  and  the  West:  Bicentennial  Essays  in  Honor  of  Nyle  H. 
Miller,  pages  8-20.  Topeka:  Kansas  State  Historical  Society,  1976. 

272  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Department  of  Botany 

Ayensu,  Edward  S.  "Alternatives  for  Biological  Resources  in  Africa."  Journal 
of  the  Washington  Academy  of  Sciences,  volume  66,  number  4  (1976), 
pages  197-205. 

.   "Scanning   Electron  Microscopy   of  Epidermal   Features   in   Erithryna 

(Fabaceae)."  Lloydia,  volume  40   (September-October  1977). 

"Understanding  Life."  In  The  Smithsonian  Experience,  edited  by  James 

K.  Page,  Jr.,  Russell  Bourne,  and  Alexis  Doster  III,  pages  120-127.  Washing- 
ton, D.C. :  Smithsonian  Institution,  1977. 
Bohlmann,  F.,  C.  Zdero,  R.  M.  King,  and  H.  Robinson.  "A  New  Ageratone 

Derivative  from  Isocarpha  oppositifolia."  Phytochemistry,  volume  16  (1977), 

page  768. 
Cowan,  Richard  S.  "A  Taxonomic  Revision  of  Elizabetha  (Leguminosae-Caesa- 

linioideae)."   Proceedings    of   the   Koninklijke   Nederlandse   Akademie   van 

Wetenschappen  of  Amsterdam,  series  C,  volume  79,  number  4  (1976),  pages 

.  "Studies  of  Tropical  American  Leguminosae — VIII."  In  Proceedings  of 

the  Biological  Society  of  Washington,  volume  90,  number  2  (1977),  pages 

Cuatrecasas,  J.  "Moraceae."  In  La  Vegetacion  de  la  Cima  del  Macizo  de  Jaua, 

by  Julian  A.  Steyermark  and  C.  Brewer-Carias,  pages  321-323.  Boletin  de  la 

Sociedad  Venezolana  de  Ciencias  Naturales,  volume  22,  numbers  132-133, 

March  1976. 
.  "A  New  Subtribe  in  the  Heliantheae  (Compositae) :  Espeletiinae."  Phy- 

tologia,  volume  35,  number  1  (1976),  pages  43-61. 

"Westoniella,  a  New  Genus   of  the  Astereae   from   the   Costa  Rican 

paramos."  Phytologia,  volume  35,  number  6  (1977),  pages  471-487. 

DeFilipps,  R.  A.  "Adumbratio  Florae  Aethiopicae.  28  Olacaceae."  Webbia,  vol- 
ume 30  (1976),  pages  177-190. 

.  "Hypochoeris."  Flora  Europaea,  volume  4  (1976),  pages  308-310. 

Erwin,  Terry  L.,  and  Kjell  B.  Sandved.  "Chirp  and  Rattle,  Dart  and  Glitter." 
Smithsonian,  November  1976,  pages  116-120. 

Eyde,  Richard  H.  "Durian  Theory,"  [Review].  Seeds  of  Dicotyledons,  by  E.  J.  H. 
Corner.  Systematic  Botany,  volume  1  (1976),  pages  195-196. 

Farr,  David  F.,  and  Ellen  R.  Farr.  "Notes  on  Phaeocollybia  and  Pholiota  in  the 
Southern  Appalachians."  In  Distributional  History  of  the  Biota  of  the  South- 
ern Appalachians,  Part  IV,  Algae  and  Fungi,  edited  by  Bruce  C.  Parker  and 
Martha  K.  Roane,  pages  296-306.  Charlottesville,  Virginia:  The  University  of 
Virginia  Press,  1976. 

Farr,  Ellen  R.,  Orson  K.  Miller,  Jr.,  and  David  F.  Farr.  "Biosystematic  Studies 
in  the  Genus  Pholiota,  Stirps  Adiposa."  Canadian  Journal  of  Botany,  volume 
55  (1977),  pages  1167-1180. 

Fosberg,  F.  R.  "Distributional  Extensions  of  Marine  Spermatophytes."  Micro- 
nesica,  volume  12  (1976),  pages  317-318. 

.  "Expert  on  Hawaiian  Plants  Responds."  National  Parks  and  Conserva- 
tion Magazine,  volume  51  (1977),  pages  28-29. 

"Miscellaneous  Notes  on  the  Flora  of  Aldabra  and  Neighbouring  Is- 

lands: IV.  A  New  Bulbostylis  and  Observations  on  Cyperus  (Cyperaceae)." 
Kew  Bulletin,  volume  31  (1977),  pages  829-835. 

"Miscellaneous  Notes  on  the  Flora  of  Aldabra  and  Neighbouring  Is- 

lands: V.  Pandanus  Tectorius  Parkinson,  Sensu  Latissimo  (Pandanaceae)." 
Kew  Bulletin,  volume  31  (1977),  pages  837-840. 

'Paspalum  Distichum  Again."  Taxon,  volume  26  (1977),  pages  201-202. 

Fosberg,  F.  Raymond,  and  Marie-Helene  Sachet.  "Floria  of  Micronesia,  3:  Con- 
volvulaceae."  Smithsonian  Contributions  to  Botany,  volume  36,  1977. 

Appendix  6.  Publications  of  the  Staff  I  273 

Fosberg,  F.  Raymond,  Margie  V.  C.  Falanruw,  and  Marie-Helene  Sachet.  "Ad- 
ditional Records  of  Vascular  Plants  from  the  Northern  Mariana  Islands." 
Micronesica,  volume  13  (1977),  pages  27-31. 

Fosberg,  F.  R.,  David  R.  Stoddart,  and  Marie-Helene  Sachet.  "Island  News  and 
Comment."  Atoll  Research  Bulletin,  number  219,  1977. 

Hale,  Mason  E.,  Jr.  "A  Monograph  of  the  Lichen  Genus  Pseudoparmelia  Lynge 
(Parmeliaceae)."  Smithsonian  Contribtition  to  Botany,  number  31,  1976. 

.  A  Monograph  of  the  Lichen  Genus  Bulbothrix  Hale  (Parmeliaceae)." 

Smithsonian  Contributions  to  Botany,  number  32,  1976. 

"A  Monograph  of  the  Lichen  Genus  Permelina  Hale  (Parmeliaceae)." 

Smithsonian  Contributions  to  Botany,  number  33,  1976. 

"New  Species  in  the  Lichen  Genus  Parmotrema  Mass."  Mycotaxon, 

volume  5  (1977),  pages  432-448. 
King,  R.  M.,  and  H.  Robinson.  "Studies  in  the  Eupatoriaea  (Asteraceae).  CLIX. 

Additions  to  the  Genus,  Ayapana."  Phytologia,  volume  34  (1976),  pages  57- 

.  "Studies  in  the  Eupatorieae  (Asteraceae).  CLX.  A  New  Species  of  Sci- 

adocephala  from  Ecuador."  Phytologia,  volume  34  (1976),  pages  375-377. 
-.  "Studies   in  the  Eupatorieae   (Asteraceae).   CLXI.   A   New   Species   of 

Stevia  from  Costa  Rica."  Phytologia,  volume  35  (1977),  pages  229-232. 

"Studies   in   the   Eupatorieae   (Asteraceae).   CLXII.   New   Species   and 

Combinations  from  Venezuela."  Phytologia,  volume  35  (1977),  pages  497- 

"Studies   in   the  Eupatorieae    (Asteraceae).   CLXIII.   Additions   to   the 

Genus  Fleischmanniopsis."  Phytologia,  volume  36  (1977),  pages  193-200. 
King,  R.   M.,  D.  W.   Kyhos,  A.   M.   Powell,  P.  H.   Raven,  and   H.   Robinson. 

"Chromosome  Numbers  in  Compositae.   XIII.  Eupatorieae."  Annals  of  the 

Missouri  Botanical  Garden,  volume  63  (1976),  pages  862-888. 
Kirkbride,  Joseph  H.,  Jr.  "Confirmation  of  Hybridization  between  Declieuxia 

fruticosa  and  D.  passerina   (Rubiaceae)."   Brittonia,  volume  28,   number  3 

(1976),  pages  341-347. 
.  "A  Revision  of  the  Genus  Declieuxia   (Rubiaceae)."  Memoirs  of  the 

New  York  Botanical  Garden,  volume  28,  number  4  (1976),  pages  1-87. 

"Index  to  the  Rubiaceae  by  Julian  A.  Steyermark  in  the  Botany  of 

the  Guayana  Highland  by  B.  Maguire  and  Collaborators."  Phytologia,  vol- 
ume 36  (1977),  pages  324-366. 

Lellinger,  David  B.  "Nomenclatural  Notes  on  Some  Ferns  of  Costa  Rica, 
Panama,  and  Colombia."  American  Fern  Journal,  volume  67,  number  2 
(1977),  pages  58-60. 

Lellinger,  David  B.  "Nomenclatural  and  Taxonomic  Notes  on  the  Pterido- 
phytes  of  Costa  Rica,  Panama,  and  Columbia,  I."  In  Proceedings  of  the 
Biological  Society  of  Washington,  volume  89,  number  61,  pages  703-732. 

.  "Pteridophyta."  In  La  Vegetacion  de  la  Cima  del  Macizo  de  Jaua,  by 

Julian  A.  Steyermark  and  C.  Brewer-Carias,  pages  262-270.  Boletin  de  la 
Sociedad  Venezuelana  de  Ciencias  Naturales,  volume  22,  number  132-133 

Little,  Elbert  L.,  Jr.  "Rare  Tropical  Trees  of  South  Florida."  Conservation 
Research  Report,  20.  Washington,  D.C.:  U.S.  Forest  Service,  1976. 

Little,  Elbert  L.,  Jr.,  and  Barbara  H.  Honkala.  "Trees  and  Shrubs  of  the  U.S.: 
A  Bibliography  for  Identification."  Miscellaneous  Publications,  1336.  Wash- 
ington, D.C. :  U.S.  Department  of  Agriculture,  1976. 

Little,  Elbert  L.,  Jr.,  and  Roy  O.  Woodbury.  "Trees  of  the  Caribbean  Na- 
tional Forest,  Puerto  Rico."  Forest  Service  Research  Paper,  ITF-20.  Wash- 
ington, D.C:  U.S.  Forest  Service,  1976. 

Moldenke,  H.  N.,  and  L.  B.  Smith.  "Eriocaulaceas."  In  Flora  llustrada  Cata- 
rinense,  part  1,  fascicle  erio  (1976),  pages  1-103. 

274  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Nicolson,  Dan  H.  "Proposal  to  Change  the  Typification  of  723  Amorpho- 
phallus  Nom  Cons.  (Araceae)."  Taxon,  volume  26  (May  1977),  pages  337- 

Nicolson,  Dan  H.,  and  Joseph  Bogner.  "Proposal  for  the  Conservation  of  787 
Pinellia  Tenore  (1839)  against  Atherurus  Blum  (1837)  (Araceae)."  Taxon, 
volume  26  (May  1977),  page  338-339. 

Nicolson,  Dan  H.,  and  George  C.  Steyskal.  "The  Masculine  Garden  of  the 
Generic  Name  Styrax  Linnaeus  (Styraceae)."  Taxon,  volume  25  (1976), 
pages  581-587. 

Norman,  E.  M.,  and  L.  B.  Smith.  "Buddleia  in  Loganiaceas."  In  Flora  Ilustrada 
Catarinense,  part  1,  fascicle  loga  (1976),  pages  1-38. 

.   "Strychnos   in   Loganiaceas."   In  Flora   Ilustrada   Catarinense,  part  1, 

fascicle  loga  (1976),  pages  64-73. 

Norris,  James  N.  "[The  Green  Algal  Genus]  Blidingia  Kylin  1947."  In  Marine 
Algae  of  California,  by  Isabella  A.  Abbott  and  George  J.  Hollenberg,  pages 
70-73.  Stanford,  California:  Stanford  University  Press,  1976. 

.  "[The  Green  Algal  Genus]  Enteromorpha  Link  1820."  In  Marine  Al- 
gae of  California,  by  Isabella  A.  Abbott  and  George  J.  Hollenberg,  pages 
73-77.  Stanford,  California:  Stanford  University  Press,  1976. 

Norris,  James  N.,  and  Katina  E.  Bucher.  "The  Genus  Platoma  (Gigartinales, 
Rhodophyta),  with  a  Description  of  P.  abbottiana  sp.  nov."  Journal  of  Phy- 
cology,  volume  13,  number  2  (1977),  pages  155-162. 

Nowicke,  Joan  W.,  and  John  J.  Skvarla.  "Pollen  Morphology  and  the  Rela- 
tionship of  the  Plumbaginaceae,  Polygonaceae,  and  Primulaceae  to  the 
Order  Centrospermae."  Smithsonian  Contributions  to  Botany,  number  37, 

Read,  Robert  W.  "Preface"  and  "Palmarum  Colombiensium  Elenchus  por 
Armando  Dugand  (posthumous)."  [Also  edited  and  updated  for  publica- 
tion.] Cespedesia,  volume  5,  numbers  19  and  20  (April  1977),  pages  257- 

Robinson,  H.  "Dolichopodidae."  In  Biota  Acudtica  de  Sudamerica  Austral., 
edited  by  S.  H.  Hurlbert,  pages  305-306.  San  Diego,  California:  S.  H.  Hurl- 
bert,   1977. 

.  "A  New  Species  of  Dominicomyia  from  Brasil  (Diptera:  Dolichopodi- 
dae)." In  Proceedings  of  the  Entomological  Society  of  Washington,  volume 
79,  pages  310-312.  1977. 

.  "A  New  Species  of  Taxilejeunea  from  Venezuela."  Phytologia,  volume 

34  (1976),  pages  67-68. 

'A  New  Species  of  Vernonia  from  Ecuador."  Phytologia,  volume  34 

(1976),  pages  301-304. 

"Studies  in  the  Heliantheae   (Asteraceae).  VII.   Notes  on  the  Genus, 

Monactis."  Phytologia,  volume  34  (1976),  pages  33-45. 

-.  "Studies  in  the  Liabeae  (Asteraceae).  III.  Notes  on  the  Genus,  Cacos- 

mia."  Phytologia,  volume  34  (1976),  pages  46-52. 

-.   "Studies   in   the   Liabeae    (Asteraceae).    IV.   Additions   to   the   Genus, 

Philoglossa."  Phytologia,  volume  34  (1976),  pages  53-56. 

"Studies  in  the   Liabeae   (Asteraceae).   New   Andean   Species   of  Lia- 

bum."  Phytologia,  volume  34  (1976),  pages  285-300. 

-.  "Studies  in  the  Liabeae  (Asteraceae).  VI.  Notes  on  the  Genus  Erato. 

Phytologia,  volume  34  (1976),  pages  378-379. 

"Studies   in   the  Liabeae   (Asteraceae).   VII.   Additions    to   the   Genus 

Munnozia."  Phytologia,  volume  34  (1976),  pages  380-387. 

"Studies  in  the  Liabeae  (Asteraceae).  VIII.  Additions  to  Liabum  and 

Munnozia."  Phytologia,  volume  35  (1976),  pages  37-42. 

'Studies  in  the  Liabeae  (Asteraceae).  IX.  Additions  to  Munnozia  and 

Oligactis."  Phytologia,  volume  35  (1977),  pages  199-204. 

Appendix  6.  Publications  of  the  Staff  I  275 

.   "Studies   in   the    Liabeae    (Asteraceae).    X.   Additions    to   the    Genus 

Paranephelius."  Phytologia,  volume  35  (1977),  pages  233-240. 

-.   "Studies  in  the  Liabeae  (Asteraceae).   XI.   New  Species  in  the  Kew 

Herbarium."  Phytologia,  volume  35  (1977),  pages  488-496. 

"Studies  in  the  Heliantheae  (Asteraceae).  VIII.  Notes  on  Genus  and 

Species  Limits  in  the  Genus  Viguiera."  Phytologia,  volume  36  (1977),  pages 

Robinson,  H.,  and  J.  Cuatrecasas.  "Notes  on  the  Genus  and  Species  Limits  of 
Pseudogynoxys  (Greenm.)  Cabrera  (Senecioneae,  Asteraceae)."  Phytologia, 
volume  36  (1977),  pages  177-192. 

Sachet,  M.-H.  "Vegetation  et  Flore  Terrestre,  Atoll  de  Takapoto."  In  Pro- 
gramme MAB  de  I'UNESCO,  theme  VII  sur  les  iles,  by  B.  Salvat,  page  73. 
Papeete:  MAB  Programme  de  I'UNESCO,  1977. 

Saldanha,  C.  J.,  and  Dan  H.  Nicolson.  Flora  of  Hassan  District,  Karnataka, 
India.  New  Delhi:  Amerind  Publishing  Company,  1976. 

Shetler,  Stanwyn  G.  "Start  with  Christmas  Tree  If  It's  Still  Around."  Audu- 
bon Naturalist  News,  volume  3,  number  1  (January  1977),  page  7. 

.  "Phenology  Project:  Dates  of  Spring  Flowering."  Field  Project,  Num- 
ber 1  (1977),  pages  i-ii  and  1-10.  Concord,  Massachusetts:  International 
Environmental  Resources  Network. 

Simpson,  Beryl  B.  "Breeding  Systems  of  Dominant  Perennial  Plants  of  Two 
Disjunct  Warm  Desert  Ecosystems."  Oecologia,  volume  27  (1977),  pages 

,  editor  and  contributor.   Mesquite:   Its  Biology   in   Two  Desert  Scrub 

Ecosystems.    Stroudsburg,   Pennsylvania:    Dowden,    Hutchinson    and    Ross, 
Inc.,  1977. 

Simpson,  Beryl  B.,  J.  L.  Neff,  and  D.  Seigler.  "Krameria,  Free  Fatty  Acids  and 
Oil-Collecting  Bees."  Nature,  volume  267  (1977),  pages  150-151. 

Smith,  Lyman  B.  "Xyridaceae,"  pages  275  and  278;  "Bromeliaceae,"  pages 
286-290,  293-294,  and  307-311.  In  La  Vegetacion  de  la  Cima  del  Macizo  de 
Jaua,  by  Julian  Steyermark  and  C.  Brewer-Carias.  Boletin  de  la  Sociedad 
Venezolana  de  Ciencias  Naturales,  volume  22,  numbers  132-133  (March 

Soderstrom,  Thomas  R.  "The  Graceful  Grasses."  Garden  (March/April  1977), 
pages  5-9. 

Soderstrom,  Thomas  R.,  and  C.  E.  Calderon.  "Curtains  for  this  Bamboo?  The 
Mysterious  Flowering  of  Ma-dake."  Pacific  Horticulture,  volume  37,  num- 
ber 3   (1976),  pages  7-14. 

Solbig,  O.  T.,  and  Beryl  B.  Simpson.  A  "Garden  Experiment  on  Competition 
between  Biotypes  of  the  Common  Dandelion  (Taraxacum  officinale)."  Jour- 
nal of  Ecology,  volume  65  (1977),  pages  427-430. 

Stafleu,  Frans  A.,  and  Richard  S.  Cowan.  Taxonomic  Literature:  A  Selective 
Guide  to  Botanical  Publications  and  Collections  with  Dates,  Commentaries 
and  Types,  second  edition.  Utrecht:  Bohn,  Scheltema  Holkema,  1976. 

Stern,  William  L.  "Multiple  Uses  of  Institutional  Wood  Collections."  Curator, 
volume  19  (1976),  pages  265-270. 

Steyermark,  Julian  A.,  and  Joseph  H.  Kirkbride,  Jr.  "Review  of  the  Genus 
Perama  (Rubiaceae)."  Brittonia,  volume  29,  number  2  (June  1977),  pages 

Tippo,  Oswald,  and  William  L.  Stern.  Humanistic  Botany.  New  York:  W.  W. 
Norton  and  Company,  1977. 

Troth,  R.  G.,  and  Dan  H.  Nicolson.  "Artificial  Key  to  the  Common  Shrubs  of 
the  Riverine  Forests,  Royal  Chitwan  National  Park,  Nepal."  Phytologia, 
volume  35  (February  1977),  pages  224-228. 

Wasshausen,  Dieter  C.  "New  Species  of  Acanthaceae  from  Colombia."  Phy- 
tologia, volume  37  (September  1977),  pages  213-218. 

276  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

.  "New  Taxa  of  Acanthaceae  from  the  Rio  Palenque  Science  Center." 

Selbyana,  volume  2,  number  1   (August  1977),  pages  14-21. 

Wurdack,  John  J.  "Certamen  Melastomataceis  XXV."  Phytologia,  volume  35, 
number  1  (October  1976),  pages  1-13. 

.  "Certamen  Melastomataceis  XXVI."  Phytologia,  volume  35,  number  3 

(February  1977),  pages  241-251. 

"Melastomataceae."  In  La  Vegetation  de  la  Cima  del  Macizo  laua,  by 

Julian  A.  Steyermark  and  C.  Brewer-Carias,  pages  366-370.  Boletin  de  la 
Sociedad  Venezolana  de  Ciencias  Naturales,  volume  22,  numbers  132-133 
(March  1976). 

Department  of  Entomology 

Abercrombie,  J.  "Medical  Entomology  Studies — IX.  The  Subgenus  Christo- 
phersiomyia  of  the  Genus  Aedes  (Diptera:  Culicidae)."  Contributions  of 
the  American  Entomological  Institute,  volume  14,  number  2  (1977),  72 

Blake,  D.  H.  "Colapsis  favosa  Say  and  Its  Close  Relatives  (Coleoptera: 
Chrysomelidae)."  In  Proceedings  of  the  Entomological  Society  of  Washing- 
ton, volume  79,  number  2,  pages  209-215.  1977. 

.  "Colaspis  chrysis  Oliver  and  Its  Close  Relatives  (Coleoptera:  Chry- 
somelidae). In  Proceedings  of  the  Entomological  Society  of  Washington, 
volume  79,  number  3,  pages  417-421.  1977. 

Burger,  J.  F.  "The  Biosystematics  of  Immature  Arizona  Tabanidae  (Diptera)." 
In  Transactions  of  the  American  Entomological  Society,  number  103.  1977. 

Burns,  John  M.  ["Arthropoda"]  (untitled  poem).  Printed  on  a  wall  of  the  In- 
sect Zoo,  National  Museum  of  Natural  History,  August  1976,  and  in  "Chirp 
and  Rattle,  Dart  and  Glitter!"  by  T.  L.  Erwin  and  K.  Sandved.  Smithsonian, 
volume  7,  number  8  (1976),  pages  116-120. 

Cartwright,  Oscar  L.  "Adult  Feeding  by  Dynastes  tityus  (Linn.)  Coleoptera: 
Scarabaeidae)."  The  Coleopterists  Bulletin,  volume  30,  number  4  (1976), 
pages  336-337. 

.    "A    New    Megasoma    from    Baja    California,    Mexico    (Coleoptera: 

Scarabaeidae:  Dynastinae)."  The  Coleopterists  Bulletin,  volume  30,  number 
1   (1976),  pages  85-90. 

Clarke,  J.  F.  Gates.  "Microlepidoptera.  Tortricoidea."  Insects  of  Micronesia, 
volume  9,  number  1  (1976),  pages  1-144. 

Crabill,  R.  E.,  Jr.  "A  New  Cryptopid  Genus,  with  Key  to  the  Genera  Known 
to  Occur  in  North  America  Including  Mexico.  (Chilopoda:  Scolopendro- 
morpha:  Cryptopidae).  In  Proceedings  of  the  Entomological  Society  of 
Washington,  volume  79,  number  3,  pages  346-349.  1977. 

de  Meillon,  Botha.  "The  Changing  Pattern  in  Transmission  of  Bancroftian 
Filariasis."  In  Proceedings  of  the  Fifteenth  International  Congress  of  Ento- 
mology, pages  498-504.  1976. 

de  Meillon,  Botha,  and  Gideon  van  Eeden.  "Anopheles  (Cellia)  deaconi  n.  sp. 
from  South  Africa  (Diptera:  Culicidae)."  Mosquito  Systematics,  volume  8, 
number  4  (1976),  pages  335-342. 

Emerson,  K.  C,  and  Roger  D.  Price.  "Mallophaga  of  Venezuelan  Mammals." 
In  Brigham  Young  University  Science  Bulletin,  Biological  Series,  volume  20, 
number  3,  pages  1-77.  1975. 

.   "Abrocomophagidae   (Mallophaga:   Amblycera),   a  New  Family   from 

Chile."  The  Florida  Entomologist,  volume  59  (February  1977),  pages  425- 

Erwin,  Terry  L.  "Chirp  and  Rattle,  Dart  and  Glitter!"  Smithsonian,  volume  7, 
number  8  (November  1976),  pages  116-120. 

Appendix  6.  Publications  of  the  Staff  I  277 

.   "Studies   of   the   Subtribe  Tachyina   (Coleoptera:   Carabidae:   Bembi- 

diini)  Supplement  B:  Lectotype  Designations  of  Masoreus  ridiculus  Schau- 
fuss  and  Transfer  of  This  Species  to  Polyderis."  The  Coleopterists  Bulletin, 
volume  31,  number  1  (1977),  page  90. 

Erwin,  Terry  L.,  and  La  Verne  J.  M.  Erwin.  "Relationships  of  Predaceous 
Beetles  to  Tropical  Forest  Wood  Decay.  Part  II.  The  Natural  History  of 
Neotropical  Eurycoleus  macularis  Chevrolat  (Carabidae:  Lebiini)  and  Its 
Implications  in  the  Evolution  of  Ectoparasitoidism."  Biotropica,  volume  8, 
number  4  (December  1976),  pages  215-224. 

Erwin,  Terry  L.,  Donald  R.  Whitehead,  and  George  E.  Ball.  "Family  4.  cara- 
bidae, The  Ground  Beetles.  North  American  Beetle  Fauna  Project."  The 
Biological  Research  Institute  of  America,  Inc.,  July  1977,  pages  4.1-4.68. 

Field,  William  D.,  and  Jose  Herrera.  "The  Pierid  Butterflies  of  the  Genera 
Hypsochila  Ureta,  Phulia  Herrich-Schaffer,  Infraphulia  Field,  Pierphulia 
Field,  and  Piercolias  Steudinger."  Smithsonian  Contributions  to  Zoology, 
number  232,  1977. 

Flint,  Oliver  S.,  Jr.  [Review]  The  Odonata  of  Canada  and  Alaska,  volume  III, 
by  Edmund  M.  Walker  and  Philip  S.  Corbet.  Bulletin  of  the  Entomological 
Society  of  America,  volume  22  (1976),  pages  392-393. 

.  "Neuroptera,  Mecoptera  and  Trichoptera."  In  Aquatic  Biota  of  South- 
ern South  America,  edited  by  Stuart  H.  Hurlbert,  pages  187-188,  248,  and 
249-253.  San  Diego:  San  Diego  State  University,  1977. 

-.    [Review]    Marine    Insects,   edited   by    Lanna   Cheng.    Bulletin    of   the 

Entomological  Society  of  America,  volume  23   (1977),  pages  152-153. 

Flint,  Oliver  S.,  Jr.,  and  Joaquin  Bueno-Soria.  "Studies  of  Neotropical  Cad- 
disflies,  XXI.  The  Genus  Lepidostoma  (Trichoptera:  Lepidostomatidae)."  In 
Proceedings  of  the  Biological  Society  of  Washington,  volume  90,  pages 
375-387.  1977. 

Flint,  Oliver  S.,  Jr.,  and  Scott  J.  Herrmann.  "The  Description  of  and  Environ- 
mental Characterization  for,  a  New  Species  of  Ochrotrichia  from  Colorado 
(Trichoptera:  Hydroptilidae)."  In  Annals  of  the  Entomological  Society  of 
America,  volume  69,  pages  894-898.  1976. 

Ford  (Smith),  T.  L.  "Autobiographical  Vignette."  Mosquito  Systematics,  vol- 
ume 9,  number  1  (1977),  pages  88-90. 

Froeschner,  Richard  C.  "Description  of  a  New  Species  of  Lace  Bug  Attacking 
the  Oil  Palm  in  Colombia  (Hemiptera:  Tingidae)."  In  Proceedings  of  the 
Entomological  Society  of  Washington,  volume  78,  number  1,  pages  104-107. 

.  "Galapagos  Lace  Bugs:  Zoogeographic  Notes  and  a  New  Species  of 

Phatnoma    (Hemiptera:    Tingidae)."    In    Proceedings    of    the   Entomological 
Society  of  Washington,  volume  78,  number  2,  pages  181-184.  1976. 

-.  "Zoogeographic  Notes  of  the  Lace  Bug  Genus  Acalypta  Westwood  in 

the  Americas  with  Description  of  a  New  Species  from  Mexico  (Hemiptera: 
Tingidae)."  American  Midland  Naturalist,  volume  96,  number  2  (1976), 
pages  257-269. 

-.  "The  Burrowing  Bugs  of  Hawaii,  with  Description  of  a  New  Species 

(Hemiptera:  Cydnidae)."  In  Proceedings  of  the  Hawaiian  Entomological 
Society,  volume  22,  number  2,  pages  229-236.  1977. 

Gordon,  Robert  D.,  and  O.  L.  Cartwright.  "Four  New  Species  of  Aegialia 
(S.  str.)  (Coleoptera:  Scarabaeidae)  from  California  and  Nevada  Sand 
Dunes."  Journal  of  the  Washington  Academy  of  Sciences,  volume  67,  num- 
ber 1  (1977),  pages  42-48. 

Harbach,  R.  E.,  and  K.  L.  Knight.  "A  Mosquito  Taxonomic  Glossary  X.  The 
Larval  Mandible."  Mosquito  Systematics,  volume  9,  number  1  (1977),  pages 

.  "A  Mosquito  Taxonomic  Glossary  XI.  The  Larval  Maxilla."  Mosquito 

Systematics,  volume  9,  number  1  (1977),  pages  128-175. 

278  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Huang,  Yiau-Min.  "Medical  Entomology  Studies — VII.  The  Subgenus  Stego- 
myia  of  Aedes  in  Southeast  Asia.  II — The  edwardsi  Group  of  Species.  Ill — 
The  w.-albus  Group  of  Species  (Diptera:  Culicidae)."  In  Contributions  of 
the  American  Entomological  Institute,  volume  14,  number  1,  1977. 

Hurd,  Paul  D.,  Jr.  [Review]  Evolution  of  Instinct:  Comparative  Ethnology  of 
Hymenoptera,  by  Kunio  Iwata.  Bulletin  of  the  Entomological  Society  of 
America,  volume  23  (1976),  page  103. 

Krombein,  Karl  V.  "Lectotype  Designations  for  Three  New  World  Lin's  with 
Taxonomic  Notes  (Hymenoptera:  Larridae)."  In  Proceedings  of  the  Ento- 
mological Society  of  Washington,  volume  78,  pages  333-335.  1976. 

,  editor  and  principal   investigator  for  SF  3-00104:   Alfieri,   Anastase. 

"The     Coleoptera     of    Egypt."     Memoires     de     la     Societe     Entomologique 
d'Egypte,  volume  5  (1977),  361  pages. 

Krombein,  Karl  V.,  and  Howard  E.  Evans.  "Three  New  Neotropical  Pterom- 
brus  with  Description  of  the  Diapausing  Larva  (hymenoptera:  Tiphiidae)." 
In  Proceedings  of  the  Entomological  Society  of  Washington,  volume  78, 
pages  361-368.  1976. 

Mathis,  Wayne  N.,  and  Willis  W.  Wirth.  "A  New  Neotropical  Shore  Fly 
Genus  with  Two  New  Species  (Diptera:  Ephydridae)."  The  Pan-Pacific 
Entomologist,  volume  52,  number  2  (1976),  pages  126-132. 

.  "A  New  Genus  of  Psilopine  Flies   (Diptera:  Ephydridae)   with  Notes 

on    Its    Relationships."    In    Proceedings    of    the    Entomological   Society    of 
Washington,  volume  79,  number  1,  pages  63-74.  1977. 

Peyton,  E.  L.  "Medical  Entomology  Studies — X.  A  Revision  of  the  Subgenus 
Pseudoficalbia  of  the  Genus  Uranotaenia  in  Southeast  Asia  (Diptera:  Culi- 
cidae)." In  Contributions  of  the  American  Entomological  Institute,  volume 
14,  number  3,  273  pages.  1977. 

Price,  Roger  D.,  and  K.  C.  Emerson.  "Three  New  Genera  and  Species  of 
Menoponidae  (Mallophaga)  from  Southeast  Asia  and  New  Guinea."  Pacific 
Insects,  volume  16  (1975),  pages  427-432. 

.    "The   Menacanthus    (Mallophaga:    Menoponidae)    of    the   Piciformes 

(Aves)."  In  Annals  of  the  Entomological  Society  of  America,  volume  68, 
pages  779-785.  1975. 

Reinert,  J.  F.  "A  New  Man-Biting  Species  of  Aedes  (Paraedes)  from  South- 
east Asia  (Diptera:  Culicidae)."  Mosquito  Systematics,  volume  8,  number  3 
(1976),  pages  319-331. 

.  "Medical  Entomology  Studies — V.  The  Subgenus  Rhinoskusea  of  the 

Genus  Aedes  (Diptera:  Culicidae)."  In  Contributions  of  the  American  Ento- 
mological Institute,  volume  13,  number  2,  1976. 

Sirivanakarn,  S.  "Medical  Entomology  Studies — III.  A  Revision  of  the  Sub- 
genus Culex  in  the  Oriental  Region.  (Diptera:  Culicidae).  In  Contributions 
of  the  American  Entomological  Institute,  volume  12,  number  2,  1976. 

.  "Additional  Descriptions  of  Three  Species  of  Culex  (Eumelanomyia) 

with  the  Description  of  a  New  Species  from  Peninsular  Malaysia  (Diptera: 
Culiciae)."  Mosquito  Systematics,  volume  9,  number  2  (1977),  pages  73-87. 
"Redescription  of  Four  Oriental  Species  of  Culex  (Culiciomyia)  and 

the   Description   of   a   New   Species   from   Thailand    (Diptera:    Culicidae)." 
Mosquito  Systematics,  volume  9,  number  2  (1977),  pages  93-111. 

-.  "Medical  Entomology   Studies — VI.  A  Revision  of   Subgenus   Lopho- 

ceraomyia  of  the  Genus  Culex  in  the  Oriental  Region  (Diptera:  Culicidae)." 
In  Contributions  of  the  American  Entomological  Institute,  volume  13,  num- 
ber 4,  1977. 
Sirivanakarn,  S.,  and  S.  Ramalingam.  "A  New  Species  of  Culex  (Eumel- 
anomyia) Theobald  with  Notes  on  Three  Other  Species  from  Malaysia 
(Diptera:  Culicidae)."  Mosquito  Systematics,  volume  8,  number  2  (1976), 
pages  209-216. 

Appendix  6.  Publications  of  the  Staff  I  279 

Spangler,  Paul  J.  "Three  New  Ecuadorian  Species  of  the  Aquatic  Beetle  Genus 
Chaetarthria  (Coleoptera:  Hydrophilidae)."  In  Proceedings  of  the  Biologi- 
cal Society  of  Washington,  volume  90,  number  3,  pages  566-578.  1977. 

Spangler,  Paul  J.,  and  Glen  Longley.  "The  Larva  of  a  New  Subterranean 
Water  Beetle,  Haideoporus  texanus  (Coleoptera:  Dytiscidae:  Hydropori- 
nae)."  In  Proceedings  of  the  Biological  Society  of  Washington,  volume  90, 
number  3,  pages  532-535.  1977. 

Spangler,  Paul  J.,  and  Philip  D.  Perkins.  "Three  New  Species  of  the  Neotropi- 
cal Water  Beetle  Genus  Elmoparnus  (Coleoptera:  Dryopidae)."  In  Proceed- 
ings of  the  Biological  Society  of  Washington,  volume  89,  number  63,  pages 
743-760.  1977. 

Traub,  R.  "Tiflovia,  a  New  Genus  of  Pygiopsyllid  Flea  from  New  Guinea, 
with  Notes  of  Convergent  Evolution  and  Zoogeography  (Siphonaptera)." 
Journal  of  Medical  Entomology,  volume  13,  number  6  (1977),  pages  653- 

Traub,  R.,  C.  L.  Wisseman,  Jr.,  and  A.  Farhang-Azad.  [Abstract]  "The  Ecol- 
ogy of  Chigger-borne  Rickettsiosis  and  Murine  Typhus — Changing  Con- 
cepts and  Epidemiology."  In  Proceedings  of  the  Fifteenth  International 
Congress  of  Entomology,  volume  11,  number  3,  pages  487-489.  1974. 

Ward,  R.  A.  "Recent  Changes  in  the  Epidemiology  of  Malaria  Relating  to 
Human  Ecology."  In  Proceedings  of  the  Fifteenth  International  Congress  of 
Entomology,  pages  523-539.  1976 

.  "Culicidae."  In  Biota  Acudtica  de  Sudamerica  Austral.  (Spanish  with 

English  translation),  edited  by  S.  H.  Hurlbert,  pages  268-274.  San  Diego: 
San  Diego  State  University,  1977. 

Ward,  R.  A.,  B.  Jordan,  A.  R.  Gillogly,  and  F.  J.  Harrison.  "Anopheles  litoralis 
King  and  A.  barbirostris  Group  on  the  Island  of  Guam."  Mosquito  News, 
volume  36,  number  1  (1976),  pages  99-100. 

Department  of  Invertebrate  Zoology 

Barnard,  J.  L.  "Amphipoda  (Crustacea)  from  the  Indo-Pacific  Tropics:  A  Re- 
view." Micronesica,  volume  12  (1976),  pages  169-181. 

.  "Affinities  of  Paraniphargus  lelouparum  Monod,  A  Blind  Anchialine 

Amphipod  (Crustacea)  from  the  Galapagos  Islands."  In  Proceedings  of  the 
Biological  Society  of  Washington,  volume  89,  pages  421-432.  1976. 

Barnard,  J.  L.,  and  Eric  Schulenberger.  "Clarification  of  the  Abyssal  Amphi- 
pod, Paralicella  tenuipes  Chevreus."  Crustaceana,  volume  31  (1976),  pages 

Barnes,  A.  T.,  L.  B.  Quetin,  J.  J.  Childress,  and  D.  L.  Pawson.  "Deep-sea 
Macroplanktonic  Sea  Cucumbers;  Suspended  Sediment  Feeders  Captured 
from  Deep  Submergence  Vehicle."  Science,  volume  194  (1976),  pages  1083- 

Bayer,  Frederick  M.,  and  Katherine  Margaret  Muzik.  "New  Genera  and  Spe- 
cies of  the  Holaxonian  Family  Chrysogorgiidae  (Octocorallia:  Gorgona- 
cea)."  Zoologische  Mededelingen,  volume  50,  number  5  (1976),  pages  65-90. 

."A  New  Solitary  Octocoral,  Taiaroa  tauhou  gen.  et  sp.  nov.   (Coelen- 

terata:  Protoalcyonaria)  from  New  Zealand."  Journal  of  the  Royal  Society 
of  New  Zealand,  volume  6,  number  4  (1976),  pages  499-515. 

Billups,  L.  H.,  and  J.  C.  Harshbarger.  "Reptiles."  [Section  of  the  chapter, 
"Naturally  Occurring  Neoplastic  Diseases."]  In  CRC  Handbook  of  Labora- 
tory Animal  Science,  volume  3,  edited  by  E.  C.  Melby,  Jr.,  and  N.  H.  Alt- 
man,  pages  343-356.  Cleveland:  CRC  Press,  1976. 

Bouchard,  Raymond  W.,  and  Horton  H.  Hobbs,  Jr.  "A  New  Subgenus  and 

280  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Two  New  Species  of  Crayfishes  of  the  Genus  Cambarus  (Decapoda:  Cam- 
baridae)  from  the  Southeastern  United  States."  Smithsonian  Contributions 
to  Zoology,  volume  224,  1976. 

Bowman,  T.  E.  "Stygiomysis  major,  A  New  Troglobitic  Mysid  from  Jamaica, 
and  Extension  of  the  Range  of  S.  holthuisi  to  Puerto  Rico  (Crustacea:  My- 
sidacea:  Stygiomysidae)."  International  Journal  of  Speleology,  volume  8 
(1976),  pages  365-373. 

.  "Isopod  Crustaceans  (except  Anthuridae)  Collected  on  the  Presiden- 
tial Cruise  of  1938."  In  Proceedings  of  the  Biological  Society  of  Washing- 
ton, volume  89,  number  57,  pages  653-666.  1977. 

"    lucicutiae,   A   New   Species   of   Suctorian    from    the 

Pelagic  Calanoid  Copepod,  Lucicutia."  Ibid,  volume  89,  number  60,  pages 
692-702.   1977. 

'Mysidacea."  In  Biota  Acudtica  de  Sudamerica  Austral,  edited  by  S. 

H.  Hurlbert,  volume  14,  342  pages.  San  Diego:  San  Diego  State  University, 

Chace,  Fenner  A.,  Jr.,  and  Guy  Barnish.  "Swarming  of  A  Raninid  Megalopa 
at  St.  Lucia,  West  Indies  (Decapoda:  Brachyura)."  Crustaceana,  volume  31, 
part  1  (1976),  pages  105-107. 

Child,  C.  Allan.  "On  Some  Pyconogonida  of  French  Oceania."  In  Proceedings 
of  the  Biological  Society  of  Washington,  volume  90,  number  2,  pages  440- 
446.  1977. 

.  "Four  New  Species  of  Anoplodactylus  (Pycnogonida)  from  the  West- 
ern North  Atlantic."  In  Proceedings  of  the  Biological  Society  of  Washing- 
ton, volume  90,  number  3,  pages  584-596.  1977. 

Clarke,  Arthur  H.  "The  Endangered  Molluscs  of  Canada."  In  Proceedings  of 
the  Symposium  on  Canada's  Threatened  Species  and  Habitats,  pages  148- 
150.  1977. 

Cohen,  Ann  C  "The  Systematics  and  Distribution  of  Loligo  (Cephalopoda: 
Myopsida)  in  the  Western  North  Atlantic,  with  Descriptions  of  Two  New 
Species."  Malacologia,  volume  15,  number  2  (1976),  pages  299-367. 

Cohen,  Ann  C,  and  Dustin  D.  Chivers.  "Types  of  Podocopid  Ostracoda  De- 
scribed by  Skogsberg  (1928)  in  the  Type  Collection  of  the  California  Acad- 
emy of  Sciences,  San  Francisco."  The  Ostracodologist,  number  24  (1976), 
pages  10-16.  Tel  Aviv,  Israel. 

Cressey,  R.  F.  "Two  New  Species  of  Colobomatus  (Copepoda:  Cyclopodia) 
Parasitic  on  Pacific  Fish."  In  Proceedings  of  the  Biological  Society  of  Wash- 
ington, volume  90,  number  3,  pages  579-583.  1977. 

Danta,  W.  D.,  and  M.  E.  Rice.  "A  Restudy  of  the  Middle  Cambrian  Bergess 
Shale  Fossil  Worm,  Ottoia  Prolifica."  In  Proceedings  of  the  International 
Symposium  on  the  Biology  of  the  Sipuncula  and  Echiura,  edited  by  M.  E. 
Rice  and  M.  Todorovic,  volume  2,  pages  79-80.  1976. 

Grigg,  Richard,  W.,  and  Frederick  M.  Bayer.  "Present  Knowledge  of  the  Sys- 
tematics and  Zoogeography  of  the  Order  Gorgonacea  in  Hawaii."  Pacific 
Science,  volume  30,  number  2  (1976),  pages  167-175. 

Harshbarger,  J.  C.  "Description  of  Polyps  and  Epidermal  Papillomas  in  Three 
Bivavle  Mollusk  Species."  Marine  Fisheries  Review,  volume  38  (1976), 
pages  25-29. 

Harshbarger,  J.  C,  S.  E.  Shumway,  and  G.  W.  Bane.  "Variably  Differentiating 
Oral  Neoplasms,  Ranging  from  Epidermal  Papilloma  to  Odontogenic  Amel- 
oblastoma, in  Cunners  [(Tautogolabrus  adspersus)  Osteichthyes;  Perci- 
formes:  Labridae]."  In  Progress  in  Aquatic  Animals,  edited  by  C.  J.  Dawe, 
D.  G.  Scarpelli,  and  S.  R.  Wellings,  pages  113-128.  Basel:  Karger,  1976. 

Harshbarger,  J.  C,  S.  V.  Otto,  and  S.  C.  Chang.  "Chlamydiae  (with  Phages), 
Mycoplasmas,  and  Rickettsiae  in  Chesapeake  Bay  Bivalves."  Science,  vol- 
ume 196  (1977),  pages  666-668. 

Appendix  6.  Publications  of  the  Staff  I  281 

Hobbs,  Horton  H.,  Jr.  "The  Crayfish  Bouchardina  robisoni,  A  New  Genus  and 
Species  (Decapoda,  Cambaridae)  from  Southern  Arkansas."  In  Proceedings 
of  the  Biological  Society  of  Washington,  volume  89,  number  62,  pages  733- 
742.   1977. 

Hobbs,  Horton  H.,  Jr.,  and  H.  H.  Hobbs  III.  "On  the  Troglobitic  Shrimps  of 
the  Yucatan  Peninsula,  Mexico  (Decapoda:  Atyidae  and  Palaemonidae)." 
Smithsonian  Contributions  to  Zoology,  volume  240,  1976. 

Hobbs,  Horton  H.,  Jr.,  and  David  S.  Lee.  "A  New  Troglobitic  Crayfish  (Deca- 
poda, Cambaridae)  from  Peninsular  Florida."  In  Proceedings  of  the  Biologi- 
cal Society  of  Washington,  volume  89,  number  32,  pages  382-391.  1976. 

Hobbs,  Horton  H.,  Jr.,  and  Daniel  J.  Peters.  "The  Entocytherid  Ostracods  of 
North  Carolina."  Smithsonian  Contributions  to  Zoology,  volume  247,  1977. 

Hobbs,  Horton  H.,  Jr.,  and  Margaret  Walton.  "New  Entocytherid  Ostracods 
from  Kentucky  and  Tennessee."  In  Proceedings  of  the  Biological  Society  of 
Washington,  volume  89,  number  33,  pages  393-404.  1976. 

Hobbs,  Horton  H.,  Jr.,  H.  H.  Hobbs  III,  and  Margaret  A.  Daniel.  "A  Review 
of  the  Troglobitic  Decapod  Crustaceans  of  the  Americas."  Smithsonian 
Contributions  to  Zoology,  volume  244,  1977. 

Hope,  W.  D.,  B.  E.  Coull,  R.  L.  Ellison,  J.  W.  Feeger,  R.  P.  Higgins,  W.  D. 
Hummon,  R.  M.  Rieger,  W.  E.  Sterrer,  H  Thiel,  and  J.  H.  Tietjen.  "Quanti- 
tative Estimates  of  the  Meiofauna  from  the  Deep  Sea  off  North  Carolina, 
U.S.A."  Marine  Biology,  volume  39  (1977),  pages  233-240. 

Jones,  M.  L.,  P.  A.  Jumars,  and  D.  Thistle.  "Detecting  Two-Dimensional  Spa- 
tial Structure  in  Biological  Data."  Oecologia,  volume  28  (1977),  pages  109- 

.  "A  Redescription  of  Magelona  papillicornis  F.  Muller."  In  Essays  on 

Polychaetous  Annelids  in  Memory  of  Dr.  Olga  Hartman,  edited  by  D.  J. 
Reish  and  K.  Fauchald,  pages  247-266.  Los  Angeles:  Allan  Hancock  Founda- 
tion, 1977. 

Kornicker,  L.  S.  "Benthic  Marine  Cypridinacea  from  Hawaii  (Ostracoda)." 
Smithsonian  Contributions  to  Zoology,  volume  231.  1976. 

Kornicker,  L.  S.,  and  K.  G.  McKenzie.  "Redescription  of  Eurypylus  petrosus 
Brady,  1869,  and  A  Key  to  the  Genera  of  Sarsiellidae  (Myodocopina:  ostra- 
coda)." In  Proceedings  of  the  Biological  Society  of  Washington,  volume  89, 
pages  347-352.  1976. 

Kornicker,  L.  S.,  and  I.  G.  Sohn.  "Phylogeny,  Ontogeny,  and  Morphology  of 
Living  and  Fossil  Thaumatocypreidacea  (Myodocopa:  Ostracoda)."  Smith- 
sonian Contributions  to  Zoology,  volume  219,  1976. 

.  "Evolution  of  the  Entomoconchacea."  Abhandlungen  Verhandlungen 

naturwissenschaftlichen  Vereins  Hamburg,  numbers  18/19  [Supplement] 
pages  55-61.  1976. 

.  "Removal  of  Gelatinous  Coating  from  the  Surface  of  the  Carapace 

of  Ostracoda  in  Preparation  for  Their  Examination  with  the  Scanning 
Electron  Microscope."  In  Proceedings  of  the  Biological  Society  of  Washing- 
ton, volume  89,  pages  365-368.  1976. 

Kornicker,  L.  S.,  and  F.  P.  C.  M.  van  Morkhoven.  "Metapolycope,  A  New 
Genus  of  Bathyal  Ostracoda  from  the  Atlantic  (Suborder  Cladocopina)." 
Smithsonian  Contributions  to  Zoology,  volume  225,  1976. 

Kornicker,  L.  S.,  and  F.  E.  Caraion.  "West  African  Myodocopid  Ostracoda 
(Cypridinidae,  Philomedidae)."  Smithsonian  Contributions  to  Zoology,  vol- 
ume 241,  1977. 

Leibovitz,  L.,  J.  C.  Harshbarger,  and  P.  Chanley.  "A  Polypoid  Myoma  of  the 
Foot  of  a  Surf  Clam  (Spisula  solidissima)."  In  Proceedings  of  the  First  In- 
ternational Colloquium  on  Invertebrate  Pathology  and  Ninth  Annual  Meet- 
ing, Society  for  Invertebrate  Pathology,  pages  148-150.  Kingston,  Canada: 
Queen's  University,  1976. 

282  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Manning,  Raymond  B.  "Redescriptions  of  Oratosquilla  indica  (Hansen)  and 
Clorida  verrucosa  (Hansen),  with  Accounts  of  a  New  Genus  and  Two  New 
Species."  Beaufortia,  volume  25,  number  318  (1976),  pages  1-13. 

.  "Preliminary  Accounts  of  Five  New  Genera  of  Stomatopod  Crusta- 
ceans." In  Proceedings  of  the  Biological  Society  of  Washington,  volume  90, 
number  2,  pages  420-423.  1977. 

Manning,  Raymond  B.,  and  Horton  H.  Hobbs,  Jr.  "Decapoda."  In  Biota  Acua- 
tica  de  Sudamerica  Austral,  edited  by  S.  H.  Hurlbert,  pages  157-162.  San 
Diego:  San  Diego  State  University,  1977. 

Manning,  Raymond  B.,  and  Paul  Struhsaker.  "Occurrence  of  the  Caribbean 
Stomatopod,  Bathysquilla  microps,  off  Hawaii,  with  Additional  Records  for 
B.  microps  and  B.  crassispinosa."  In  Proceedings  of  the  Biological  Society 
of  Washington,  volume  89,  pages  439-449.  1976. 

McKinney,  Larry  D.,  and  J.  L.  Barnard.  "A  New  Marine  Genus  and  Species 
of  the  Nuuanu-group  (Crustacea,  Amphipoda)  from  the  Yucatan  Penin- 
sula." In  Proceedings  of  the  Biological  Society  of  Washington,  volume  90. 

Pawson,  D.  L.  "Molpadiid  Holothurians  of  the  Southern  Atlantic,  Pacific  and 
Indian  Oceans."  Antarctic  Research  Series,  volume  26,  number  4,  1976. 

.   "Shallow-Water   Sea   Cucumbers   from   Carrie   Bow   Cay,   Belize."   In 

Proceedings  of  the  Biological  Society  of  Washington,  volume  89,  number 
31,  pages  369-382.  1976. 

"Two  New  Sea  Cucumbers   (Echinodermata:  Holthuroidea)   from  the 

Eastern  United  States."  In  Proceedings  of  the  Biological  Society  of  Wash- 
ington, volume  89,  number  34,  pages  405-410.  1976. 

Pettibone,  Marian  H.  "Contributions  to  the  Polychaete  Family  Trochochaeti- 
dae  Pettibone."   Smithsonian   Contributions  to  Zoology,  volume  230,  1976. 

.  "Revision  of  the  Genus  Macellicephala  Mcintosh  and  the  Subfamily 

Macellicephalinae    Hartmann-Schroder    (Polychaeta:    Polynoidae)."    Smith- 
sonian Contributions  to  Zoology,  volume  229,  1976. 

-.  "Review  of  Halosydnopsis  and  Related  Genera  (Polychaeta:  Polynoi- 

dae: Lepidonotinae)."  In  Essays  on  Polychaetous  Annelids  in  Memory  of 
Dr.  Olga  Hartman,  edited  by  D.  J.  Reish  and  K.  Fauchald,  pages  39-62.  Los 
Angeles:  University  of  Southern  California,  Allan  Hancock  Foundation, 

"The  Synonymy  and  Distribution  of  the  Estuarine  Hypaniola  florida 

(Hartman)  from  the  East  Coast  of  the  United  States  (Polychaeta:  Amphare- 
tidae).  In  Proceedings  of  the  Biological  Society  of  Washington,  volume  90, 
number  2,  pages  205-208.  1977. 

Rehder,  Harald  A.  "Mollusca."  In  "The  Natural  History  of  Johnston  Atoll, 
Central  Pacific  Ocean,"  Atoll  Research  Bulletin,  number  192,  pages  70-73, 
December  1976. 

Rice,  Mary  E.  "Larval  Development  and  Metamorphosis  in  Sipuncula."  Amer- 
ican Zoologist,  volume  16  (1976),  pages  563-571. 

.  "Sipunculans  Associated  with  Coral  Communities."  Micronesica,  vol- 
ume 12  (1976),  pages  119-132. 

Rice,  M.  E.,  and  M.  Todorovic,  editors.  Proceedings  of  the  International  Sym- 
posium on  the  Biology  of  the  Sipuncula  and  Echiura,  volume  2,  page  204. 

Roper,  Clyde  F.  E.  "A  Comparative  Study  of  Catches  of  Pelagic  Cephalopods 
by  Various  Midwater  Trawls."  In  The  Biology  of  Cephalopods,  Symposia 
of  the  Zoological  Society  of  London,  volume  38,  pages  61-87.  1977. 

Rose,  F.  L.,  and  J.  C.  Harshbarger.  "Neoplastic  and  Possibly  Related  Skin 
Lesions  in  Neotenic  Tiger  Salamanders  from  A  Sewage  Lagoon."  Science, 
volume  196   (1977),  pages  666-668. 

Appendix  6.  Publications  of  the  Staff  I  283 

Rosewater,  J.  "Pleurocera  Rafinesque,  1818  (Gastropoda) :  Proposed  Designa- 
tion of  Type-Species  under  the  Plenary  Powers.  Z.  N.  (S.)83."  Bulletin 
Zoological  Nomenclature,  volume  33,  part  2,  pages  105-113.  September 

.  [Review]  Shell  Collector's  Guide,  by  Ruth  Fair.  National  Capital  Shell 

Club  Newsletter,  pages  11-12,  September  1976. 

"Letter  to  the  Editor  [On  Australian  Littorinidae],"  Australian  Shell 

News,  number  16  (October  1976),  page  2. 

"Bicentennial  Notty."  National  Capital  Shell  Club  Newsletter,  page 

8,  February  1977. 

Rowe,  F.  W.  P.,  and  D.  L.  Pawson.  "Type-Specimens  of  Echinoderms  in  the 
Australian  Museum,  Sydney."  Records  of  the  Australian  Museum,  1977. 

Ruetzler,  K.  "Ecology  of  Tunisian  Commercial  Sponges."  Tethys,  volume  7 
(1977),  pages  249-264. 

Ruetzler,  K.,  and  B.  Collette.  "Reef  Fishes  Over  Sponge  Bottoms  off  the 
Mouth  of  the  Amazon  River."  In  Proceedings,  Third  International  Coral 
Reef  Symposium,  pages  305-310.  Coral  Gables,  Florida:  University  of 
Miami,  1977. 

Shulenberger,  E.,  and  J.  L.  Barnard.  "Amphipods  from  an  Abyssal  Trap  Set 
in  the  North  Pacific  Gyre."  Crustaceana,  volume  31  (1976),  pages  241-258. 

Young,  R.  E.,  and  Clyde  F.  E.  Roper.  "Intensity  Regulation  of  Biolumines- 
cence  during  Countershading  in  Living  Midwater  Animals."  Fishery  Bul- 
letin, United  States,  volume  75,  number  2,  pages  239-253.  1977. 

Zimmerman,  Roger  ].,  and  J.  L.  Barnard.  "A  New  Genus  of  Primitive  Marine 
Hadziid  (Amphipoda)  from  Bimini  and  Puerto  Rico.  In  Proceedings  of  the 
Biological  Society  of  Washington,  volume  89,  pages  565-580.  1977. 

Department  of  Mineral  Sciences 

Appleman,  D.  E.,  K.  M.  Towe,  and  W.  U.  Berthold.  "The  Crystallography  of 
Patellina  Corrugata  Williamson:  a-Axis  Preferred  Orientation."  Journal  of 
Foraminiferal  Research,  volume  7,  number  1  (1977),  pages  58-61. 

Aumento,  F.,  W.  G.  Melson,  et  al.  "Chemical  Stratigraphy  of  Leg  45  Basalts: 
Electron  Probe  Analyses  of  Glasses."  Initial  Reports  of  the  Deep  Sea 
Drilling  Project,  volume  37,  1977. 

Byerly,  G.  R.,  W.  G.  Melson,  J.  A.  Nelen,  and  E.  Jarosewich.  "Abyssal  Ba- 
saltic Glasses  as  Indicators  of  Magma  Composition."  Smithsonian  Contri- 
butions to  the  Earth  Sciences,  number  19,  pages  22-30,  1977. 

Clarke,  R.  S.,  Jr.,  and  J.  I.  Goldstein.  "Schreibersite  Growth  and  Its  Influence 
on  the  Metallography  of  Coarse  Structured  Iron  Meteorites."  Meteoritics, 
volume  11   (1976),  page  262. 

Clarke,  R.  S.,  Jr.,  E.  P.  Henderson,  and  B.  Mason.  "The  Harleton,  Texas, 
Chondrite."  Smithsonian  Contributions  to  the  Earth  Sciences,  number  19, 
pages  61-70,  1977. 

Desautels,  P.  E.  "Gemstones."  Encyclopedia  Brittanica  Yearbook,  1976. 

.  "Jade."  Smithsonian,  April  1977. 

Dube,  A.,  B.  J.  Fredriksson,  E.  Jarosewich,  J.  A.  Nelen,  A.  F.  Noonan,  J. 
O'Keefe,  and  K.  Fredriksson.  "Eight  L-Group  Chondrites:  A  Comparative 
Study."  Smithsonian  Contributions  to  the  Earth  Sciences,  number  19,  pages 
71-82,  1977. 

Dunn,  Pete  J.  "Gemmological  Notes."  Journal  of  Cemmology,  volume  15 
(1976),  pages  113-118. 

.  "Genthelvite  and  the  Helvine  Group."  Mineralogical  Magazine,  vol- 
ume 40  (1976),  pages  627-636. 

"Buergerite,  Uniformity  of  Composition."  The  American  Mineralogist, 

volume  61  (1976),  pages  1029-1030. 

284  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

.  "Gem  Notes."  Gems  and  Cemology,  volume  15  (1976),  pages  199-202. 

.  "Prosopite,  an  Effective  Turquoise  Substitute."  "Journal  of  Cemmology, 

volume  15  (1976),  pages  205-208. 

"Observations  on  the  Slocum  Stone."  Gems  and  Gemology,  volume 

15   (1977),  pages  252-256. 

"Achrematite   Discredited."   The   American   Mineralogist,   volume   62 

(1977),  page  170. 

"Apatite,  a  Guide  to   Species   Nomenclature."  Mineralogical  Record, 

volume  8   (1977)   pages   78-82. 
.  "The  Helvite  Group."  Mineralogical  Record,  volume  8   (1977)   pages 


.   "The  Use   of  the  Electron  Microprobe   in   Gemmology."   Journal   of 

Gemmology,  volume  15   (1977),  pages  248-258. 

"The  U.S.  National  Mineral  Collection."  The  American  Mineralogist, 

volume  62  (1977),  page  179. 

"Uvite,  a  Newly  Classified  Gem  Tourmaline."  Journal  of  Gemmology, 

volume  15   (1977),  pages  300-308. 

Mineralogical  Notes:   Fluellite  from  North  Carolina."  Mineralogical 

Record,  volume  8  (1977),  pages  392-393. 

-.    "Mineralogical    Notes,    Ferberite    from    Panasqueria,    Portugal,    and 

Wolframite  from  Korea."  Mineralogical  Record,  volume  8  (1977). 

Dunn,  Pete  J.,  D.  E.  Appleman,  J.  S.  Nelen,  and  J.  A.  Norberg.  "Uvite,  a 
New  (Old)  Common  Member  of  the  Tourmaline  Group."  Mineralogical 
Record,  volume  8  (1977),  pages  100-108. 

Dunn,  Pete  J.,  R.  Rouse,  B.  Cannon,  and  J.  A.  Nelen.  "Zektzerite,  a  New 
Lithium  Sodium  Zirconium  Silicate  Related  to  Tuhualite  and  the  Osumilite 
Group."  The  American  Mineralogist,  volume  62  (1977),  pages  416-420. 

Embry,  Peter  G.,  P.  J.  Dunn,  and  A.  Clark.  "Blue  Wulfenite  from  Tsumeb." 
Mineralogical  Record,  volume  8  (1977),  pages  86-87. 

Fiske,  Richard  S.  [Review]  Volcanoes  of  the  Earth,  by  Fred  M.  Bullard.  Science 
Books  and  Films,  AAA5,  April  1977;  and  American  Scientist,  May  1977. 

Fredricksson,  K.  [Review]  Handbook  of  Iron  Meteorites,  Their  History,  Dis- 
tribution, Composition  and  Structure,  by  V.  F.  Buchwald.  Science,  volume 
194  (1976),  pages  313-314. 

Fredricksson,  K.,  A.  Noonan,  P.  Brenner,  and  C.  Sudre.  "Bulk  and  Major 
Phase  Composition  of  Eight  Hypersthene  Achondrites."  Meteoritics,  vol- 
ume 11   (1976),  pages  278-280. 

Fudali,  Robert  F.  "Geophysical  and  Geologic  Investigations  of  Some  'Acci- 
dents Circulates'  in  Mauritania."  National  Geographic  Society  Research 
Reports  for  1969,  pages  123-129,  1977. 

Jarosewich,  Eugene,  and  B.  Mason.  "Composition  of  Lunar  Basalts  10069, 
10071  and  12008."  Lunar  Sample  Studies,  NASA,  1977. 

King,  E.  A.,  E.  Jarosewich,  D.  G.  Brookings.  "Petrography  and  Chemistry  of 
the  Faucett  Meteorite,  Buchanan  County,  Missouri."  Meteoritics,  volume  12 
(1977),  pages  13-20. 

Kirchner,  E.,  K.  Keil,  C.  B.  Gomez,  and  J.  Nelen.  "Studies  of  Brazillian  Me- 
teorites V.  Evidence  for  Shock  Metamorphism  in  the  Paranaiba,  Matto 
Grosso,  Chondrite."  Revista  Brasileira  de  Geociencias,  volume  7  (1977). 

Mason,  Brian.  "The  Ras  Tanura,  Saudi  Arabia,  Chondrite."  Smithsonian 
Contributions  to  the  Earth  Sciences,  number  19,  page  83,  1977. 

Mason,  Brian,  and  P.  M.  Martin.  "Geochemical  Differences  Among  Com- 
ponents of  the  Allende  Meteorite."  Smithsonian  Contributions  to  the 
Earth  Sciences,  number  19,  pages  84-95,  1977. 

Melson,  W.  G.,  G.  R.  Byerly,  J.  A.  Nelen,  T.  O'Hearn,  T.  L.  Wright,  and  T.  L. 
Vallier.  "A  Catalog  of  the  Major  Element  Chemistry  of  Abyssal  Volcanic 

Appendix  6.  Publications  of  the  Staff  I  285 

Glasses."  Smithsonian  Contributions  to  the  Earth  Sciences,  number  19, 
pages  31-60,  1977. 

Melson,  W.  G.,  T.  L.  Vallier,  T.  L.  Wright,  G.  Byerly  and  J.  Nelen.  "Chemical 
Diversity  of  Abyssal  Volcanic  Glass  Erupted  along  Pacific,  Atlantic,  and 
Indian  Ocean  Sea-Floor  Spreading  Center."  In  "The  Geophysics  of  the  Pa- 
cific Ocean  Basin  and  Its  Margin,"  Geophysical  Monograph  19,  pages  351- 
377.  American  Geophysical  Union,  1976. 

Noonan,  A.  F.,  and  J.  A.  Nelen.  "A  Petrographic  and  Mineral  Chemistry 
Study  of  the  Weston,  Connecticut,  Chondrite."  Meteoritics,  number  11 
(1976),  pages  111-130. 

Noonan,  A.  F.,  K.  Fredriksson,  E.  Jarosewich,  and  P.  Brenner,  "Mineralogy 
and  Bulk,  Chondrule,  Size-fraction  Chemistry  of  the  Dhajala,  Indian,  Chon- 
drite." Meteoritics,  number  11  (1976),  pages  340-343. 

Noonan,  A.  F.,  J.  Nelen,  and  K.  Fredriksson.  "Mineralogy  and  Chemistry  of 
Xenoliths  in  the  Weston  Chondrite — Ordinary  and  Carbonaceous."  Meteor- 
itics, number  11   (1976),  pages  344-346. 

Noonan,  A.  F.,  E.  Jarosewich,  and  R.  S.  Clarke,  Jr.  "The  St.  Mary's  County, 
Maryland,  Chondrite."  Smithsonian  Contributions  to  the  Earth  Sciences, 
number  19  (1977),  pages  96-103. 

Olsen,  E.,  T.  E.  Bunch,  E.  Jarosewich,  A.  F.  Noonan,  and  G.  I.  Huss.  "Happy 
Canyon:  A  New  Type  of  Enstatite  Chondrite."  Meteoritics,  number  12 
(1977),  pages  109-123. 

Simkin,  T.  [Review]  Afar  Depression  of  Ethiopia,  edited  by  A.  Pilger  and  A. 
Rosier.  American  Mineralogist,  volume  62  (1977),  pages  835-836. 

.  "Historic  Volcanism  and  Eruption  Forecasting  in  Latin  America."  In 

symposium  volume:  Geophysics  in  the  Americas.  Panamerican  Institute  of 
Geography  and  History,  August,  1977. 

Simkin,  T.,  and  R.  S.  Fiske.  "Volcanology — A  Review  of  1976."  Geotimes, 
January  1977,  pages  42-43. 

White,  John  S.,  Jr.,  I.  E.  Grey,  and  D.  J.  Lloyd.  "The  Structure  of  Crichtonite 
and  Its  Relationship  to  Senaite."  American  Mineralogist,  volume  61  (1976), 
pages  1203-1212. 

.    "La    Collection    Mineralogique     du     'Smithsonian    Institution' "    Le 

Monde  et  les  Mineraux,  number  15  (1976),  pages  394-397. 

White,  John  S.,  Jr.,  and  W.  E.  Wilson.  "An  Experiment  in  Specimen  Ap- 
praisal." Mineralogical  Record,  volume  8  (1977),  pages  38-40  and  47-48. 

.    "The    Kegel    Collection."    Mineralogical    Record,    volume    8    (1977), 

pages  51-53. 

Wlotzka,  F.,  and  E.  Jarosewich.  "Mineralogical  and  Chemical  Composition  of 
Silicate  Inclusions  in  the  El  Taco  Campo  Del  Cielo,  Iron  Meteorite."  Smith- 
sonian Contributions  to  the  Earth  Sciences,  volume  19,  pages  104-125,  1977. 

Department  of  Paleobiology 

Adey,  W.  H.  "Shallow  Water  Holocene  Bioherms  of  the  Caribbean  Sea  and 
West  Indies."  In  Proceedings:  Third  International  Coral  Reef  Symposium, 
Volume  2,  Geology,  edited  by  D.  L.  Taylor,  pages  xxi-xxiv.  Miami,  Florida: 
Rosenstiel  School  of  Marine  and  Atmospheric  Science,  University  of  Miami, 

Adey,  W.  H.,  and  R.  B.  Burke.  "Holocene  Bioherms  of  Lesser  Antilles — Geo- 
logic Control  of  Development."  In  Studies  in  Geology  No.  4,  Reefs  and 
Related  Carbonates — Ecology  and  Sedimentology,  edited  by  S.  H.  Frost, 
M.  P.  Weiss,  and  J.  B.  Saunders,  pages  67-81.  Tulsa,  Oklahoma:  The 
American  Association  of  Petroleum  Geologists,  1977. 

286  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Adey,  W.  R,  P.  J.  Adey,  R.  B.  Burke,  and  Leslie  Kaufman.  "The  Holocene 
Reef  Systems  of  Eastern  Martinique,  French  West  Indies."  Atoll  Research 
Bulletin,  number  218,  pages  1-40,  1977. 

Adey,  W.  H.,  I.  G.  Macintyre,  Robert  Stuckenrath,  and  R.  F.  Dill.  "Relict 
Barrier  Reef  System  off  St.  Croix:  Its  Implications  with  Respect  to  Late 
Cenozoic  Coral  Reef  Development  in  the  Western  Atlantic."  In  Proceed- 
ings: Third  International  Coral  Reef  Symposium,  Volume  2,  Geology,  ed- 
ited by  D.  L.  Taylor,  pages  15-21.  Miami,  Florida:  Rosenstiel  School  of 
Marine  and  Atmospheric  Science,  University  of  Miami,  1977. 

Benson,  R.  H.  "The  Evolution  of  Oblitacythereis  and  Paleocosta  (Trachyle- 
berididae,  Neogene)  from  the  Mediterranean  and  Atlantic."  Smithsonian 
Contributions  to  Paleobiology,  number  33,  1977. 

.  "The  Evolution  of  the  Ostracode  Costa  Analyzed  by  'Theta-Rho  Dif- 
ference'." In  Proceedings  of  the  Fifth  International  Symposium  on  Evolu- 
tion of  Post-Paleozoic  Ostracoda,  edited  by  Gerhard  Hartmann.  Abhand- 
lungen  und  Verhandlungen  des  Naturwissenschaflichen  Vereins  in  Ham- 
burg, (NF)  18/19  [supplement],  pages  127-139.  1976. 

-.  "Miocene  Deep-Sea  Ostracodes  of  the  Iberian  Portal  and  the  Balearic 

Basin."  Marine  Micropaleontology,  volume  1,  number  3  (1976),  pages  249- 

-,  editor.   "The  Biodynamic  Effects  of   the   Messinian  Salinity   Crisis,  a 

Micropaleontological  Examination  of  the  Events  of  the  Late  Miocene  in  the 
Mediterranean."  Palaeo geography,  Palaeoclimatology,  Palaeoecology,  vol- 
ume 20,  numbers  1  and  2  (1976),  170  pages. 

"Preface."    In    The    Biodynamic    Effects    of    the    Messinian    Salinity 

Crisis,  a  Micropaleontological  Examination  of  the  Events  of  the  Late  Mio- 
cene in  the  Mediterranean,  edited  by  R.  H.  Benson.  Palaeo  geography,  Pa- 
laeoclimatology, Palaeoecology,  volume  20,  numbers  1  and  2  (1976),  pages 

"Testing  the  Messinian  Salinity  Crisis  Biodynamically :  An  Introduc- 

tion." Palaeogeography,  Palaeoclimatology,  Palaeoecology,  volume  20,  num- 
bers 1  and  2  (1976),  pages  3-11. 

-.  "Changes  in  the  Ostracodes  of  the  Mediterranean  with  the  Messinian 

Salinity  Crisis."  Palaeogeography,  Palaeoclimatology,  Palaeoecology,  volume 
20,  numbers  1  and  2  (1976),  pages  147-170. 

Berggren,  W.  A.,  R.  H.  Benson,  B.  U.  Hag,  W.  R.  Riedel,  A.  Sanfilippo,  H.  J. 
Schrader,  and  R.  C.  Tjalsma.  "The  El  Cuervo  Section  (Andalusia,  Spain) : 
Micropaleontologic  Anatomy  of  an  Early  Late  Miocene  Lower  Bathyal  De- 
posit." Marine  Micropaleontology,  volume  1,  number  3  (1976),  pages  195- 

Brawley,  S.  H.,  and  W.  H.  Adey.  "Territorial  Behavior  of  Threespot  Damsel- 
fish  (Eupomacentrus  planifrons)  Increases  Reef  Algal  Biomass  and  Produc- 
tivity." Environmental  Biology  of  Fishes,  volume  2,  number  1  (1977),  pages 

Buzas,  M.  A.,  R.  K.  Smith,  and  K.  A.  Beem.  "Ecology  and  Systematics  of 
Foraminifera  in  Two  Thalassia  Habitats,  Jamaica,  West  Indies."  Smithsonian 
Contributions  to  Paleobiology,  number  31,  1977. 

Cifelli,  Richard.  "Evolution  of  Ocean  Climate  and  Planktonic  Foraminifera." 
Nature,  volume  264,  number  5585  (1976),  pages  431-432. 

Cifelli,  Richard,  and  D.  J.  Belford.  "The  Types  of  Several  Species  of  Tertiary 
Planktonic  Foraminifera  in  the  Collections  of  the  U.  S.  National  Museum  of 
Natural  History."  Journal  of  Foraminiferal  Research,  volume  7,  number  2 
(1977),  pages  100-105. 

Cifelli,  Richard,  and  C.  Benier.  "Planktonic  Foraminifera  from  near  the  West 
African  Coast  and  a  Consideration  of  Faunal  Parcelling  in  the  North  At- 

Appendix  6.  Publications  of  the  Staff  I  287 

lantic."  Journal  of  Foraminiferal  Research,  volume  6,  number  4  (1976),  pages 

Coates,  A.  G.,  E.  G.  Kauffman,  and  N.  F.  Sohl.  [Abstract]  "Cyclic  Incursions 

of  Tethyan  Biotas  into  the  Cretaceous  Temperate  Realms."  Journal  of  Pale- 
ontology, volume  51,  supplement  to  number  2,  North  American  Paleonto- 

logical  Convention  II,  Abstracts  of  Papers,  page  7,  1977. 
Conner,  J.  L.,  and  W.  H.  Adey.  "The  Benthic  Algal  Composition,  Standing 

Crop,  and  Productivity  of  a  Caribbean  Algal  Ridge."  Atoll  Research  Bulletin, 

number  211,  pages  1-15,  1977. 
Cooper,  G.  A.,  and  R.  E.  Grant.  "Permian  Brachiopods  of  West  Texas,  V." 

Smithsonian  Contributions  to  Paleobiology,  number  24,  pages  663-780,  2609- 

2923,  and  2924-3159,  1976. 
Glynn,  P.  W.,  and  I.  G.  Macintyre.  "Growth  Rate  and  Age  of  Coral  Reefs  on 

the  Pacific  Coast  of  Panama."  In  Proceedings:   Third  International  Coral 

Reef  Symposium,  Volume  2,  Geology,  edited  by  D.  L.  Taylor,  pages  251- 

259.  Miami,  Florida:  Rosenstiel  School  of  Marine  and  Atmospheric  Science, 

University  of  Miami,  1977. 
Got,   Henri,  D.    J.    Stanley,   and   Denis   Sorel.    "Northwestern   Hellenic    Arc: 

Concurrent    Sedimentation    and    Deformation    in    a    Compressive    Setting." 

Marine  Geology,  volume  24,  number  1  (1977),  pages  21-36. 
Hickey,  L.  J.  "Stratigraphy  and  Paleobotany  of  the  Golden  Valley  Formation 

(Early  Tertiary)  of  Western  North  Dakota."  Geological  Society  of  America 

Memoir  150,  pages  1-181,  1977. 
.    [Abstract]    "Changes    in   Angiosperm   Flora    across    the    Cretaceous- 

Paleocene  Boundary."  Journal  of  Paleontology,  volume  51,  supplement   to 

number   2:    North    American   Paleontological    Convention    II,   Abstracts    of 

Papers,  pages  14-15,  1977. 
Kauffman,  E.  G.,  special  editor.  "Field  Guide:  North  American  Paleontological 

Convention   II,   Cretaceous    Facies,   Faunas,   and   Paleoenvironments   across 

the  Western  Interior  Basin."  The  Mountain  Geologist,  volume  14,  numbers 

3  and  4  (1977),  274  pages. 
.  "Geological   and  Biological   Overview:   Western   Interior   Cretaceous 

Basin."    The   Mountain    Geologist,   volume    14,    numbers    3    and   4    (1977), 

pages  75-99. 

"Upper  Cretaceous  Cyclothems,  Biotas,  and  Environments,  Rock  Can- 

yon  Anticline,   Pueblo,   Colorado."    The   Mountain   Geologist,   volume   14, 
numbers  3  and  4  (1977),  pages  129-152. 

"Illustrated    Guide     to    Biostratigraphically     Important     Cretaceous 

Macrofossils,    Western    Interior    Basin,   U.S.A."    The    Mountain    Geologist, 
volume  14,  numbers  3  and  4  (1977),  pages  225-274. 

[Abstract]   "Cretaceous  Extinction  and  Collapse   of  Marine  Trophic 

Structure."  Journal  of  Paleontology,  volume  51,  supplement  to  number  2, 
North  American  Paleontological  Convention  II,  Abstracts  of  Papers,  page 
16,  1977. 

[Abstract]   "Benthic  Communities  in  Black  Shales  of  an  'Anaerobic' 

Jurassic  Basin:  the  Positonienschiefer."  Journal  of  Paleontology,  volume  51, 
supplement  to  number  2,  North  American  Paleontological  Convention  II, 
Abstracts  of  Papers,  pages  16-17,  1977. 

"Systematic,   Biostratigraphic,   and   Biogeographic   Relationships   be- 

tween Middle  Cretaceous  Euramerican  and  North  Pacific  Inoceramidae."  In 
Mid-Cretaceous  Events,  Hokkaido  Symposium,  1976,  edited  by  T.  Matsu- 
moto.  Paleontological  Society  of  Japan,  Special  Paper  number  21  (1977), 
pages  169-212. 

-.  "Evolutionary  Rates  and  Biostratigraphy."  In  Concepts  and  Methods 

of  Biostratigraphy,  edited  by  E.  G.  Kauffman  and  J.  E.  Hazel,  pages  109- 
141.  Stroudsburg:  Dowden,  Hutchinson  and  Ross,  Inc.,  1977. 

288  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

.    [Review]    Jurassic    Environments,    by    Anthony    Hallam.    Journal    of 

Paleontology,  volume  51,  number  1  (1977),  pages  203-206. 

[Review]  Oysters,  by  H.  B.  Stenzel.  Journal  of  Paleontology,  volume 

51,  number  2  (1977),  pages  427-429. 

Kauffman,  E.  G.,  and  J.  E.  Hazel,  editors.  Concepts  and  Methods  of  Biostrati- 
graphy,  658  pages.  Stroudsburg:  Dowden,  Hutchinson  and  Ross,  Inc.,  1977. 

.   "Preface."  In  Concepts  and  Methods  of  Biostratigraphy,  edited  by 

E.  G.  Kauffman  and  J.  E.  Hazel,  pages  iii-v.  Stroudsburg:  Dowden,  Hutchin- 
son and  Ross,  Inc.,  1977. 

Kauffman,  E.  G.,  and  D.  E.  Powell.  "Stratigraphic,  Paleontologic,  and  Paleo- 
environmental  Analysis  of  the  Upper  Cretaceous  Rocks  of  Cimarron 
County,  Northwestern  Oklahoma.  Part  2:  Paleontology."  Geological  Society 
of  America  Memoir  149,  pages  47-150,  1977. 

Kauffman,  E.  G.,  and  P.  A.  Scholle.  [Abstract]  "Abrupt  Biotic  and  Environ- 
mental Changes  During  Peak  Cretaceous  Transgressions  in  Euramerica." 
Journal  of  Paleontology,  volume  51,  supplement  to  number  2,  North 
American  Paleontological  Convention  11,  Abstracts  of  Papers,  page  16,  1977. 

Kauffman,  E.  G.,  and  J.  R.  Steidtmann.  [Abstract]  "Are  These  the  Oldest 
Known  Trace  Fossils?"  Geological  Society  of  America  Abstracts  with  Pro- 
grams, volume  8,  number  6  (1976),  pages  947-948. 

Kauffman,  E.  G.,  D.  E.  Hattin,  and  J.  D.  Powell.  "Stratigraphic,  Paleontologic, 
and  Paleoenvironmental  Analysis  of  the  Upper  Cretaceous  Rocks  of  Cim- 
arron County,  Northwestern  Oklahoma,  Part  1:  Stratigraphy  and  Paleoen- 
vironments."  Geological  Society  of  America  Memoir  149,  pages  1-46,  1977. 

Kier,  P.  M.  "Triassic  Echinoids."  Smithsonian  Contributions  to  Paleobiology, 
number  30,  1977. 

.  "The  Poor  Fossil  Record  of  the  Regular  Echinoid."  Paleobiology,  vol- 
ume 3,  number  2  (1977),  pages  168-174. 

Macintyre,  I.  G.  [Abstract]  "Porosity  Distribution  Throughout  a  Modern  Car- 
ibbean Fringing  Reef,  Galeta  Point,  Panama."  1977  AAPG-SEPM  Annual 
Convention  Program.  American  Association  of  Petroleum  Geologists  Bul- 
letin, volume  61,  number  5  (1977),  page  810. 

.  "Distribution  of  Submarine  Cements  in  a  Modern  Caribbean  Fringing 

Reef,  Galeta  Point,  Panama."  Journal  of  Sedimentary  Petrology,  volume  47, 
number  2  (1977),  pages  503-516. 

Maldonado,  Andres,  and  D.  J.  Stanley.  "Lithofacies  as  a  Function  of  Depth  in 
the  Strait  of  Sicily."  Geology,  volume  5,  number  2  (1977),  pages  111-117. 

Miller,  J.  A.,  and  I.  G.  Macintyre.  Field  Guidebook  to  the  Reefs  of  Belize,  36 
pages.  Miami  Beach:  The  Atlantic  Reef  Committee,  University  of  Miami, 

Pierce,  J.  W.,  and  F.  T.  Dulong.  "Discharge  of  Suspended  Particulates  from 
Rhode  River  Subwatersheds."  In  Proceedings  of  the  Conference  on  Water- 
shed Research  in  Eastern  North  America,  edited  by  D.  L.  Correll,  pages  531- 
553.  Washington,  D.  C. :  Smithsonian  Institution,  1977. 

Ray,  C.  E.  "Seals  and  Walruses  of  Florida."  The  Florida  State  Museum,  The 
Plaster  Jacket,  number  27  (1977),  pages  1-15. 

.   "Geography   of  Phocid  Evolution."  Systematic  Zoology,  volume  25, 

number  4  (1976),  pages  391-406. 

"Fossil  Marine  Mammals  of  Oregon."  Systematic  Zoology,  volume  25, 

number  4  (1976),  pages  420-436. 
Repenning,  C.  A.,  and  C  E.  Ray.  "The  Origin  of  the  Hawaiian  Monk  Seal." 

In  Proceedings  of  the  Biological  Society  of  Washington,  volume  89,  number 

58,  pages  667-688,  1977. 
Scholle,  P.  A.,  and  E.  G.  Kauffman.   [Abstract]   "Paleoecological  Implications 

of  Stable  Isotope  Data  from  Upper  Cretaceous  Limestones  and  Fossils  from 

the  U.  S.  Western  Interior."  Journal  of  Paleontology,  volume  51,  supplement 

Appendix  6.  Publications  of  the  Staff  I  289 

to  number  2,  North  American  Paleontological  Convention  II,  Abstracts  of 
Papers,  pages  24-25,  1977. 

Siegel,  F.  R.,  J.  W.  Pierce,  S.  Bloch,  and  P.  P.  Hearn.  "Mineral  Suspensate 
Geochemistry,  Argentine  Continental  Shelf:  R/V  HERO  Cruise  75-3."  Ant- 
arctic Journal  of  the  United  States,  volume  11,  number  4  (1976),  pages  230- 

Siegel,  F.  R.,  J.  W.  Pierce,  F.  T.  Dulong,  and  P.  P.  Hearn.  "Suspended  Sedi- 
ments in  Southern  Chilean  Archipelago  Waters:  R/V  HERO  Cruise  76-4." 
Antarctic  Journal  of  the  United  States,  volume  11,  number  4  (1976),  pages 

Stanley,  D.  J.  "Recent  Tectonic  Overprint  on  Cobblestone  Deposition  in  the 
Northwestern  Hellenic  Arc."  In  Symposium  on  the  Structural  History  of 
the  Mediterranean  Basins,  edited  by  B.  Biju-Duval,  and  L.  Montadert,  pages 
433-445.  Paris:  Editions  Technip,  1976. 

.  "Post-Miocene  Depositional  Patterns  and  Structural  Displacement  in 

the  Mediterranean."  In  The  Ocean  Basins  and  Margins — The  Mediter- 
ranean Sea,  edited  by  A.  E.  M.  Nairn  and  F.  G.  Stehli,  pages  77-150.  New 
YorK:  Plenum  Press,  1977. 

Stanley,  D.  J.,  and  Andres  Maldonado,  "Nile  Cone:  Late  Quaternary  Strati- 
graphy and  Sediment  Dispersal."  Nature,  volume  266,  number  5598  (1977), 
pages  12V-135. 

Stanley,  D.  J.,  and  Constantine  Perissoratis.  "Aegean  Sea  Ridge  Barrier — 
and — Basin  Sedimentation."  Marine  Geology,  volume  24,  number  2  (1977), 
pages  97-107. 

Stanley,  D.  J.,  and  P.  T.  Taylor,  "Sediment  Transport  Down  a  Seamount 
Flank  by  a  Combined  Current  and  Gravity  Process."  Marine  Geology, 
volume  23,  numbers  1  and  2  (1977),  pages  77-88. 

Stanley,  D.  J.,  Antonio  Brambati,  Henri  Got,  Gilbert  Kelling,  and  Andres 
Maldonado.  "Depositional  Patterns  (Pliocene  and  Quaternary)  in  Mobile 
Mediterranean  Settings."  In  Commission  Internationale  pour  I'Exploration 
Scientifique  de  la  Mer  Mediterranee,  25th  Congress  Symposium,  pages  1-3, 

Steneck,  R.  S.,  and  W.  H.  Adey.  "The  Role  of  Environment  in  Control  of 
Morphology  in  Lithophyllum  congestum,  a  Caribbean  Algal  Ridge  Builder." 
Botanica  Marina,  volume  19,  number  4  (1976),  pages  197-215. 

Waller,  T.  R.  [Abstract]  "The  Development  of  the  Larval  and  Early  Postlarval 
Shell  of  the  Bay  Scallop,  Argopecten  irradians."  Bulletin  of  the  American 
Malacological  Union,  Inc.  for  1976,  (1976),  page  46. 

Young,  D.  K.,  M.  A.  Buzas,  and  M.  W.  Young.  "Species  Densities  of  Macro- 
benthos  Associated  with  Seagrass:  A  Field  Experimental  Study  of  Peda- 
tion."  Journal  of  Marine  Research,  volume  34,  number  4  (1976),  pages  577- 

Department  of  Vertebrate  Zoology 

Ash,  J.  S.  "Bird  Ringing  in   Ethiopia,  Report  No.   5,  1969-1975."  NAMRU-5 

Technical  Report,  Number  1  (1976),  pages  1-17. 
.    "Bird    Ringing   in    Ethiopia,    Report    No.    6,    1969-1976."    NAMRU-5 

Technical  Report  (1977),  pages  1-17. 

"Four  Species  of  Birds  New  to  Ethiopia  and  Other  Notes."  Bulletin  of 

the  British  Ornithologists'  Club,  volume  97,  number  1  (1977),  pages  4-9. 

"The  Ruddy  Shelduck  Tadorna  ferruginea  Breeding  South  of  the  Sa- 

hara." Bulletin  of  the  British  Ornithologists'  Club,  volume  97,   number  2 
Ash,  J.  S.,  and  E.  McConnell.  "A  Biological  Distribution  Map  for  Ethiopia." 
Ethiopian  Medical  Journal,  volume  13  (1976),  pages  37-39. 

290  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Ashford,  R.  W.,  T.  T.  Palmer,  J.  S.  Ash,  and  R.  S.  Bray.  "Blood  Parasites  of 
Ethiopian  Birds:  A  General  Survey."  Journal  of  Wildlife  Diseases,  volume  12 
1976),  pages  409-426. 

Collette,  Bruce  B.,  and  Ernest  A.  Lachner.  "Fish  Collections  in  the  United  States 
and  Canada."  Copcia,  number  3  (August  1976),  pages  625-642. 

Handley,  C.  O.,  Jr.  "Descriptions  of  New  Bats  (Choeroniscus  and  Rhinophylla) 
from  Colombia."  In  Selected  Readings  in  Mammalogy,  by  J.  K.  Jones,  Jr.,  S. 
Anderson,  and  R.  S.  Hoffman,  pages  42-47.  Museum  of  Natural  History 
Monograph  number  5.  University  of  Kansas,  November  1976.  [Reprinted 
from  Proceedings  of  the  Biological  Society  of  Washington,  volume  79,  pages 
83-88.  1966] 

Heyer,  W.  Ronald.  "Studies  in  Larval  Amphibian  Habitat  Partitioning."  Smith- 
sonian Contributions  to  Zoology,  number  242,  1976. 

.  "The  Presumed  Tadpole  of  Paratelmatobius  lutzi  (Amphibia,  Leptodac- 

tylidae)."  Papeis  Avulsos,  Sao  Paulo,  volume  30,  number  10  (1976),  pages 

-.   [Review]   "Evolution  of  the  Desert  Biota."  Copeia,  number  3   (1976), 

pages  614-615. 

"Notes  on  the  Frog  Fauna  of  the  Amazon  Basin."  Acta  Amazonica, 

volume  6,  number  3  (1976),  pages  369-378. 

"A  Discriminant  Function  Analysis  of  the  Frogs  of  the  Genus  Adeno- 

mera  (Amphibia:  Leptodactylidae)."  In  Proceedings  of  the  Biological  Society 
of  Washington,  volume  89,  number  51,  pages  581-592.  1977. 

Heyer,  W.  Ronald,  and  Miriam  H.  Muedeking.  "Notes  on  Tadpoles  as  Prey  for 
Naiads  and  Turtles."  Journal  of  the  Washington  Academy  of  Sciences,  vol- 
ume 66,  number  4  (1977),  pages  235-239. 

Heyer,  W.  Ronald,  and  A.  Stanley  Rand.  "Foam  Nest  Construction  in  the  Lepto- 
dactylid  Frogs  Leptodactylus  pentadactylus  and  Physalaemus  pustulosus 
(Amphibia,  Anura,  Leptodactylidae)."  Journal  of  Herpetology,  volume  11, 
number  2   (1977),  pages  225-228. 

Karnella,  Charles,  and  Robert  H.  Gibbs,  Jr.  "The  Lanternfish  Lobianchia 
dofleini:  An  Example  of  the  Importance  of  Life-History  Information  in 
Prediction  of  Oceanic  Sound  Scattering."  In  Oceanic  Sound  Scattering  Pre- 
diction, edited  by  Neil  R.  Andersen  and  Bernard  J.  Zahuranec,  pages  361- 

Krueger,  William  H.,  Robert  H.  Gibbs,  Jr.,  Robert  C.  Kleckner,  Aimee  A. 
Keller,  and  Michael  J.  Keene.  "Distribution  and  Abundance  of  Mesopelagic 
Fishes  on  Cruises  2  and  3  at  Deepwater  Dumpsite  106."  NOAA  Dumpsite 
Evaluation  Report  77-1  (1977),  Volume  2,  pages  377-422;  Volume  3,  pages 

Lachner,  Ernest  A.,  et  al.  "A  National  Plan  for  Ichthyology."  Copeia,  number 
3  (August  1976),  pages  618-o25. 

Olson,  Storrs  L.  "A  Jacana  from  the  Pliocene  of  Florida  (Aves:  Jacanidae)." 
In  Proceedings  of  the  Biological  Society  of  Washington,  volume  89,  number 
19,  pages  259-264.  1976. 

.  "Fossil  Woodcocks:  An  Extinct  Species  from  Puerto  Rico  and  an  In- 
valid Species  from  Malta  (Aves:  Scolopacidae:  Scolopax)."  In  Proceedings 
of  the  Biological  Society  of  Washington,  volume  89,  number  20,  pages  265- 
274.  1976. 

.  "Additional  Notes  on  Subfossil  Bird  Remains  from  Ascension  Island." 

Ibis,  volume  119,  number  1   (1977),  pages  37-43. 

"A  Synopsis  of  the  Fossil  Rallidae."  In  Rails  of  the  World,  by  S.  D. 

Ripley,  pages  339-373.  Boston:  David  Godine,  March  1977. 

-.  "The  Identity  of  the  Fossil  Ducks  Described  from  Australia  by  C.  W. 

De  Vis."  Emu,  volume  77,  number  3  (1977),  pages  129-131. 

Appendix  6.  Publications  of  the  Staff  I  291 

.  "Notes  on  Subfossil  Anatidae  from  New  Zealand,  Including  a  New 

Species  of  Pink-eared  Duck  (Malacorhynchus)."  Emu,  volume  77,  number  3 
(1977),  pages  132-135. 

Olson,  Storrs  L.,  and  David  W.  Steadman.  "A  New  Genus  of  Flightless  Ibis 
(Aves:  Threskiornithidae)  and  Other  Fossil  Birds  from  Cave  Deposits  in 
Jamaica."  In  Proceedings  of  the  Biological  Society  of  Washington,  volume 
90,  number  2,  pages  447-457.  1977. 

Olson,  Storrs  L.,  and  Alexander  Wetmore.  "Preliminary  Diagnoses  of  Two 
Extraordinary  New  Genera  of  Birds  from  Pleistocene  Deposits  in  the  Ha- 
waiian Islands."  In  Proceedings  of  the  Biological  Society  of  Washington, 
volume  89,  number  18,  pages  247-258.  1976. 

Ripley,  S.  Dillon.  "Reconsideration  of  Athene  blewitti  (Hume),"  Journal  of 
the  Bombay  Natural  History  Society,  volume  73,  number  1  (1976),  pages 

.  Rails  of  the  World,  xx  +  406  pages,  41  colored  plates,  17  maps,  26 

figures,  and  a  chapter  on  fossil  species  by  Storrs  L.  Olson.  Boston:  David 
R.  Godine,  1977. 

-.  "The  World  of  Birds  and  Books."  The  Yale  University  Library  Ga- 

zette, volume  52,  number  1  (1977),  pages  1-9. 
.  "Rails  of  the  World."  American  Scientist,  volume  64,  number  6  (No- 

vember-December 1976),  pages  628-635. 

[Foreword]  Birds  of  the  West  Coast,  by  Fenwick  Lansdowne.  Toronto: 

M.  F.  Feheley  Arts,  Ltd.,  1976. 

"Bird  that  is  Loath  to  Fly  but  Roams  Afar  all  the   Same."  Smith- 

sonian, volume  7,  number  12  (March  1977),  pages  88-93. 

Risebrough,  R.  W.,  G.  E.  Watson,  and  J.  P.  Angle.  "A  Red  Phalarope  (Phala- 
ropus  fulicarious)  in  Breeding  Plumage  on  Anvers  Island."  Antarctic  Jour- 
nal, volume  11,  number  4  (December  1976),  page  226. 

Setzer,  Henry  W.  "Obituary:  A.  Remington  Kellogg — 1892-1969."  Journal  of 
Mammalogy,  volume  58,  number  2  (May  1977),  pages  251-253. 

Setzer,  Henry  W.,  and  E.  Lendell  Cockrum.  "Types  and  Type  Localities  of 
North  African  Rodents."  Mammalia,  volume  40,  number  4  (1976),  pages 

Slud,  Paul.  [Review]  Avifauna  of  Northwestern  Colombia,  South  America, 
by  Jiirgen  Haffer.  The  Wilson  Bulletin,  volume  89,  number  1  (1977),  pages 

Springer,  Victor  G.,  C.  Lavett  Smith,  and  Thomas  H.  Fraser.  "Anisochromis 
straussi.  New  Species  of  Protogynous  Hermaphroditic  Fish,  and  Synonymy 
of  Anisochromidae,  Pseudoplesiopidae,  and  Pseudochromidae."  Smithsonian 
Contributions  to  Zoology,  number  252,  1977. 

Thorington,  Richard  W.,  Jr.,  and  Robert  E.  Vorek.  "Observations  on  the  Geo- 
graphic Variation  and  Skeletal  Development  of  Aotus."  Laboratory  Animal 
Science,  volume  26,  number  6  (December  1976),  pages  1006-1021. 

Urban,  E.  K.,  S.  J.  Tyler,  and  J.  S.  Ash.  "Ethiopia:  A  Status  Report  of  the 
Wetlands  in  Ethiopia,  February  1974."  In  Proceedings  of  the  International 
Conference  on  Conservation  of  Wetlands  and  Waterfowl,  pages  89-91. 
Heiligenhafen,  Germany,  1976. 

Watson,  George  E.  "Proceedings  of  the  94th  Stated  Meeting  of  the  American 
Ornithologists'  Union."  The  Auk,  volume  94,  number  1  (1977),  pages  123- 

.  "New  World  Checklist."  [Review]  Checklist  of  the  World's  Birds,  by 

E.  S.  Gruson  and  R.   A.  Foster.  Atlantic  Naturalist,  volume  31,  number  4 
(1976),  pages  175-176. 

-.  "Birds  in  the  Bush."  [Review]  A.  B.  A.  Checklist.  Atlantic  Naturalist, 

volume  31  (Fall  1976),  pages  121-122. 

292  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

.  "Introduction,"  pages  xv-xix.  The  Bluebird,  How  You  Can  Help  Its 

Fight  for  Survival,  by   Lawrence  Zeleny.   Bloomington:   Indiana   University 
Press,  Summer  1976. 

And  Birds  Took  Wing."  In  Our  Continent:  A  Natural  History  of 

North  America,  pages  98-106,  National  Geographic  Society,  Washington, 
D.  C,  Fall  1976. 

-.  "An  Unusual  Order  of  Birds."  [Review]  Penguins,  Past  and  Present, 

Here  and  There,  by  G.  G.  Simpson.  Science,  volume  194,  number  4262 
(October  1976),  page  312. 

Weitzman,  Stanley  H.  "Hyphessobrycon  socolofi,  a  New  Species  of  Characoid 
Fish  (Teleostei:  Characidae)  from  the  Rio  Negro  of  Brazil."  In  Proceedings 
of  the  Biological  Society  of  Washington,  volume  90,  number  2,  pages  326- 
347.  August  1977. 

.  "A  New  Species  of  Characoid  Fish,  Hyphessobrycon  diancistrus,  from 

the  Rio  Vichada,  Orinoco  River  Drainage,  Colombia,  South  America  (Tele- 
ostei: Characidae)."  In  Proceedings  of  the  Biological  Society  of  Washing- 
ton, volume  90,  number  2,  pages  348-357.  August  1977. 

Weitzman,  Stanley  H.,  and  Robert  H.  Kanazawa.  " Ammocryptocharax  ele- 
gans,  A  New  Genus  and  Species  of  Riffle-Inhabiting  Characoid  Fish  (Tele- 
ostei: Characidae)  from  South  America."  In  Proceedings  of  the  Biological 
Society  of  Washington,  volume  89,  number  26,  pages  325-346.  October  1976. 

.  "A  New  Species  of  Pygmy  Characoid  Fish  from  the  Rio  Negro  and 

Rio  Amazonas,  South  America  (Teleostei:  Characidae)."  In  Proceedings  of 
the  Biological  Society  of  Washington,  volume  90,  number  1,  pages  149-160. 
June  1977. 

Zug,  G.  R.  "The  Matamata  (Testudines:  Chelidae)  Is  Chelus  not  Chelys." 
Herpetologica,  volume  33,  number  1  (1977),  pages  53-54. 

.  "Once  More  into  the  Loch."  1978  Yearbook  of  Science  and  the  Future, 

page  154-169.  Chicago:  Encyclopaedia  Britannica,  Inc.,  1978. 

Office  of  Animal  Health 

Bush,  M.,  P.  K.  Ensley,  K.  Mehren,  and  W.  Rapley.  "Immobilization  of  Gi- 
raffes with  Xylazine  and  Etorphine  Hydrochloride."  Journal  of  the  Ameri- 
can Veterinary  Medical  Association,  volume  169  (1976),  pages  884-885. 

Bush,  M.,  D.  W.  Heese,  C.  W.  Gray,  and  A.  E.  James.  "Surgical  Repair  of 
Tusk  Injury  (Pulpectomy)  in  an  Adult,  Male  Forest  Elephant  (Loxodonta 
cyclotis)."  Journal  of  the  American  Dental  Association,  volume  93  (1976), 
pages  371-375. 

Bush,  M.,  J.  L.,  Hughes,  P.  K.  Ensley,  and  A.  E.  James.  "Fracture  Repair  in 
Exotics  Using  Internal  Fixation."  Journal  of  the  American  Animal  Hospital 
Association,  volume  12  (1976),  pages  746-753. 

Bush,  M.,  and  A.  E.  James.  "A  New  System  of  Casting  Fractures  in  Exotic 
Animals."  Veterinary  Medicine  and  Small  Animal  Clinic,  volume  71  (1976), 
pages  1288-1295. 

Bush,  M.,  and  S.  A.  Koch.  "Surgical  Correction  of  a  Bilateral  Lens  Luxation 
in  an  African  Lion."  Journal  of  the  American  Veterinary  Medical  Associa- 
tion, volume  169  (1976),  pages  987-988. 

Bush,  M.,  U.  S.  Seal,  E.  Smith,  M.  D.  Lewis,  and  L.  M.  Bush.  "Neonatal 
Anemia  and  Growth  in  Sable  Antelope  (Hippoptragus  niger)."  In  Proceed- 
ings of  the  Eighteenth  International  Symposium  on  Disease  of  Zoo  Ani- 
mals, pages  361-379.  Innsbruck,  Austria,  1976. 

Appendix  6.  Publications  of  the  Staff  I  293 

Ensley,  P.  K.,  and  M.  Bush.  [Case  report]  "Rectal  Mucosal  Prolapse  in  an 
Indian  Rhinoceros  (Rhinoceros  unicornis)."  Journal  of  Zoo  Animal  Medi- 
cine, volume  7  (1976),  page  22. 

Freedman,  M.  T.,  M.  Bush,  G.  R.  Novak,  R.  M.  Heller,  Jr.,  and  A.  E.  James, 
Jr.  "Nutritional  and  Metabolic  Bone  Disease  in  a  Zoological  Population." 
Skeletal  Radiology,  volume  1   (1976),  pages  87-96. 

James,  A.  E.,  J.  B.  Brayton,  G.  Novak,  D.  Wight,  T.  K.  Sheehan,  M.  Bush,  and 
R.  C.  Sanders.  "The  Use  of  Diagnostic  Ultrasound  in  Evaluation  of  the 
Abdomen  in  Primates,  with  Emphasis  on  the  Rhesus  Monkey  (Macaca  mu- 
latta)."  Journal  of  Medical  Primatology,  volume  5  (1976),  pages  160-175. 

James,  A.  E.,  M.  Bush,  P.  A.  Osterman,  R.  M.  Heller,  and  G.  R.  Novak.  "Ra- 
diologic Imaging  of  Human  Diseases  in  Exotic  Animals."  Journal  of  the 
American  Medical  Association,  volume  235  (1976),  pages  184-188. 

James,  A.  E.,  G.  Hutchins,  M.  Bush,  T.  K.  Natarajan,  and  B.  Burns.  "How 
Birds  Breathe:  Correlation  Radiographic  with  Anatomical  and  Pathologic 
Studies."  Journal  of  the  American  Veterinary  Radiological  Society,  volume 
17  (1976),  pages  77-86. 

James,  A.  E.,  F.  O.  Osterman,  M.  Bush,  T.  Sheehan,  G.  Novak,  D.  Wight,  and 
R.  C  Sanders.  "The  Use  of  Compound  B-Mode  Ultrasound  in  Abdominal 
Disease  of  Animals."  Journal  of  the  American  Veterinary  Radiological  So- 
ciety, volume  17  (1976),  pages  106-112. 

Smeller,  J.,  and  M.  Bush.  "A  Physiological  Study  of  Immobilized  Cheetahs 
(Acinonyx  jabutus)."  Journal  of  Zoo  Animal  Medicine,  volume  7  (1976), 
pages  5-7. 

Office  of  Animal  Management 

Demeter,  B.  J.  "Observations  on  the  Care,  Breeding  and  Behavior  of  a  Giant 
Day  Gecko  (Phelsuma  madagascariensis)  at  the  National  Zoological  Park, 
Washington,  D.C"  International  Zoo  Yearbook,  volume  16,  pages  130-133, 

Egoscue,  J.  J.  "Flea  Exchange  between  Deer  Mice  and  Some  Associated  Small 
Mammals  in  Western  Utah."  Great  Basin  Naturalist,  volume  36  (1976), 
pages  475-480. 

Marcellini,  D.  L.  "Some  Aspects  of  the  Thermal  Ecology  of  the  Gecko  (Hemi- 
dactylus  frenatus)."  Herpetologica,  volume  32  (1976),  pages  341-345. 

Marcellini,  D.  L.,  and  T.  E.  Keefer.  "Analysis  of  the  Gliding  Behavior  of 
Ptychczoon  lionatum  (Reptilia:  Cekkonidae)."  Herpetologica,  volume  32 
(1976),  pages  362-366. 

Xanten,  W.  A.,  H.  Kaska,  and  T.  J.  Olds.  "Breeding  the  Binturong  (Arctictis 
binturong)  at  the  National  Zoological  Park,  Washington,  D.  C."  Interna- 
tional Zoo  Yearbook,  volume  16,  pages  117-119,  1976. 

Conservation  and  Research  Center 

Davis,  P.  S.,  and  G.  A.  Greenwell.   "Successful  Hatching  of  a  North  Island 

Brown  Kiwi  (Apteryx  australis  mantelli)  at  the  National  Zoological  Park, 

Washington,  D.C."  International  Zoo  Yearbook,  volume  16,  pages   86-88, 

Gilbert,  S.,  and  G.  A.  Greenwell.  "An  Unusually  Prolific  Breeding  Season  in 

the  Bornean  Great  Argus  Pheasant  (Argusianus  argus  grayi)."  International 

Zoo  Yearbook,  volume  16,  page  93-96,  1976. 
Greenwell,  G.  A.  "The  National  Zoological  Park  Takes  a  Look  at  Pheasant 

Breeding."   American   Pheasant  and  Waterfowl  Society  Magazine,   volume 

76-79  (1976),  pages  4-10. 

294  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Wemmer,  C,  and  G.  L.  Johnson.  "Egg-breaking  Behavior  in  a  Yellow- 
Throated  Marten;  Martes  flavigula  (Mustelidae;  Carnivora)."  Z.  Saugetier- 
kunde,  volume  41   (1976),  pages  58-60. 

Wemmer,  C,  M.  Von  Ebers,  and  K.  Scow.  "An  Analysis  of  the  Chuffing  Vo- 
calization in  the  Polar  Bear  (Ursus  maritimus)."  Journal  of  Zoology,  Lon- 
don, volume  180  (1976),  pages  425-439. 

Office  of  Pathology 

Bush,  M.,  D.  Brownstein,  R.  J.  Montali,  A.  E.  James,  Jr.,  and  M.  J.  G.  Appel. 
"Vaccine  Induced  Canine  Distemper  in  a  Lesser  Panda  (Allures  fulgens)." 
Journal  of  the  American  Veterinary  Medical  Association,  volume  169 
(1976),  pages,  959-960. 

Bush,  M.,  A.  E.  James,  Jr.,  R.  J.  Montali,  and  F.  P.  Seitik.  "Pulmonary  Alveo- 
lar Microlithiasis  in  a  Binturong  (Arctictis  binturong):  A  Case  Report." 
Journal  of  the  American  Veterinary  Radiological  Society,  volume  17  (1976), 
pages  157-160. 

Bush,  M.,  R.  J.  Montali,  G.  R.  Novak,  and  A.  E.  James,  Jr.,  "The  Healing  of 
Avian  Fractures:  A  Histological  Xeroradiographic  Study."  Journal  of  the 
American  Animal  Hospital  Association,  volume  12  (1976),  pages  768-773. 

Montali,  R.  J.  "Ear  Mites  in  a  Horse."  Journal  of  the  American  Veterinary 
Medical  Association,  volume  169  (1976),  pages  630-631. 

.  [Summary  of  Proceedings]  "Symposium  on  Mycobacterial  Infections  of 

Zoo   Animals."   Journal   of  the   American   Veterinary  Medical   Association, 
volume  169  (1976),  pages  177-178. 

-.   [Summary]  "Proceedings  of  Symposium  on  Mycobacterial  Infections 

of  Zoo  Animals."  Journal  of  Zoo  Animal  Medicine,  volume  7  (1976),  pages 

Montali,  R.  J.,  M.  Bush,  and  G.  Greenwell.  "An  Epornitic  of  Duck  Viral  En- 
teritis in  a  Zoological  Park."  Journal  of  the  American  Veterinary  Medical 
Association,  volume  169  (1976),  pages  954-958. 

Montali,  R.  J.,  M.  Bush,  C.  O.  Thoen,  and  E.  Smith.  "Tuberculosis  in  Captive 
Exotic  Birds."  Journal  of  the  American  Veterinary  Medical  Association, 
volume  169  (1976),  pages  920-927. 

Osterman,  F.  A.,  W.  R.  Bell,  R.  J.  Montali,  G.  R.  Novak,  and  R.  I.  White,  Jr. 
"Natural  History  of  Autologous  Blood  Clot  Embolization  in  Swine."  Inves- 
tigative Radiology,  volume  11  (1976),  pages  267-276. 

Office  of  Zoological  Research 

Brownell,  R.  L.,  Jr.,  and  K.  Ralls.  [Review]  International  Zoo  Yearbook,  edited 
by  N.  Duplaix-Hall,  volumes  14  and  15.  Journal  of  Mammalogy,  volume  57 
(1976),  page  612. 

Eisenberg,  J.  F.  [Review]  Sociobiology.  The  New  Synthesis,  by  E.  O.  Wilson. 
Animal  Behavior,  volume  24  (1976),  pages  705-706. 

Eisenberg,  J.  F.,  and  J.  Seidensticker.  "Ungulates  in  Southern  Asia:  A  Consid- 
eration of  Biomass  Estimates  for  Selected  Habitats."  Biological  Conserva- 
tion, volume  10  (1976),  pages  293-308. 

Field,  R.  "Application  of  a  Digitizer  for  Measuring  Sound  Spectrograms." 
Behavioral  Biology,  volume  17  (1976),  pages  579-583. 

Golani,  I.  "Homeostatic  Motor  Processes  in  Mammalian  Interactions:  A 
Choreography  of  Display."  In  Perspectives  in  Ethology,  edited  by  P.  P.  G. 
Bateson  and  P.  H.  Klopfer,  volume  2,  pages  69-134.  New  York:  Plenum 
Press,  1976. 

Green,  K.  M.  "The  Nonhuman  Primate  Trade  in  Colombia."  In  Neotropical 
Primates:  Field  Studies  and  Conservation,  page  85-98.  Washington,  D.  C. : 
National  Academy  of  Sciences,  1975. 

Appendix  6.  Publications  of  the  Staff  I  295 

Kleiman,  D.  G.  "An  Updated  Studbook  for  the  Golden  Lion  Tamarin  Com- 
pleted." AAZPA  Newsletter,  volume  17  (1976),  page  13. 

.  "Will  the  Pot  of  Gold  Have  a  Rainbow?  Hope  for  Brazil's  Golden 

Tamarins  in  North  America."  Animal  Kingdom,  volume  79   (1976),  pages 

-.   [Review]    Prosimian  Biology:   Duckworth's   London,  edited  by  R.   D. 

Martin,  G.  A.  Doyle,  and  A.  C.  Walker.  Journal  of  Mammalogy,  volume  57 
(1976),  page  613. 

[Review]   Lemur  Biology,  edited  by  I.  Tattersall  and  R.  W.  Sussman. 

Journal  of  Mammalogy  volume  57  (1976),  page  613. 

Mock,  D.  "Pair  Formation  Displays  of  the  Great  Blue  Heron."  Wilson  Bulle- 
tin, volume  88  (1976),  pages  185-230. 

Morton,  E.  S.  "Vocal  Mimicry  in  the  Thick-Billed  Euphonia."  Wilson  Bulletin, 
volume  88  (1976),  pages  485-487. 

.  "Zoo  Studies:    Bluebird   Families."  Smithsonian   Institution   Research 

Reports,  number  15,  1976. 

"The  Adaptive  Significance  of  Dull  Coloration  in  Yellow  Warblers." 

Condor,  volume  78  (1976),  page  423. 

Ralls,  K.  "Extremes  of  Sexual  Dimorphism  in  Size  in  Birds."  Wilson  Bulletin, 
volume  88  (1976),  pages  149-150. 

.  "Mammals  in  which  Females  are  Larger  than  Males."  Quarterly  Re- 
view of  Biology,  volume  51  (1976),  pages  245-276. 

[Review]  Being  Female,  edited  by  Dana  Raphael.  Quarterly  Review  of 

Biology,  volume  51  (1976),  page  464. 

Seidensticker,  J.  "Ungulate  Populations  in  Chitawan  Valley,  Nepal."  Biologi- 
cal Conservation,  volume  10  (1976),  pages  183-210. 

.  "On   the  Ecological  Separation  between  Tigers   and   Leopards."  Bio- 

tropica,  volume  8,  number  4  (1976),  pages  225-234. 

Woodward,  P.  W.  "Red-Footed  Booby  Helper  at  Great  Frigate  Bird  Nests." 
Condor,  volume  78  (1976),  pages  264-265. 


Adovasio,  J.  M.,  J.  D.  Gunn,  J.  Donahue,  and  R.  Stuckenrath.  "Progress  Re- 
port on  the  Meadowcroft  Rockshelter — A  16,000  Year  Chronicle."  In  Amer- 
inds and  Their  Paleo environments  in  Northeastern  North  America,  Annals 
of  the  N.  Y.  Academy  of  Sciences,  edited  by  W.  S.  Newman  and  B.  Salwen, 
volume  288,  pages  137-159.  The  New  York  Academy  of  Sciences,  1977. 

Correll,  David  L.,  John  L.  Edwards,  and  W.  Shropshire,  Jr.  Phytochrome:  A 
Bibliography  Prior  to  1975.  Washington:  Smithsonian  Institution  Press, 

Crowl,  G.  H.,  and  R.  Stuckenrath,  Jr.  "Geological  Setting  of  the  Shawnee- 
Minisink  Paleoindian  Archeological  Site  (36-Mr-43)."  In  Amerinds  and 
Their  Paleoenvironments  in  Northeastern  North  America,  Annals  of  the 
N.  Y.  Academy  of  Sciences,  edited  by  W.  S.  Newman  and  B.  Salwen,  vol- 
ume 288,  pages  218-222.  The  New  York  Academy  of  Sciences,  1977. 

Drake,  B.  G.  "Seasonal  Changes  in  Reflectance  and  Standing  Crop  Biomass 
in  Three  Salt  Marsh  Communities."  Plant  Physiology,  volume  58  (1976), 
pages  696-699. 

.  "Estimating  Water  Status  and  Biomass  of  Plant  Communities  by  Re- 
mote Sensing."  In  Ecological  Stiudes,  Analysis,  and  Synthesis,  edited  by  O. 
L.  Lange  and  E.  -D.  Schulze,  volume  19,  page  432-438.  New  York:  Springer- 
Verlag,  1976. 

Gantt,  E.,  C.  A.  Lipschultz,  and  B.  A.  Zilinskas.  "Phycobilisomes  in  Relation 
to  the  Thylakoid  Membranes."  In  Chlorophyll-Proteins,  Reaction  Centers 

296  I  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

and  Photosynthetic  Membranes,  Brookhaven  Symposia  in  Biology,  No.  28 
(1976),  pages  347-357. 

Goldberg,  B.,  and  W.  H.  Klein.  "Variations  in  the  Spectral  Distribution  of 
Daylight  at  Various  Geographical  Locations  on  the  Earth's  Surface."  Solar 
Energy,  volume  19  (1977),  pages  3-13. 

Gray,  B.  H.,  J.  Cosner,  and  E.  Gantt.  "Phycocyanins  with  Absorption  Maxima 
at  637  nm  and  623  nm  from  Agmanellum  quadruplicatum."  Photochemistry 
and  Photobiology,  volume  24  (1976),  pages  299-302. 

Klein,  W.  H.,  and  B.  Goldberg.  Solar  Radiation  Measurements/1974-1975. 
Washington,  D.  C.:  Smithsonian  Institution  Press,  1976. 

Klein,  W.  H.,  B.  Goldberg,  and  W.  Shropshire,  Jr.  "Instrumentation  for  the 
Measurement  of  the  Variation,  Quantity  and  Quality  of  Sun  and  Sky  Ra- 
diation." Solar  Energy,  volume  19  (1977),  pages  115-122. 

Margulies,  M.  M.,  and  A.  Michaels.  "Biosynthesis  of  Chloroplast  Membrane 
Protein  in  Chlamydomonas  reinhardtii."  In  Acides  Nucleiques  et  Synthese 
des  Proteins  chez  les  Vegetaux,  Colloques  Internationaux  du  Centre  Na- 
tional de  la  Recherche  Scientifiques  no.  261,  pages  395-401.  Editions  du 
Centre  National  de  la  Recherche  Scientifique,  15  quai  Anatole-France, 
75700  Paris,  France,  1977. 

Margulies,  M.  M.,  and  J.  Weistrop.  "A  Chloroplast  Membrane  Fraction  En- 
riched in  Chloroplast  Ribosomes."  In  Genetics  and  Biogenesis  of  Chloro- 
plast and  Mitochondria,  edited  by  Th.  Bucher  et  al.,  pages  657-660.  Amster- 
dam, The  Netherlands:  Elsevier/North  Holland  Biomedical  Press,  1976. 

Stuckenrath,  R.  "Radiocarbon:  Some  Notes  from  Merlin's  Diary."  In  Amer- 
inds and  Their  Paleo environments  in  Northeastern  North  America,  Annals 
of  the  N.  Y.  Academy  of  Sciences,  edited  by  W.  S.  Newman  and  B.  Salwen, 
volume  288,  pages  181-1S8.  The  New  York  Academy  of  Sciences,  1977. 

Suraqui,  S.,  B.  Goldberg,  and  W.  H.  Klein.  "An  Analysis  of  the  Errors  Found 
in  Broadband  Filter  Radiometry."  Solar  Energy,  volume  19  (1977),  pages 


(Including  Contributions  from  Harvard  Members  of  the 
Center  for  Astrophysics) 

Akram,  F.,  N.  M.  Sheikh,  A.  Javed,  and  M.  D.  Grossi.  "Impulse  Response  of 
a  Meteor  Trail  Forward  Scattering  Channel  Determined  by  Ray  Tracing 
Techniques."  Institute  of  Electrical  and  Electronic  Engineers,  Transactions 
of  the  Communications  Society,  volume  COM-25,  pages  467-470,  1977. 

Aksnes,  K.  "The  Natural  Satellites:  Beacons  in  the  Sky."  Harvard  Magazine, 
July/August  1977,  pages  28-33. 

Aksnes,  K.,  A.  F.  Cook,  F.  A.  Franklin,  and  B.  G.  Marsden.  [Letter  to  the 
editor]  "Saturn's  Disputed  Moons."  Science  News,  volume  11  (1977),  page 

Allen,  R.  S.,  D.  D.  Dulong,  M.  D.  Grossi,  and  A.  H.  Katz.  "Ionospheric 
Range  Error  Correction  by  Adaptive  Probing  of  Propagation  Medium."  In 
Proceedings  of  the  N ATO-ACARD  Conference  on  Propagation  Limitations 
of  Navigation  and  Positioning  Systems,  AGARD  Publication  Number  209, 
pages  6-1-6-16.  Neuilly-sur-Seine,  France,  1976. 

Altschuler,  M.D.,  R.  H.  Levine,  M.  Stix,  and  J.  W.  Harvey.  "High  Resolution 
Mapping  of  the  Magnetic  field  of  the  Solar  Corona."  Solar  Physics,  volume 
51  (1977),  pages  345-375. 

Avrett,  E.  H.  "Models  of  the  Solar  Atmosphere."  In  The  Solar  Output  and 
Its  Variations,  edited  by  O.  R.  White,  J.  A.  Eddy,  and  D.  F.  Heath.  Boulder, 
Colorado:  University  of  Colorado  Press,  1977. 

Appendix  6.  Publications  of  the  Staff  I  297 

Avrett,  E.  H.,  J.  E.  Vernazza,  and  J.  L.  Linsky.  [Abstract]  "Formation  of  the 
He  I  and  He  II  Lines  in  the  Solar  Atmosphere."  Bulletin  of  the  American 
Astronomical  Society,  volume  8  (1976),  page  534. 

Ayres,  T.  R.  "A  Reexamination  of  Solar  Upper  Photosphere  Models,  the  Cal- 
cium Abundance,  and  Empirical  Damping  Parameters."  Astrophysical 
Journal,  volume  213  (1977),  pages  296-306. 

.    "Nonthermal    Broadening    in    the    Solar    Photosphere    Derived    from 

Widths  of  Weak  Absorption  Features  in  the  Ca  II  H  and  K  Wings."  Astro- 
physical  Journal,  volume  214  (1977),  pages  905-911. 

Ayres,  T.  R.,  and  H.  R.  Johnson.  "The  Surface  Gravity  and  Mass  of  Arc- 
turus."  Astrophysical  Journal,  volume  214  (1977),  pages  410-417. 

Ayres,  T.,  J.  Linsky,  A.  Rogers,  and  R.  Kurucz.  "Stellar  Model  Chromo- 
spheres. V.  a  Cen  A  (G2V)  and  a  Cen  B  (KIV)."  Astrophysical  Journal, 
volume  210  (1977),  pages  199-210. 

Baliunas,  S.  L.,  A.  K.  Dupree,  and  J.  D.  Lester.  [Abstract]  "Possible  Detection 
of  Fe  XIV  in  the  X-Ray  Binary.  Bulletin  of  the  American  Astronomical 
Society,  volume  9  (1977),  page  298. 

Bardas,  D.  "A  Moderate-Resolution,  Wideband,  Astronomical  Echelle  Spec- 
trograph." Publications  of  the  Astronomical  Society  of  the  Pacific,  volume 
89  (1977),  pages  104-111. 

Bardas,  D.,  J.  E.  McClintock,  P.  Peterson,  G.  W.  Clark,  and  C.  R.  Canizares. 
[Abstract]  "Two  Dimensional  Photon-Counting  Echelle  Spectroscopy." 
Bulletin  of  the  American  Astronomical  Society,  volume  8  (1976),  page  290. 

Black,  J.  H.,  and  A.  Dalgarno.  "Molecule  Formation  in  the  Interstellar  Gas." 
Reports  on  Progress  in  Physics,  Institute  of  Physics,  volume  39  (1976), 
pages  573-612. 

.  "Models  of  Interstellar  Clouds.  I.  The  Zeta  Ophiuchi  Cloud."  Astro- 
physical  Journal  Supplement  Series,  volume  34,  number  3  (1977),  pages 

Bottcher,  C,  A.  L.  Ford,  and  K.  Kirby-Docken.  "Evaluation  of  Molecular  In- 
tegrals Involving  Continuum  Orbitals."  Computational  Physics  Communi- 
cations, volume  13  (1977),  pages  11-15. 

Blair,  G.  N.,  and  D.  F.  Dickinson.  "SiO  Masers  in  Variable  Stars."  Astro- 
physical  Journal,  volume  215  (1977),  pages  552-560. 

Brace,  L.  H.,  W.  R.  Hoegy,  H.  G.  Mayr,  G.  A.  Victor,  W.  B.  Hanson,  C.  A. 
Reber,  and  H.  E.  Hinteregger.  "Discrepancy  between  Electron  Heating  and 
Cooling  Rates  Derived  from  Atmospheric  Explorer-C  Measurements."  Jour- 
nal of  Geophysical  Research,  volume  81   (1976),  pages  5421-5429. 

Brinkman,  A.  C,  J.  Heise,  A.  J.  F.  denBoggende,  J.  Grindlay,  H.  Gursky,  and 
D.  Parsignault.  "X-Ray  Observations  of  Cygnus  A  with  ANS."  Astrophysi- 
cal Journal,  volume  214   (1977),  pages  35-37. 

Cameron,  A.  G.  W.,  and  J.  B.  Pollack.  "On  the  Origin  of  the  Solar  System 
and  of  Jupiter  and  Its  Satellites."  In  Jupiter,  edited  by  T.  Gehrels  and  M.  S. 
Matthews,  pages  61-84.  Tucson,  Arizona:  University  of  Arizona  Press, 

Cameron,  A.  G.  W.,  and  J.  W.  Truran.  "The  Supernova  Trigger  for  Forma- 
tion of  the  Solar  System."  Icarus,  volume  30  (1977),  pages  447-461. 

Cantu,  A.  M.,  W.  H.  Parkinson,  G.  Tindello,  and  G.  P.  Tozzi.  "Observations 
of  Li  I  and  Li  II  Absorption  Spectra  in  the  Grazing  Incidence  Region." 
Journal  of  the  Optical  Society  of  America,  volume  67  (1977),  page  1030. 

Carleton,  N.  P.,  and  J.  M.  Vrtilek.  [Abstract]  "A  Search  for  Emission  Lines 
from  Hot  Interstellar  Gas."  Bulletin  of  the  American  Astronomical  Society, 
volume  8  (1977),  page  499. 

Cassinelli,  J.  P.,  and  L.  W.  Hartmann.  "The  Effects  of  Winds  and  Coronae  of 
Hot  Stars  on  the  Infrared  and  Radio  Continua."  Astrophysical  Journal, 
volume  212  (1977),  page  488. 

298  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Ceplecha,  Z.,  and  R.  E.  McCrosky.  "Fireball  End  Heights:  A  Diagnostic  for 
the  Structure  of  Meteoric  Material."  Journal  of  Geophysical  Research,  vol- 
ume 81   (1976),  pages  6257-6275. 

Chaffee,  F.  H.,  Jr.  [Abstract]  "Weak  Interstellar  Lines  toward  Persei."  Bulle- 
tin of  the  American  Astronomical  Society,  volume  8  (1977),  page  66. 

Chaffee,  F.  H.,  Jr.,  and  B.  L.  Lutz.  "Line  Spectra  in  Interstellar  Clouds.  III. 
Weak  Lines  below  X3400  in  f  Perseii."  Astrophysical  Journal,  volume  213 
(1977),  pages  394-404. 

Chaisson,  E.  J.,  and  M.  A.  Dopita.  "A  Comparison  of  the  Orion  Nebula's 
Physical  Condition  Measured  in  the  Radio  and  Optical  Domains."  Astron- 
omy and  Astrophysics,  volume  56  (1977),  pages  385-400. 

Chairsson,  E.  J.,  and  M.  A.  Malkan.  "Radio  Recombination  Study  of  the 
Planetary  Nebula."  Astrophysical  Journal,  volume  210  (1976),  pages  108- 

Chaisson,  E.  J.,  and  L.  F.  Rodriguez.  "Detection  of  Extragalactic  Radio  Re- 
combination Line  Emission  from  M82."  Astrophysical  Journal  (Letters), 
volume  214  (1977),  pages  L111-L114. 

Cominsky,  L.,  W.  Forman,  C.  Jones,  and  H.  Tananbaum.  "UHURU  Observa- 
tions of  the  Globular  Cluster  X-Ray  Source  NGC  6712."  Astrophysical 
Journal  (Letters),  volume  211   (1977),  pages  L9-L14. 

Cowan,  J.  J.,  and  W.  K.  Rose.  "Production  of  14C  and  Neutrons  in  Red 
Giants."  Astrophysical  Journal,  volume  212  (1977),  page  149. 

Dalgarno,  A.  "The  Interstellar  Molecules  CH  and  CH+."  In  Atomic  Processes 
and  Applications,  edited  by  P.  G.  Burke  and  B.  L.  Moiseiwitsch,  pages  109- 
132.  Amsterdam:  North-Holland  Publishing  Company,  1976. 

Davies,  P.  B.,  D.  K.  Russell,  B.  A.  Thrush,  and  H.  E.  Radford.  "Rotational 
and  Hyperfine  Parameters  of  NH:  (X'Bi)  from  LMR  Spectra."  Chemical  Phys- 
ics Letters,  volume  42  (1976),  page  35. 

.  "Analysis  of  the  Laser  Magnetic  Resonance  Spectrum  of  NH:  (X~Bi)." 

In  Proceedings  of  the  Royal  Society,  volume  A253,  page  299.  1977. 

Davis,  R.  J.  "Spectral  Classification  and  U,  B,  V,  H-beta  Photometry."  Astro- 
physical  Journal,  volume  213  (1977),  pages  105-110. 

Davis,  R.  J.,  W.  A.  Deutschman,  and  R.  E.  Schild.  "The  Galactic  Distribution 
of  Interstellar  Absorption  as  Determined  from  the  Celescope  Catalog  of 
Ultraviolet  Stellar  Observations  and  a  New  Catalog  of  UBV,  H-beta  Photo- 
electric Observations."  Astrophysical  Journal  Supplement,  volume  30  (1976), 
pages  97-225. 

Delvaille,  J.  P.  [Abstract]  "The  X-Ray  Structure  of  NGC  5128."  Bulletin  of 
the  American  Astronomical  Society,  volume  9  (1977),  page  323. 

Dickinson,  D.  F.,  and  S.  G.  Kleinmann.  "Shell  Structure  in  Stellar  Water 
Masers."  Astrophysical  Journal  (Letters),  volume  214  (1977),  page  L135. 

Dickinson,  D.  F.,  G.  Kojoian,  C  R.  Purton,  R.  A.  Sramek,  and  H.  M.  Tov- 
massian.  "Radio  Spectra  of  Some  Markarian  Galaxies."  Astronomische 
Nachrichten  Band  297,  volume  H.6  (1976),  page  283. 

Dupree,  A.  [Abstract]  "Chromospheres  and  Coronas  in  Late  Type  Stars" 
(invited  review).  Bulletin  of  the  American  Astronomical  Society,  volume  8 
(1976),  page  353. 

.  "Ultraviolet  Observations  from  I.  U.  E."  In  Workshop  Papers  for  a 

Symposium  on  X-Ray  Binaries,  NASA  SP-389,  edited  by  Y.  Kondo  and  B. 
Boldt,  page  747.  Washington:  National  Aeronautics  and  Space  Administra- 
tion, 1976. 

Dupree,  A.  K.,  and  S.  L.  Baliunas.  [Abstract]  "Interstellar  Density  of  Deu- 
terium and  Hydrogen  towards  Alpha  Aurigae"  Bulletin  of  the  American 
Astronomical  Society,  volume  8  (1976),  page  551. 

Appendix  6.  Publications  of  the  Staff  I  299 

Dupree,  A.  K.,  P.  V.  Foukal,  and  C.  Jordan.  "Plasma  Diagnostic  Techniques 
in  the  Ultraviolet:  The  C  III  Density  Sensitive  Lines  in  the  Sun."  Astro- 
physical  Journal,  volume  209  (1976),  pages  621-632. 

Dupree,  A.  K.,  and  J.  B.  Lester.  "High  Dispersion  Observations  of  HD  153919 
(3U  1700-37)."  In  Workshop  Papers  for  a  Symposium  on  X-Ray  Binaries, 
NASA  SP-389,  edited  by  Y.  Kondo  and  B.  Boldt,  pages  539-549.  Washing- 
ton: National  Aeronautics  and  Space  Administration,  1976. 

Elliot,  J.  L.,  E.  Dunham,  D.  Mink,  R.  L.  Millis,  J.  Churms,  and  B.  G.  Marsden. 
"Occultation  of  SAO  158687  by  Uranian  Satellite  Belt."  International  Astro- 
nomical Union  Circular  Number  3051,  1977. 

Elmegreen,  B.  G.,  and  C.  J.  Lada.  "Discovery  of  an  Extended  (85  pc)  Mole- 
cule Cloud  Associated  with  the  M17  Star-Forming  Complex."  Astronomical 
Journal,  volume  81  (1976),  page  1089. 

.  "Sequential  Formation  of  Subgroups  in  OB  Associations."  Astrophysi- 

cal  Journal,  volume  214  (1977),  page  725. 

Epstein,  A.,  J.  Delvaille,  H.  Helmken,  S.  Murray,  H.  W.  Schnopper,  R.  Doxsey, 
and  F.  Primini.  "Variability  of  LMC  X-4."  Astrophysical  Journal,  volume 
216  (1977),  pages  103-107. 

Epstein,  R.  I.,  and  M.  J.  Geller.  "A  Model  for  Superlight  Velocities  of  Extra- 
galactic  Radio  Sources."  Nature,  volume  265  (1977),  pages  219-222. 

Fabbiano,  G.,  and  E.  J.  Schreier.  "Further  Studies  of  the  Pulsation  Period  and 
Orbital  Elements  of  Centaurus  X-3."  "Astrophysical  Journal,  volume  214 
(1977),  pages  235-244. 

Fazio,  G.  G.,  W.  A.  Traub,  E.  L.  Wright,  F.  J.  Low,  and  L.  Trafton.  "The 
Effective  Temperature  of  Uranus."  Astrophysical  Journal,  volume  209 
(1976),  pages  633-637. 

Field,  G.  B.  "The  Space  Telescope."  Astronomy  Magazine,  volume  4  (Novem- 
ber 1976),  page  6-15. 

Field,  G.  B.,  and  S.  C.  Perrenod.  "Constraints  on  a  Dense  Hot  Intergalactic 
Medium."  Astrophysical  Journal,  volume  215  (1977),  pages  717-722. 

Fireman,  E.  L.,  J.  DeFelice,  and  J.  D'Amico.  "The  Abundances  of  3H  and  14C 
in  the  Solar  Wind."  Earth  and  Planetary  Science  Letters,  volume  32  (1976), 
pages  185-190. 

.   [Abstract]   "Carbon-14  in  Lunar  Soil."  In  Lunar  Science  VIII,  pages 

299-301.  Houston,  Texas:  Lunar  Science  Institute,  1977. 

Foukal,  P.  V.  "The  Pressure  and  Energy  Balance  of  the  Cool  Corona  over 
Sunspots."  Astrophysical  Journal,  volume  210   (1976),  pages  575-581. 

Foukal,  P.  V.,  P.  E.  Mack,  and  J.  E.  Vernazza.  "The  Effect  of  Sunspots  and 
Faculae  on  the  Solar  Constant."  Astrophysical  Journal,  volume  215  (1977), 
pages  952-959. 

Fox,  J.  L.,  and  A.  Dalgarno.  "Radiative  Transition  Probabilities  of  the  ls2p:i 
2P  and  ls2p2  2D  States  of  the  Lithium  Isoelectronic  Sequence."  Physical 
Review  A,  volume  16  (1977),  pages  283-288. 

Fox,  J.  L.,  A.  Dalgarno,  E.  R.  Constantinides,  and  G.  A.  Victor.  "The  Nitrogen 
Dayglow  on  Mars."  Journal  of  Geophysical  Research,  volume  82  (1977), 
pages  1615-1616. 

Fox,  J.  L.,  A.  Dalgarno,  and  G.  A.  Victor.  "The  Absorption  of  Energetic 
Electrons  by  Argon  Gas."  Planetary  and  Space  Science,  volume  25  (1977), 
pages  71-78. 

Frederick,  J.  E.,  D.  W.  Rusch,  G.  A.  Victor,  W.  E.  Sharp,  D.  G.  Torr,  P.  B. 
Hays,  and  H.  C.  Brinton.  "The  OI  (X5577)  A  Airglow:  Observations  and 
Excitation  Mechanisms."  Journal  of  Geophysical  Research,  volume  81 
(1976),  pages  3923-3930. 

Gaposchkin,  E.  M.  "Gravity-Field  Determination  Using  Laser  Observations." 
Philosophical  Transactions  of  the  Royal  Society  (London),  Series  A,  volume 
284  (1977),  pages  515-527. 

300  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Gaposchkin,  E.  M,  and  G.  M.  Mendes.  [Abstract]  "Geopotential  Model  to 
Degree  and  Order  30  from  Satellite  and  Terrestrial  Data."  Transactions  of 
the  American  Geophysical  Union,  volume  58  (1977),  page  371. 

Gingerich,  O.  [Omnibus  review  of  a  dozen  current  astronomy  books]  "Ad 
astra  sine  asperis."  Harvard  Magazine,  volume  78  (1976),  pages  58-59,  and 

.  "Will  the  Universe  End  with  a  Bang  or  a  Whimper?"  Harvard  Maga- 
zine, volume  79   (1977),  pages  10-12. 

.  "A  Conversation  with  Charles  Eames."  American  Scholar,  volume  46 

(1977),  pages  326-337. 

-.  "The  Trauma  of  the  Infinite  Universe."  Journal  of  the  American  Sci- 

entific Affiliation,  volume  29  (1977),  pages  56-58. 

"Donald  Howard  Menzel."  Physics  Today,  volume  30  (1977),  pages  96 

and  98. 

"The  1582   Theorica  Orbium'   of  Hieronymus   Vulparis."  Journal  of 

Historical  Astronomy,  volume  8  (1977),  pages  38-43. 
.  "Tycho  Brahe."  Harvard  Magazine,  volume  79  (1977),  pages  52-53  and 


-.  [Abstract]  "Was  Ptolemy  a  Fraud?"  Bulletin  of  the  American  Astro- 

nomical Society,  volume  8  (1977),  page  546. 

-.  "Copernicus:  A  Modern  Reappraisal."  In  Man's  Place  in  the  Universe, 

Riecker   Lectures   for    1973,   pages    25-49.   Tucson   Arizona:    University    of 
Arizona  Press,  1977. 

"Early  Copernican  Ephemerides."  In  Science  and  History,  Studies  in 

Honor  of  Edward  Rosen,  Studia  Copernicana,  volume  16.  Wroclaw:  Polska 
Akademia  Nauk,  1977. 

-,  editor.  Cosmology  +  2.  San  Francisco:  W.  H.  Freeman,  1977. 

Gingerich,  O.,  and  B.  Welther.  "The  Accuracy  of  the  Toledan  Tables."  In 
IIPI2MATA,  edited  by  W.  G.  Saltzer  and  Y.  Maeyama,  pages  151-164. 
Weisbaden:  Steiner  Verlag,  1977. 

Golub,  L.,  A.  S.  Krieger,  and  G.  S.  Vaiana.  "Observations  of  Spatial  and 
Temporal  Variations  in  X-Ray  Bright  Point  Emergence  Patterns."  Solar 
Physics,  volume  50  (1976),  pages  311-327. 

Gorenstein,  P.,  and  K  Topka.  "Scintillating  Imaging  Proportional  Counter  as 
X-Ray  to  Light  Image  Converter."  Transactions  on  Nuclear  Science,  volume 
NS-24,  page  511.  Institute  of  Electrical  and  Electronic  Engineers,  1977. 

Gott,  J.  R.,  Ill,  and  E.  L.  Turner.  "Groups  of  Galaxies.  IV.  The  Multiplicity 
Function."  Astrophysical  Journal,  volume  216  (1977),  pages  357-371. 

Gottlieb,  E.  W.,  and  W.  Liller.  "The  Photometric  Histories  of  CRL  2688,  the 
'Egg'  nebula,  and  CRL  618."  Astrophysical  Journal  (Letters),  volume  207 
(1976),  pages  L135-L137. 

Gowen,  R.  A.,  B.  A.  Cooke,  R.  E.  Griffiths,  and  M.  J.  Ricketts.  "An  Upper 
Limit  to  the  Linear  X-Ray  Polarization  of  Sco  X-l."  Monthly  Notices  of  the 
Royal  Astronomical  Society,  volume  179  (1977),  pages  303-310. 

Griffiths,  R.  E.,  M.  J.  Ricketts,  and  B.  A.  Cooke.  "Observations  of  the  X-Ray 
Nova  A0620-00  with  the  Ariel  V  Crystal  Spectrometer/Polarimeter." 
Monthly  Notices  of  the  Royal  Astronomical  Society,  volume  177  (1976), 
pages  429-440. 

Grindlay,  J.  "Discovery  of  Bursting  X-Ray  Sources."  Comments  on  Astro- 
physics, volume  6  (1976),  pages  165-175. 

.  "Very  High  Energy  Gamma  Ray  Astronomy."  In  The  Structure  and 

Content  of  the  Galaxy  and  Galactic  Gamma  Rays,  edited  by  C.  Fichtel  and 
F.  Stecher,  pages  81-98.  NASA  publication  CP-002,  1976. 

[Abstract]  "New  ANS  Results  on  Galactic  X-Ray  Sources."  Bulletin 

of  the  American  Astronomical  Society,  volume  8  (1976),  page  444. 
.    [Abstract]    "ANS   Observations   of   X-Ray  Burst  from   the   Globular 

Appendix  6.  Publications  of  the  Staff  I  301 

Cluster  NGC  662."  Bulletin  of  the  American  Physical  Society,  volume  21 
(1976),  page  676. 

"New  Bursts  in  Astronomy."  Harvard  Magazine,  volume  79   (1977), 

pages  23-27  and  81-82. 
Grindlay,  J.,   and  H.   Gursky.   "UHURU   Observations   of  the   Norma   X-Ray 

Burster."   Astrophysical  Journal   (Letters),   volume   209    (1976),  pages  L61- 

Grindlay,  J.,  H.  Gursky,  D.   Parsignault,   A.   C.  Brinkman,  J.   Heise,   and  D. 

Harris.   "New   X-Ray   and  Radio   Observations   of   A   2319."   Astrophysical 

Journal  (Letters),  volume  214  (1977),  pages  L57-L60. 
Grindlay,  J.  E.,  H.  Gursky,  D.  R.  Parsignault,  H.  Cohn,  J.  Heise,  and  A.  C. 

Brinkman.   "X-Ray  Observations  of  Globular  Clusters   with  ANS."  Astro- 
physical  Journal  (Letters),  volume  209  (]976),  pages  L67-L72. 
Grindlay,  J.,   H.   F.   Helmken,  and  T.   C.   Weekes.   "Evidence   for   a   Variable 

Flux   of   >10u    eV   Gamma   Rays    from   NP   0532."    Astrophysical   Journal, 

volume  209  (1976),  pages  592-601. 
Grindlay,  J.,  and  W.  Liller.  [Abstract]  "Evidence  for  Ionized  Hydrogen  in  the 

Cores  of  X-Ray  Globular  Clusters."  Bulletin  of  the  American  Astronomical 

Society,  volume  8  (1976),  page  544. 
Grindlay,  J.,  D.  R.  Parsignault,  H.  Gursky,  A.  C.  Brinkman,  J.  Heise,  and  D. 

E.    Harris.    "New    X-Ray   and   Radio   Observations    of   the    Galaxy    Cluster 

A  2319."  Astrophysical  Journal  (Letters),  volume  214  (1977),  page  L57. 
Hall,   R.,  T.   Kelsall,   D.    E.    Kleinmann,   and   G.   Neugebauer.   "The   Infrared 

Capabilities  of  the  Large  Space  Telescope."  In  The  Space  Telescope,  NASA 

Special  Publication  Number  392,  pages  90-96.  Washington:  National  Aero- 
nautics and  Space  Administration,  1976. 
Harnden,  F.,  Jr.,  D.  Fabricant,  K.  Topka,  B.  Flannery,  W.  Tucker,  and  P.  Gor- 

enstein.  "A  Soft  X-Ray  Image  of  the  Algol  Region."  Astrophysical  Journal, 

volume  214  (1977),  pages  418-422. 
Helmken,  H,  and  C.   V.   Karmendy.   "Periodic  Slot   Collimator   for  Accurate 

Gamma  Ray  Burst  Locations."  Space  Science  Instructor,  volume  3  (1977), 

pages  115-121. 
Hartmann,  L.  W.,  and  C.  M.  Anderson.  "Abundance  in  Late-Type  Dwarfs." 

Astrophysical  Journal,  volume  215  (1977)  page  188. 
.  "Possible  Infalling  Gas  in  the  DkSe  Star  EQ  Virginis."  Astrophysical 

Journal  (Letters),  volume  213  (1977),  page  L67. 
Hartmann,  L.  W.,  and  J.  P.  Cassinelli.  "The  Structure  of  the  Winds  of  Wolf- 

Rayet  Stars  as  Determined  from  Observations  of  the  Infrared  Continua." 

Astrophysical  Journal,  volume  215  (1977),  page  155. 
Heise,  J.,  A.  C.  Brinkman,  A.  J.  F.  den  Boggende,  D.  R.  Parsignault,  J.  Grind- 
lay, and  H.  Gursky.  "ANS  Observations  of  the  X-Ray  Burster  MXB  1730- 

335."  Nature,  volume  261  (1976),  page  562-564. 
Henry,  J.  P.,  S.  Bowyer,  C.  G.  Rapley,  and  J.  L.  Culhane.  "Detection  of  an 

Extreme-Ultraviolet    Source    in    the    Southern    Sky."    Astrophysical    Journal 

(Letters),  volume  209  (1976),  pages  L29-L33. 
Henry,  J.  P.,  and  E.  J.  Schreier.  "A  Measurement  of  the  Spin-Up  Rate  of  the 

SMC    X-l    X-Ray    Pulsar."    Astrophysical    Journal    (Letters),    volume    212 

(1977),  pages  L13-L16. 
Hogan,  C,  and  D.  Layzer.  "Origin  of  the  X-Ray  Background."  Astrophysical 

Journal,  volume  212  (1977),  pages  360-366. 
Jacchia,  L.  G.  [Review]   Pulsating  Stars,  edited  by  B.  V.  Kukarkin.  Sky  and 

Telescope,  volume  57  (1976),  pages  343-345. 
•  [Review]  Atmosphere  of  Earth  and  the  Planets,  edited  by  B.  M.  Mc- 

Cormack.  Space  Science  Review,  volume  19  (1976),  page  161. 

302  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

.  "Thermospheric  Temperature,  Density,  and  Composition:  New  Mod- 
els." Smithsonian  Astrophysical  Observatory  Special  Report  Number  375, 
106  pages,  1977. 

Jacchia,  L.  G.,  J.  W.  Slowey,  and  U.  vonZahn.  "Temperature,  Density,  and 
Composition  in  the  Disturbed  Thermosphere  from  ESRO  4  Gas  Analyzer 
Measurements."  Journal  of  Geophysical  Research,  volume  82  (1976),  pages 

Johnson,  W.  R.,  C.  D.  Lin,  and  A.  Dalgarno.  "Allowed  and  Forbidden  Transi- 
tions of  Helium-Like  Ions."  Journal  of  Physics  B:  Atomic  and  Molecular 
Physics,  volume  9  (1976),  pages  L303-L306. 

Jones,  C.  "Energy  Spectra  of  43  Galactic  X-Ray  Sources  Observed  by 
UHURU."  Astrophysical  Journal,  volume  214  (1977),  pages  856-873. 

Jones,  C,  and  W.  Forman.  "UHURU  Observations  of  Hercules  X-l  during  the 
Low  State  of  the  35-Day  Cycle."  Astrophysical  Journal  (Letters),  volume 
209  (1977),  pages  L131-L135. 

Jones,  C,  W.  Forman,  H.  Tananbaum,  and  M.  J.  L.  Turner.  "UHURU  and 
Ariel  5  Observations  of  3U  1630-47:  A  Recurrent  Transient  X-Ray  Source." 
Astrophysical  Journal  (Letters)  volume  210  (1977),  pages  L9-L11. 

Jones,  G.  "Thermal  Interaction  of  the  Core  and  the  Mantle  and  Core-Mantle 
Interaction."  Journal  of  Geophysical  Research,  volume  82  (1977),  pages 

Julien,  P.,  W.  Forman,  and  C.  Jones.  [Abstract]  "UHURU  Observations  of 
Cygnus  X-3."  Bulletin  of  the  American  Astronomical  Society,  volume  9 
(1977),  page  348. 

Kalkofen,  W.  "Line  Radiation  with  Large  Differential  Velocities."  In  Phy- 
sique des  Mouvements  dans  les  Atmospheres  Stellaires,  edited  by  R.  Cay- 
rel  and  M.  Steinberg,  page  95.  Paris:  Editions  du  CNRS,  1976, 

.  [Abstract]  "The  Solar  Temperature  Minimum."  Bulletin  of  the  Amer- 
ican Astronomical  Society,  volume  9  (1977),  page  324. 

Kalkofen,  W.,  and  P.  Ulmschneider.  "Acoustic  Waves  in  the  Solar  Atmos- 
phere: II.  Radiative  Damping."  Astronomy  and  Astrophysics,  volume  57 
(1977),  pages  193-198. 

Kallne,  E.,  H.  W.  Schnopper,  L.  P.  VanSpeybroeck,  J.  P.  Delvaille,  A.  Epstein, 
R.  Z.  Bachrach,  J.  H.  Dijkstra,  and  L.  J.  Lautwaard.  [Abstract]  "Holo- 
graphic Transmission  Gratings:  A  New  Analyzer  in  the  X-Ray  Region." 
International  Conference  on  the  Physics  of  X-Ray  Spectra,  pages  245-247, 
Kellogg,  E.,  S.  Murray,  U.  Briel,  and  D.  Bardas.  "The  Photicon."  Review  of 

Scientific  Instruments,  volume  48  (1977),  pages  550-553. 
Kirby-Docken,  K.,  and  B.  Liu.  "Theoretical  Study  of  Molecular  Dipole  Mo- 
ment Functions.  I.  The  X'2f  state  of  CO."  Journal  of  Chemical  Physics, 
volume  66  (1977),  pages  4309-4316. 
Kleinmann,  D.  E.  "Infrared  Observations  of  Extragalactic  Sources."  In  Pro- 
ceedings of  COSPAR/IAU/URI  Symposium  on  Infrared  and  Submillimeter 
Astronomy,  page  129.  Dordrecht,  Holland:  D.  Reidel  Publishing  Company, 
Kleinmann,  D.  E.,  S.  G.  Kleinmann,  and  E.  L.  Wright.  "The  Infrared  Source 
near  the  Rapid  Burst  X-Ray  Source  MXB  1730-335."  Astrophysical  Journal 
(Letters),  volume  210  (1977),  page  L83. 
Kleinmann,  S.  G.,  and  D.  F.  Dickinson.  [Abstract]  "The  Structure  of  Circum- 
stellar  Maser  Emission."  Bulletin   of  the  American  Astronomical   Society, 
volume  9  (1977),  page  321. 
Kohl,  J.  L.  "The  Components  of  the  Balmer  Alpha  Line  of  He  II  in  the  Sun." 
Astrophysical  Journal,  volume  212  (1977),  page  958. 

Appendix  6.  Publications  of  the  Staff  I  303 

Kohl,  J.  L.,  W.  H.  Parkinson,  and  G.  L.  Withbroe.  "The  Solar  Boron  Abun- 
dance." Astrophysical  Journal  (Letters),  volume  212  (1977),  pages  L101- 

Kopp,  J.  P.,  D.  W.  Rusch,  R.  G.  Roble,  G.  A.  Victor,  and  P.  B.  Hays.  "Photo- 
emission  in  the  Second  Positive  System  of  Molecular  Nitrogen  in  the  Earth's 
Dayglow."  Journal  of  Geophysical  Research,  volume  82  (1977),  pages  555- 

Kresak,  L.,  B.  G.  Marsden,  P.  Herget,  E.  Roemer,  and  B.  Morando.  "Report  of 
the  International  Astronomical  Union  Commission  Number  20."  "Transac- 
tions of  the  International  Astronomical  Union,  volume  XVIA  (1976),  pages 

.  "The  Occultation  of  k  Geminorum  by  Eros:  A  Learning  Experience." 

Bulletin  of  the  American  Association  of  Variable  Star  Observers,  volume 
4  (1976),  page  34. 

Kurucz,  R.  "The  Fourth  Positive  System  of  Carbon  Monoxide."  Smithsonian 
Astrophysical  Observatory  Special  Report  Number  374,  170  pages.  1977. 

Lada,  C.  J.  "Detailed  Observations  of  the  M17  Molecular  Cloud  Complex." 
Astrophysical  Journal  Supplement  Series,  Number  32,  page  603. 

Latham,  D.  W.  [Abstract]  "The  Effects  of  Push  Development  and  Hydrogen 
Hyper-Sensitization  in  the  Detective  Performance  of  Kodak  Spectroscopic 
Plates  Types  Illa-J  and  127-04."  American  Astronomical  Society  Photo  Bul- 
letin Number  3,  issue  number  13  (1976),  pages  9-13. 

Lathan,  D.  W.,  M.  Davis,  E.  D.  Feigelson,  and  J.  B.  Lester.  [Abstract]  "Grid 
Photography."  Bulletin  of  the  American  Astronomical  Society,  volume  8 
(1977),  page  566. 

Latimer,  J.,  and  E.  M.  Gaposchkin.  [Abstract]  "Scalar  Translocation  Using 
Laser  Ranging  Data  and  Station-Coordinate  Determination."  Transactions 
of  the  American  Geophysical  Union,  volume  58  (1977),  page  372. 

Layzer,  D.  "Why  Are  Spherical  Stellar  Systems  Relaxed?"  General  Relativity 
and  Gravitation,  volume  8,  number  1  (1977),  pages  3-6. 

.  "The  Structure  of  Matter  and  the  Structure  of  the  Astronomical  Uni- 
verse." International  Journal  of  Quantum  Chemistry,  Quantum  Chemistry 
Symposium,  Number  11,  pages  637-645,  1977. 

Levine,  R.  H.  [Abstract]  "Evolution  of  Photospheric  Magnetic  Field  Patterns." 
Bulletin  of  the  American  Astronomical  Society,  volume  9  (1977),  page  371. 

.    [Invited   review]    "Large   Scale   Solar   Magnetic    Fields   and   Coronal 

Holes."  In  Skylab  Solar  Workshop  Series  Monograph  on  Coronal  Holes, 
edited  by  J.  B.  Zirker,  Chapter  4.  Boulder,  Colorado:  Associated  University 
Press,  1977. 

Levine,  R.  H,  M.  D.  Altschuler,  and  J.  W.  Harvey.  "Solar  Sources  of  the 
Interplanetary  Magnetic  Field  and  Solar  Wind."  Journal  of  Geophysical  Re- 
search, volume  82   (1977),  1061-1065. 

Levine,  R.  H.,  M.  D.  Altshuler,  J.  W.  Harvey,  and  B.  V.  Jackson.  "Open 
Magnetic  Structures  on  the  Sun."  Astrophysical  Journal,  volume  215  (1977), 
pages  636-657. 

Levine,  R.  H.,  and  J.  C.  Flagg.  "Numerical  Image  Manipulation  and  Display 
in  Solar  Astronomy."  Applied  Optics,  volume  16  (1977),  pages  938-943. 

Levine,  R.  H,  and  G.  L.  Withbroe.  "Physics  of  an  Active  Region  Loop  Sys- 
tem." Solar  Physics,  volume  51  (1977),  pages  83-101. 

Lightman,  A.  P.  "Some  Recent  Advances  in  X-Ray  Astronomy."  Sky  and 
Telescope,  volume  52  (1976),  page  243. 

.   [Review]   The  Dark  Night  Sky,  by  Donald  Clayton.   Icarus,   volume 

30  (1977),  page  436. 

"Enhancement  of  the  Gravothermal  Catastrophe  in  Two-Component 

Isothermal  Spheres."  Astrophysical  Journal,  volume  215  (1977),  pages  914- 

304  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Lightman,  A.  P.,  and  S.  L.  Shapiro.  "The  Distribution  and  Consumption  Rate 
of  Stars  around  a  Massive  Collapsed  Object."  Astrophysical  Journal,  vol- 
ume 211   (1977),  page  244. 

Liller,  M.  H.,  and  B.  W.  Carney.  [Abstract]  "Revised  Photometry  and  a  New 
Distance  for  the  Globular  Cluster  NGC  6624  =  3U  1820-30."  Bulletin  of 
the  American  Astronomical  Society,  volume  9  (1977),  page  294. 

Liller,  W.  "A0620-00  as  a  Recurrent  Nova."  In  X-Ray  Binaries,  NASA  SP-389, 
pages  335-341.  Washington:  National  Aeronautics  and  Space  Administra- 
tion, 1976. 

.    "The   Long   Term   Variability   of   HDE    226868    =    Cygnus   X-l."    In 

X-Ray  Binaries,  NASA  SP-389,  pages  573-620.  Washington:  National  Aero- 
nautics and  Space  Administration,  1976. 

"Variability    of   HZ   Hercules   during   the   Optical    Offs."    In    X-Ray 

Binaries,  NASA  SP-389,  pages  155-157.  Washington:  National  Aeronautics 
and  Space  Administration,  1976. 

"The  Story  of  AM  Hercules."  Sky  and  Telescope,  volume  53  (1977), 

pages  351-354. 

"Searches  for  the  Optical  Counterparts  of  the  X-Ray  Burst  Sources 

MXB  1728-34  and  MXB  1730-33."  Astrophysical  Journal  (Letters),  volume 

213  (1977),  pages  L21-L23. 
Liu,  C.  D.,  W.  R.  Johnson,  and  A.  Dalgarno.  "Radiation  Decays  of  the  n  =  2 

States  of  He-Like  Ions."  Physical  Review  A,  volume  15  (1977),  pages  154- 

Loeser,  R.,  and  E.  M.  Gaposchkin.  "The  Second  Law  of  Debugging."  Software, 

volume  6  (1976),  pages  577-578. 
Mahra,  H.  S.,  S.  K.,  Gupta,  and  B.  G.  Marsden.  "Occupation  of  SAO  158687 

by    Uranian   Rings."    International   Astronomical    Union    Circular   Number 

3061,  1977. 
Marcus,  P.  S.,  and  W.  H.  Press.   "On  Green's   Functions   for  Small  Disturb- 
ances   of    Plane    Couette    Flow."   Journal    of    Fluid   Mechanics,    volume    79 

(1977),  pages  525-534. 
Margules,  L.,  H.  O.  Halvorson,  J.  S.  Lewis,  and  A.  G.  W.  Cameron.  "Limita- 
tions   to    Growth    of    Microorganisms    on    Uranus,    Neptune,    and    Titan." 

Icarus,  volume  30  (1977),  page  793. 
Marsden,  B.  G.  "Orbital  Linkage  of  Comets  of  Intermediate  Period."  Report 

of    Accomplishments    of    Planetology    Program,    1975-1976.     NASA    TM 

X-3364,  pages  31-33,  1976. 
.  "Annual  Report  of  the  Central  Bureau  for  Astronomical  Telegrams" 

International  Astronomical  Union  Information  Bulletin,  number  36   (1976), 

pages  34-35. 

"Report  of  the  Central  Bureau  for  Astronomical  Telegrams"   (Com- 

mission Number  6).  Transactions  of  the  International  Astronomical  Union, 
volume  16,  pages  195-196,  1976. 

-.  "Annual  Report  of  the  Central  Bureau  of  Astronomical  Telegrams." 

International  Astronomical  Union  Information  Bulletin,  number  38  (1977), 
pages  5-7. 

-.  "Forest  Ray  Moulton."  In  Dictionary  of  American  Biography,  edited 

by  J.  Garraty,  Supplement  5,  pages  508-509.  New  York:  Charles  Scribner's 
Sons,  1977. 

"Charles    Dillon    Perrine."    In    Dictionary    of    American    Biography, 

edited   by   J.   Garraty,   Supplement   5,   pages   540-541.   New   York:    Charles 
Scribner's  Sons,  1977. 
Marsden,  B.  G.,  and  Z.  Sekanina.  "Orbit  Determination  of  Nearly  Parabolic 
Comets."  Report  of  Accomplishments  of  Planetology   Program  1975-1976. 
NASA  TM  X-3364,  pages  34-36,  1976. 

Appendix  6.  Publications  of  the  Staff  I  305 

Marvin,  U.  B.  "Professionalism  Among  Women  and  Men  in  the  Geosciences." 
Journal  of  Geological  Education,  volume  24  (1976),  pages  169-170. 

.  "A  Unique  Eucritic  Gabbro  from  the  Descartes  Highlands."  Meteor- 

itics,  volume  11  (1976),  pages  329-330. 

-.   [Review]   Carbonaceous  Meteorites,  by  B.  Nagy.  American  Mineral- 

ogy, volume  61  (1976),  page  344. 

The  Earth  Sciences:  1956-1976.  An  overview  prepared  at  the  request 

of  the  National  Science  Foundation,  82  pages,  1977. 

Mattison,  E.  M.,  R.  F.  C.  Vessot,  and  M.  W.  Levine.  "The  TEm-Mode  Cavity: 
A  New  Small  Hydrogen  Maser  Resonator."  In  Proceedings  of  the  Second  Fre- 
quency Standards  and  Metrology  Symposium,  pages  615-624.  Boulder,  Colo- 
rado: National  Bureau  of  Standards,  1976. 

Maxson,  C.  W.,  and  G.  S.  Vaiana.  "Determination  of  Plasma  Parameters  from 
Soft  X-Ray  Images  for  Coronal  Hole  (Open  Magnetic  Field  Configurations) 
and  Coronal  Large-Scale  Structures  (Extended  Closed-Field  Configurations). 
Astrophysical  Journal,  volume  215  (1977),  pages  919-941. 

McSween,  H.  Y.,  Jr.  "Carbonaceous  Chondrites  of  the  Orans  Type:  A  Meta- 
morphic  Sequence."  Geochimica  et  Cosmochimica  Acta,  volume  41  (1977), 
pages  477-491. 

.  "On  the  Nature  and  Origin  of  Isolated  Olivine  Grains  in  Carbona- 
ceous Chrondrites."  Geochimica  et  Cosmochimica  Acta,  volume  41  (1977), 
pages  411-418. 

Mertz,  L.  "Positively  Constrained  Imagery  for  Rotation  Collimators."  Astro- 
physics and  Space  Science,  volume  45  (1976),  pages  383-389. 

.  "A  Wide-Angle  Mach-Zehnder  Interferometer  for  Monochromatically 

Selective  Photography."  Applied  Optics,  volume  16  (1977),  pages  812-813. 

Michael,  W.  H.,  A.  P.  Mayo,  W.  T.  Blackshear,  R.  H.  Tolson,  G.  M.  Kelly, 
J.  P.  Brenkle,  D.  L.  Cain,  G.  Fjeldbq,  D.  N.  Sweetnam,  R.  B.  Goldstein,  P.  E. 
MacNeil,  R.  D.  Reasenberg,  I.  I.  Shapiro,  T.  I.  S.  Boak,  M.  D.  Grossi,  and 
C.  H.  Tang.  "Mass  Dynamics  and  Surface  Properties:  Determination  from 
Viking  Tracking  Data."  Science,  volume  194  (1976),  pages  1337-1339. 

Mohr,  P.  A.  "Atmospheric  Correction  Problems  in  Ethiopian  Geodimeter 
Surveys."  In  Proceedings  of  the  International  Symposium  on  Terrestrial 
Electromagnetic  Distance  Measurements  and  Atmospheric  Effects  on  Angu- 
lar Measurements,  edited  by  I.  D.  Brook,  volume  3,  paper  2.  Stockholm, 

.  "1974  Ethiopian  Rift  Geodimeter  Survey."  Smithsonian  Astrophysical 

Observatory   Special   Report   Number   376,    March    1977,    111    pages    (plus 

-.  [Abstract]  "Contemporary  Strain  Accumulation  Patterns  in  the  Ethio- 

pian rift."  E($)S,  Transactions  of  the  American  Geophysical  Union,  volume 
58  (1977),  page  490. 

Mohr,  P.  A.  [Report]  Rio  Grande  Rift  Symposium,  Albuquerque,  Neio  Mexico, 
May  20-21,  1976.  World  Data  Center  A  for  Solid  Earth  Geophysics,  Report 
SE-5,  Geodynamic  InternationaI-10,  pages  54-56.  Boulder,  Colorado:  U.S. 
Department  of  Commerce,  1977. 

Mohr,  P.  A.,  and  C.  A.  Wood.  "Volcano  Spacing  and  Lithospheric  Attenua- 
tion in  the  Eastern  Rift  of  Africa."  Earth  and  Planetary  Science  Letters, 
volume  33  (1976),  pages  126-144. 

Moran,  J.  M.,  J.  A.  Ball,  J.  L.  Yen,  P.  R.  Schwartz,  K.  J.  Johnston,  and  S.  H. 
Knowles.  "Very  Long  Baseline  Interferometric  Observations  of  OH  Masers 
Associated  with  Infrared  Stars."  Astrophysical  Journal,  volume  211  (1977), 
page  160. 

Moran,  J.  M.,  B.  F.  Burke,  R.  C  Walker,  A.  D.  Haschick,  L.  I.  Matveyenko, 
L.  R.  Kogan,  V.  I.  Kostenko,  and  I.  G.  Moiseyev.  [Abstract]  "VLBI  Obser- 

306  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

vations  of  H2O  Masers  in  H  II  Regions  with  Submilliarcsecond  Resolution." 
Bulletin  of  the  American  Astronomical  Society,  volume  8,  (1976),  page  564. 

Morton,  D.,  H.  Spinrad,  G.  Bruzval,  and  R.  Kurucz.  "Ultraviolet  Spectra  of 
Alpha  Aquilae  and  Alpha  Canis  Minoris."  Astrophysical  Journal,  volume 
212  (1977),  pages  438-445. 

Murdin,  P.,  R.  E.  Griffiths,  K.  A.  Pounds,  M.  G.  Watson,  and  A.  J.  Longmore. 
"Optical  Identification  of  the  Transient  X-Ray  Source  A  1524-61."  Monthly 
Notices  of  the  Royal  Astronomical  Society,  volume  178  (1977),  pages  27p- 

Oppenheimer,  M.  "Isentropic  Instabilities  in  the  Interstellar  Gas."  Astro- 
physical  Journal,  volume  211  (1977),  pages  400-403. 

Oppenheimer,  M.,  and  A.  Delgarno.  "Associative  Ionization  and  Interstellar 
TiO+  and  TiO."  Astrophysical  Journal,  volume  212  (1977),  pages  683-684. 

Oppenheimer,  M.,  A.  Dalgarno,  and  H.  C.  Brinton.  "Ion  Chemisotry  of  N*2  and 
the  Solar  Ultraviolet  Flux  in  the  Thermosphere."  Journal  of  Geophysical 
Research,  volume  81  (1976),  pages  3762-37e>6. 

.  "Molecular  Oxygen  Abundances  in  the  Thermosphere  from  the  Chem- 
istry of  Oo  Ion  Based  on  Atmosphere  Explorer-C  Composition  Measure- 
ments." Journal  of  Geophysical  Research,  volume  81  (1976),  pages  4678- 

Oppenheimer,  M.,  A.  Dalgarno,  F.  P.  Trebino,  L.  H.  Brace,  H.  C.  Brinton,  and 
J.  H.  Hoffman.  "Daytime  Chemistry  of  NO+  from  Atmosphere  Explorer-C 
Measurements."  Journal  of  Geophysical  Research,  volume  82  (1977),  pages 

Pallavicini,  R.,  S.  Serio,  and  G.  S.  Vaiana.  "A  Survey  of  Soft  X-Ray  Limb 
Flare  Images:  The  Relation  between  Their  Structure  in  the  Corona  and 
Other  Physical  Parameters."  Astrophysical  Journal,  volume  216  (1977), 
pages  108-122. 

Papaliolios,  C,  S.  J.  Freeman,  and  R.  A.  Holt.  "Experimental  Status  of  Hid- 
den Variable  Theories."  In  Quantum  Mechanics,  Determinism,  Causality, 
and  Particles,  edited  by  M.  Flato,  Z.  Marix,  A.  Milojevic,  D.  Sternheimer, 
and  N.  P.  Vigier.  Dordrecht,  Holland:  D.  Reidel  Publishing  Company,  1976. 

Parsignault,  D.  R.,  E.  Schreier,  J.  Grindlay,  and  H.  Gursky.  "On  the  Stability 
of  the  Period  of  Cygnus  X-3."  Astrophysical  Journal  (Letters),  volume  209 
(1976),  pages  L73-L75. 

Parsignault,  D.  R.,  E.  Schrier,  J.  Grindlay,  H.  Schnopper,  and  H.  Gursky. 
[Abstract]  "Limitations  on  Models  of  Cygnus  X-3  based  on  ANS  Observa- 
tions. Bulletin  of  the  American  Astronomical  Society,  volume  8  (1976), 
page  441. 

Payne-Gaposchkin,  C.  H.  "Past  and  Future  Novae."  In  Novae-Related  Stars. 
New  York:  D.  Reidel  Publishing  Company,  1977. 

Penfield,  H.,  M.  M.  Litvak,  A.  E.  Lilley,  and  C.  A.  Gottlieb.  "Mesospheric 
Ozone  Measured  from  Ground-Based  Microwave  Observations."  Journal 
of  Geophysical  Research,  volume  81  (1976),  pages  6115-6120. 

Perrenod,  S.  C,  G.  A.  Schields,  and  E.  J.  Chaisson.  "Observation  and  Inter- 
pretation of  Temperature  Gradients  in  the  Orion  Nebula."  Astrophysical 
Journal,  volume  216  (1977),  pages  427-432. 

Phaneuf,  R.  A.,  P.  O.  Taylor,  and  G.  H.  Dunn.  "Absolute  Cross  Sections  for 
Emission  of  284.7  nra."  Physical  Review  A,  volume  14  (1976),  page  2021; 
erratum,  Physical  Review  A,  volume  15  (1976),  page  1812. 

Porter,  N.  A.,  T.  Delaney,  H.  F.  Helmken,  and  T.  C.  Weekes.  "Observations 
of  NP  0532  with  a  Wide  Angle  Atmospheric  Cerenkov  System."  Nuovo 
Cimento,  volume  32B  (1976),  page  514. 

Porter,  N.  A.,  and  T.  C.  Weekes.  "Optical  Pulses  from  Primordial  Black 
Hole  Explosions."  Nature,  volume  267  (1977),  pages  5000-5001. 

.  An  "Upper  Limit  to  the  Rate  of  Gamma  Ray  Bursts  from  Primordial 

Appendix  6.  Publications  of  the  Staff  I  307 

Black  Hole  Explosions."  Astrophysical  Journal,  volume  213  (1977),  pages 

Press,  W.  H.  "A  'Foil'  for  Gravitational  Clustering  Investigations."  Astronomy 
and  Astrophysics,  volume  48  (1976),  page  149. 

"Theoretical  Maximum  for  Energy  from  Director  and  Diffuse  Sun- 
light." Nature,  volume  264  (1976),  page  734. 

.   "On   Gravitational   Radiation   from    Sources   which   Extend   in   Their 

Own  Wave  Zone."  Physical  Review  D,  volume  15  (1977),  page  965. 

Press,  W.  H.,  and  S.  A.  Teukolsky.  "On  Formation  of  Close  Binaries  by  Two- 
Body  Tidal  Capture."  Astrophysical  Journal,  volume  213  (1977),  page  183. 

Purton,  C.  R.,  G.  Kojoian,  and  D.  F.  Dickinson.  "Markarian  421:  A  Lacertid." 
Publications  of  the  Astronomical  Society  of  the  Pacific,  volume  89  (1977), 
page  119. 

Radford,  H.  E.,  M.  M.  Litvak,  C.  A.  Gottlieb,  E.  W.  Gottlieb,  S.  K.  Rosenthal, 
and  A.  E.  Lilley.  "Mesospheric  Water  Vapor  Measured  from  Ground-Based 
Microwave  Observations."  Journal  of  Geophysical  Research,  volume  82 
(1977),  pages  472-478. 

Radford,  H.  E.,  F.  R.  Peterson,  D.  A.  Jennings,  and  J.  A.  Mucha.  "Heterodyne 
Measurements  of  Submillimeter  Laser  Spectrometer  Frequencies."  Journal 
of  Quantum  Electronics,  volume  QE-13,  pages  92-94.  Institute  of  Electrical 
and  Electronic  Engineers,  1977. 

Radford,  H.  E.,  and  D.  K.  Russell.  "Spectroscopic  Detection  of  Methoxy 
(CH'O)."  Journal  of  Chemical  Physics,  volume  66  (1977),  pages  2222-2224. 

Reeves,  E.  M.,  J.  G.  Timothy,  P.  V.  Foukal,  M.  C.  E.  Huber,  R.  W.  Noyes, 
E.  J.  Schmahl,  J.  E.  Vernazza,  and  G  L.  Withbroe.  "Initial  Results  from  the 
EUV  Spectrometer  on  ATM."  In  Scientific  Investigations  on  the  Skylab 
Satellite,  edited  by  M.  I.  Kent,  E.  Stuhlinger,  and  S.  Wu,  pages  73-103. 
New  York:  American  Institute  of  Aeronautics  and  Astronautics,  1976. 

Reeves,  E.  M.,  J.  G.  Timothy,  M.  C.  E.  Huber,  and  G.  L.  Withbroe.  "Photo- 
metric Calibration  of  the  EUV  Spectroheliometer  on  ATM."  Applied  Optics, 
volume  16  (1977),  pages  849-857. 

Reid,  M.  J.,  and  D.  F.  Dickinson.  "The  Stellar  Velocity  of  Long-Period  Vari- 
ables." Astrophysical  Journal,  volume  209  (1976),  page  505. 

Rice,  J.  E.,  H.  Helava,  R.  R.  Parker,  and  H.  W.  Schnopper.  "X-Ray  Spectra 
from  Alcator."  Bulletin  of  the  American  Physical  Society,  volume  21  (1976), 
page  852. 

Richardson,  S.  [Abstract]  "Cation  Exchange  Profiles  as  Guides  to  Relative 
Fracture  Ages  in  Metamorphic  Rocks."  Geological  Society  of  America,  Ab- 
stracts with  Programs,  volume  8   (1976),  page  1079. 

Richardson,  S.  A.,  and  H.  Y.  McSween.  [Abstract]  "The  matrix  composition 
of  carbonaceous  chondrites."  Meteoritics,  volume  11  (1976),  pages  355-356. 

Rosenberg,  F.  D.,  and  A.  M.  Levine.  [Abstract]  "X-Ray  Observations  of  Extra- 
Galactic  Objects  from  SAS-3."  Bulletin  of  the  American  Astronomical 
Society,  volume  9  (1977),  page  348. 

Rosner,  R.,  and  G.  S.  Vaiana.  "Hydrostatic  and  Dynamic  Models  of  Solar 
Coronal  Holes."  Astrophysical  Journal,  volume  216  (1977),  pages  141-157. 

Roufosse,  M.  C,  and  E.  M.  Gaposchkin.  [Abstract]  "Worldwide  Survey  of 
the  Correlation  between  Short-Wavelength  Features  of  Topographic  Heights 
and  of  Gravity  Anomalies."  Transactions  of  the  American  Geophysical 
Union,  volume  57  (1976),  page  1002. 

Rybicki,  G.  B.  "Integrals  of  the  Transfer  Equation:  I.  Quadratic  Integrals 
for  Monochromatic  Isotropic  Scattering."  Astrophysical  Journal,  volume  213 
(1977),  page  165-176. 

.   "The   Interpretation   of   Line   Profiles."   In   The   Energy   Balance   and 

Hydrodynamics  of  the  Solar  Chromosphere  and  Corona,  edited  by  R.  M. 
Bonnet  and  Ph.  Delache.  France:  G.  de  Bussac,  Clermont-Ferrand,  1977. 

308  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Ryder,  G.  "Apollo  17  KREEPy  Basalt:  A  Rock  Type  Intermediate  between 
Mare  and  KREEP  Basalts."  Earth  and  Planetary  Science  Letters,  volume  35 
(1977),  pages  1-13. 

Ryder,  G.,  and  J.  F.  Bower.  "Poikilitic  KREEP  Impact  Melts  in  the  Apollo  14 
White  Rocks."  In  Proceedings  of  the  Seventh  Lunar  Science  Conference, 
Geochimica  et  Cosmochimica  Acta,  Supplement  7,  volume  2,  pages  1925- 
1948,  1976. 

.  "Petrology."  In  Interdisciplinary  Studies  by  the  Imbrium  Consortium, 

volume  2,  pages  1-8,  13-18,  20-26,  and  42-60,  1977. 

Ryder,  G.,  and  G.  J.  Taylor.  "Did  Mare-Type  Volcanism  Commence  Early  in 
Lunar  History?"  In  Proceedings  of  the  Seventh  Lunar  Science  Conference, 
Geochimica  et  Cosmochimica  Acta,  Supplement  7,  volume  2,  pages  1741- 
1755,  1976. 

Ryder,  G.,  and  J.  A.  Wood.  [Abstract]  "Composition  and  Vertical  Structure 
of  the  Lunar  Crust."  Meteoritics,  volume  11  (1976),  pages  356-357. 

.   [Abstract]   "Serenitatis  and  Imbrium  Impact  Melts:   Implications  for 

Lunar  Crustal  Composition  and  Stratigraphy."  In  Lunar  Science  VIII,  pages 
826-828.  Houston,  Texas:   Lunar  Science  Institute,  1977. 

[Abstract]  "The  Apollo  15  Green  Clods  and  the  Green  Glass  Enigma" 

In  Lunar  Science  VIII,  pages  1026-1028.  Houston,  Texas:  Lunar  Science  In- 
stitute, 1977. 

Schild,  R.  E.  "The  Distance-Reddening  Law  for  Nova  Cygni  (1975)  =  V1500 
Cygni."  Astrophysical  Journal  (Letters),  volume  209  (1976),  pages  L35-L36. 

.  "The  Interstellar  Reddening  Law."  Astronomical  Journal,  volume  82 

(1977),  pages  337-344. 

Schnopper,  H.  W.  [Abstract]  "Extragalactic  X-Ray  Sources."  Bulletin  of  the 
American  Astronomical  Society,  volume  8  (1976),  page  445. 

Schnopper,  H.  W.,  J.  P.  Delvaille,  A.  Epstein,  H.  Helmken,  S.  S.  Murray,  G. 
Clark,  G.  Jernigan,  and  R.  Doxsey.  "Detection  of  X-Rays  from  Algol  (0 
Persei).  Astrophysical  Journal  (Letters),  volume  210  (1976),  pages  L75-L77. 

Schnopper,  H.  W.,  J.  P.  Delvaille,  A.  Epstein,  K.  Kalata,  and  A.  R.  Sohval. 
"X-Ray  Spectroscopy  with  the  ANS  and  HEAO-B  Satellites."  Space  Science 
Instrumentation,  volume  2   (1976),  pages  243-261. 

Schnopper,  H.  W.,  A.  Epstein,  J.  P.  Delvaille,  W.  Tucker,  R.  Doxsey,  and  G. 
Jernigan.  "Detection  of  the  X-Ray  Emission  from  3C120.  Astrophysical 
Journal  (Letters),  volume  215  (1977),  pages  L7-L11. 

Schnopper,  H.  W.,  L.  P.  VanSpeybroeck,  J.  P.  Delvaille,  A.  Epstein,  E.  Kallne, 
R.  Z.  Bachrach,  J.  Dijkstra,  and  L.  Lantwaard.  "Diffraction  Grating  Trans- 
mission Efficiencies  for  XUV  and  Soft  X-Rays."  Applied  Optics,  volume  16 
(1977),  pages  1088-1091. 

Sekanina,  Z.  "Dust  Content  and  Particle  Release  Experiments."  In  Proceed- 
ings of  the  Shuttle-Based  Cometary  Science  Workshop,  edited  by  G.  A. 
Gary  and  K.  S.  Clifton,  pages  142-149.  Huntsville,  Alabama:  Marshall 
Space  Flight  Center,  1976. 

.  "Statistics  of  Anomalous  Tails  of  Comets."  NASA  TM  X-3364,  pages 

40-42,  1976. 

Shapiro,  S.  L.,  and  A.  P.  Lightman.  "The  Distribution  of  Stars  around  a  Mas- 
sive Black  Hole."  Nature,  volume  262  (1976),  page  743. 

Smarr,  L.  [Abstract]  "Gravitational  Wave  Generation  Efficiency  for  Colliding 
Black  Holes."  Bulletin  of  the  American  Astronomical  Society,  volume  8 
(1976),  page  516. 

.  "Gravitational  Radiation  from  Distant  Encounters  and  Head-on  Colli- 
sions of  Black  Holes:  The  Zero-Frequency  Limit."  Physical  Review  D,  vol- 
ume 15  (1977),  page  2069. 

Smith,  P.  L.  "Absolute  Oscillator  Strengths  for  the  Iron  Group:  A  Correc- 
tion to  the  Data  of  Warner  and  a  Comment  on  Some  of  the  Semiempirical 

Appendix  6.  Publications  of  the  Staff  I  309 

Results  of  Kurucz  and  Peytremann."  Monthly  Notices  of  the  Royal  Astro- 
nomical Society,  volume  177,  pages  275-289. 

Spencer,  J.  H.,  K.  H.  Johnston,  P.  R.  Schwartz,  R.  C.  Walker,  J.  Moran,  and 
M.  J.  Reid.  [Abstract]  "The  Size  and  Position  of  the  H-O  Sources  Asso- 
ciated with  IR  Stars."  Bulletin  of  the  American  Astronomical  Society,  vol- 
ume 8  (1976),  page  552. 

Stein,  R.  F.,  R.  I.  Klein,  and  W.  Kalkofen.  "Radiative  Shock  Dynamics." 
International  Astronomical  Union  Reports,  Commission  12,  pages  49-54, 

Stewart,  R.  F.,  D.  K.  Watson,  and  A.  Dalgarno.  "Variational  Time-Dependent 
Hartree-Fock  Calculations.  III.  Potential  Curves  for  Two-Electron  Molecu- 
lar Systems."  Journal  of  Chemical  Physics,  volume  65  (1976),  pages  2104- 

Svestka,  Z.,  C.  V.  Solodyna,  R.  Howard,  and  R.  H.  Levine.  [Abstract]  "Open 
magnetic  fields  in  active  regions."  Bulletin  of  the  American  Astronomical 
Society,  volume  9  (1977),  page  344. 

Tananbaum,  H.,  L.  J.  Chaisson,  W.  Forman,  C.  Jones,  and  T.  A.  Matilsky. 
"UHURU  Observations  of  4U  1608-52:  The  'Steady'  X-Ray  Source  Asso- 
ciated with  the  X-Ray  Burst  Source  in  Norma."  Astrophysical  Journal 
(Letters),  volume  209  (1976),  pages  L125-L130. 

Tang,  C.  H.,  P.  F.  Sforza,  and  M.  D.  Grossi.  "Viking  Mission  Relay  Link 
Measurement  of  Dielectric  Properties  of  Martian  Terrain."  In  Proceedings 
of  the  Colloquium  on  Water  in  Planetary  Regoliths,  pages  134-138.  Han- 
over, New  Hampshire:  Dartmouth  College,  Department  of  Earth  Sciences, 
and  Army  Cold  Regions  Research  and  Engineering  Laboratory,  1976. 

Timothy,  J.  G.  "Detection  Efficiencies  of  Channel  Electron  Multipliers  with 
MgF  Photocathodes  at  XUV  Wavelengths."  Applied  Optics,  volume  15 
(1976),  page  1218. 

Torr,  D.  G.,  M.  R.  Torr,  J.  C.  G.  Walker,  L.  H.  Brace,  H.  C.  Brinton,  W.  B. 
Hanson,  J.  H.  Hoffman,  A.  O.  Nier,  and  M.  Oppenheimer.  "Recombination 
of  NO+  in  the  Ionosphere."  Geophysical  Research  Letters,  volume  3  (1976), 
pages  209-212. 

Tucker,  W.  H.  [Abstract]  "X-Ray  Emission  from  Giant  Elliptical  Galaxies." 
Bulletin  of  the  American  Astronomical  Society,  volume  9  (1977),  page  347. 

Turner,  J.  L.,  and  A.  Dalgarno.  "The  Chemistry  of  Silicon  in  Interstellar 
Clouds."  Astrophysical  Journal,  volume  213  (1977),  pages  386-389. 

Ulmschneider,  P.,  and  W.  Kalkofen.  "Theoretical  Temperature  Minimum  for 
the  Sun."  In  Physique  des  Mouvements  dans  les  Atmospheres  Stellaires, 
edited  by  R.  Cayrel  and  M.  Steinberg,  page  103.  Paris,  France:  CNRS,  1976. 

.  "Acoustic  Waves  in  the  Solar  Atmosphere:  III.  A  Theoretical  Tem- 
perature Minimum."  Astronomy  and  Astrophysics,  volume  57  (1977),  pages 

Ulmschneider,  P.,  W.  Kalkofen,  T.  Nowak,  and  H.  U.  Bohn.  "Acoustic  Waves  in 
the  Solar  Atmosphere:  I.  The  Hydrodynamic  Code."  Astronomy  and  Astro- 
physics, volume  54  (1977),  page  61. 

Vaiana,  G.  S.,  L.  VanSpeybroeck,  M.  V.  Zombeck,  A.  S.  Krieger,  J.  K.  Silk, 
and  A.  Timothy.  "The  S-054  X-Ray  Telescope  Experiment  on  Skylab." 
Space  Science  Instrumentation,  volume  3  (1977),  pages  19-76. 

Vessot,  R.  F.  C,  and  M.  W.  Levine.  "A  Preliminary  Report  on  the  Gravita- 
tional Redshift  Rocket-Probe  Experiment."  In  Proceedings  of  the  Second  Fre- 
quency Standards  and  Metrology  Symposium,  pages  659-688.  Boulder, 
Colorado:  National  Bureau  of  Standards,  1976. 

Walborn,  N.  R.,  and  M.  H.  Liller.  "The  Earliest  Spectroscopic  Observations 
of  Eta  Carinae  and  its  Interaction  with  the  Carina  Nebula."  Astrophysical 
Journal,  volume  211  (1977),  pages  181-183. 

Walker,  R.  C,  B.  F.  Burke,  A.  D.  Haschick,  P.  C.  Crane,  J.  M.  Moran,  K.  J. 

310  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Johnston,  K.  Y.  Lo,  J.  L.  Yen,  N.  W.  Broten,  T.  H.  Legg,  E.  W.  Greisen,  and 
S.  S.  Hansen.  [Abstract]  "VLBI  Aperture  Synthesis  Observations  of  H-O 
Masers  in  H  II  Regions."  Bulletin  of  the  American  Astronomical  Society, 
volume  8  (1976),  page  563. 

Watson,  M.  G.,  and  R.  E.  Griffiths.  "Ariel  V  Sky  Survey  Instrument:  Extended 
Observations  of  3U0900-40."  Monthly  Notices  of  the  Royal  Astronomical 
Society,  volume  178  (1977),  pages  513-524. 

Wayne,  F.  D.,  and  H.  E.  Radford.  "The  Laser  Magnetic  Resonance  Spectrum 
of  Imine  (NH)  and  Its  Isotopes."  Molecular  Physics,  volume  32  (1976),  page 

Weekes,  T.  C.  "The  Sensitivity  of  Atmospheric  Cherenkov  Experiments  for 
Gamma  Ray  Astronomy."  Nuovo  Cimento,  volume  35  (1976),  pages  95- 

.    "Atmospheric    Fluorescence    as    a    Means    of    Detecting    X-Ray    and 

Gamma  Ray  Transients."  Journal  of  Atmospheric  and  Terrestrial  Physics, 
volume  38  (1976),  pages  1021-1026. 

Whipple,  F.  L.  "A  Speculation  about  Comets  and  the  Earth."  Memoires  de  la 
Societe  Royale  des  Sciences,  Liege,  series  6,  volume  9  (1976),  pages  101- 

.  "Sources  of  Interplanetary  Dust."  In  Interplanetary  Dust  and  Zodi- 
acal Light,  edited  by  H.  Elsasser  and  H.  Fechtig,  pages  403-415.  Heidel- 
berg: Springer-Verlag,  1976. 

.  "Background  of  Modern  Comet  Theory."  Nature,  volume  263  (1976), 

pages  15-19. 

-.  "The  Status   of  Cometary  Science."  In  Proceedings  of   the  Shuttle- 

Based  Cometary  Workshop,  edited  by  G.  A.  Gary  and  K.  S.  Clifton,  pages 
169-190.  Huntsville,  Alabama:  NASA/Marshall  Space  Flight  Center,  1977. 
-.  "The  reality  of  Comet  Groups  and  Pairs."  Icarus,  volume  30  (1977), 

page  736. 

Whipple,  F.  L.,  and  W.  F.  Heubner.  "Physical  Processes  in  Comets."  Annual 
Review  of  Astronomy  and  Astrophysics,  volume  14  (1976),  pages  143-172. 

Whitney,  C.  A.,  and  C.  H.  Payne-Gaposchkin.  "Photometry  of  Long-Period 
Variables."  Memoires  de  la  Societe  Royale  des  Sciences,  Liege,  series  6, 
volume  9  (1976),  pages  419-435. 

Withbroe,  G.  L.  "Mass  and  Energy  Flow  in  the  Solar  Atmosphere — Implica- 
tions of  Skylab  Observations."  In  The  Energy  Balance  and  Hydrodynamics 
of  the  Solar  Chromosphere  and  Corona,  edited  by  R.  M.  Bonnet  and  P. 
Delache,  pages  263-315.  France:  G.  de  Bussac,  Clermont-Ferrand,  1977. 

Withbroe,  G.  L.,  and  J.  T.  Mariska.  "Analysis  of  EUV  Limb  Brightening  Ob- 
servations from  ATM.  II.  Influence  of  Spicules."  Solar  Physics,  volume  48 
(1976),  pages  21-40. 

Withbroe,  G.  L.,  and  J.  E.  Vernazza.  "Active  Region  Flare  Rates  8.6  mm 
Brightness  Temperatures."  Solar  Physics,  volume  50  (1976),  pages  127-131. 

.    [Abstract]    "Skylab    EUV    Observations    of    the    7    September    1973 

Flare."  Bulletin  of  the  American  Astronomical  Society,  volume  9  (1977), 
page  299. 

Wood,  J.  A.  "Basaltic  Volcanism  in  Terrestrial  Planets."  Ceotimes,  February 
1977,  pages  26-29. 

Wright,  E.  L.,  E.  W.  Gottlieb,  W.  Liller,  J.  Grindlay,  H.  Schnopper,  E.  Schreier, 
H.  Gursky,  and  D.  Parsignault.  [Abstract]  "Possible  Period  for  Cyg  X-2 
Based  on  Optical,  X-Ray  Data."  Bulletin  of  the  American  Astronomical 
Society,  volume  8  (197t>),  page  441. 

Wright,  E.  L.,  C.  J.  Lada,  D.  E.  Kleinmann,  and  G.  G.  Fazio.  "A  New  Infra- 
red CO-Source  in  M8."  Astronomical  Journal,  volume  82  (1977),  pages  132- 

Appendix  6.  Publications  of  the  Staff  I  311 


Ferrari,  Frank.  "The  Significance  of  the  Response  of  Pelagic  Marine  Animals 
to  Solar  Eclipses."  Deep-Sea  Research,  number  23  (1976),  pages  653-654. 

.  "A  Redescription  of  Oithona  dissimilis  Lindberg  1940  with  a  Com- 
parison to  Oithona  hebes  Giesbrecht  1891  (Crustacea:  Copepoda:  Cyclo- 
poida)."  In  Proceedings  of  the  Biological  Society  of  Washington,  volume  90, 
number  2,  pages  400-411.  1977. 

Higgins,  R.  P.  "Redescription  of  Echinoderes  dujardinii  (Kinorhyncha)  with 
Descriptions  of  Closely  Related  Species."  Smithsonian  Contributions  to 
Zoology,  number  248,  1977. 

.  "Two  New  Species  of  Echinoderes  (Kinorhyncha)  from  South  Caro- 
lina." Transactions  of  the  American  Microscopical  Society,  volume  96, 
number  3,  pages  340-354.  1977. 

Landrum,  B.  J.  "Cooperative  Systematic  Studies."  "Antarctic  Journal  of  the 
United  States,  volume  11,  number  3  (1976),  page  192. 

.  "Polar  Biological  Collections."  Antarctic  Journal  of  the  United  States, 

volume  11,  number  4  (1976),  page  292. 

Matthews,  Frances  D.,  David  M.  Damkeer,  Leslie  W.  Knapp,  and  Bruce  B. 
Collette.  "Food  of  Western  North  Atlantic  Tunas  (Thunnus)  and  Lancet- 
fishes  (Alepisauras)."  National  Oceanic  and  Atmospheric  Administration, 
Technical  Report  NMFS  SSRF-706,  pages  1-19.  1977. 


Abele,  Lawrence  G.  "Comparative  Species  Composition  and  Relative  Abun- 
dance of  Decapod  Crustaceans  in  Marine  Habitats  of  Panama."  Marine 
Biology,  volume  38,  number  3  (1976),  pages  263-278. 

Abrams,  Peter  A.  "Density-Independent  Mortality  and  Interspecific  Competi- 
tion: A  Test  of  Pianka's  Niche  Overlap  Hypothesis."  The  American  Nat- 
uralist, volume  111,  number  979  (1977),  pages  539-552. 

Bartholomew,  George  A.,  and  Timothy  M.  Casey.  "Endothermy  During  Ter- 
restrial Activity  in  Large  Beetles."  Science,  volume  195,  number  4281 
(1977),  pages  882-883. 

Batista  de  Yee,  Gloria,  and  Carmen  Rosa  Chang.  "Observaciones  Sobre  la 
Ecologia  de  una  Pradera  de  Thalassia  en  la  Costa  Atlantica  de  Panama." 
Thesis,  Universidad  de  Panama,  Repiiblica  de  Panama,  1976. 

Bertsch,  Hans.  "Intraspecific  and  Ontogenetic  Radular  Variation  in  Opistho- 
branch  Systematics  (Mollusca:  Gastropoda)."  Systematic  Zoology,  volume 
25,  number  2  (1976),  pages  117-122. 

Bonaccorso,  Frank  J.,  Nicholas  Smythe,  and  Stephen  R.  Humphrey.  "Improved 
Techniques  for  Marking  Bats."  Journal  of  Mammalogy,  volume  57,  number 
2  (1976),  pages  181-182. 

Burghardt,  Gordon  M.  "Of  Iguanas  and  Dinosaurs:  Social  Behavior  and  Com- 
munication in  Neonate  Repitles."  American  Zoologist,  volume  17,  number 
1  (1977),  pages  177-190. 

Burghardt,  Gordon  M.,  Harry  W.  Green,  and  A.  Stanley  Rand.  "Social  Be- 
havior in  Hatchling  Green  Iguanas:  Life  at  a  Reptile  Rookery."  Science, 
volume  195,  number  4279  (1977),  pages  689-691. 

Clark,  Mertice  M.,  and  Bennett  G.  Galef,  Jr.  "Patterns  of  Agonistic  Interac- 
tion and  Space  Utilization  by  Agoutis  (Dasyprocta  punctata)."  Behavioral 
Biology,  volume  20,  number  1  (1977),  pages  135-140. 

Cooke,  Richard  G.  "Current  Research:  Lower  Central  America."  American 
Antiquity,  volume  42,  number  2  (1977),  pages  281-283. 

.  "Nuevos  Analisis  de  Carbono — 14  para  Panama,  al  Este  de  Chiriqui: 

una  Actualizacion  de  los  Cambios  Culturales  Prehistoricos."  La  Antigua, 
number  6  (1976),  pages  88-111. 

312  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

.   "Panama:   Region  Central."   Vinculos,   volume  2,   number   1    (1976), 

pages  122-140. 

Del  Rosario,  Juan  B.,  and  Lawrence  G.  Abele.  "Descriptions  of  the  Male  and 
New  Distribution  Records  for  Acanthocarpus  delsolari  Garth,  1973  (Deca- 
poda,  Calappidae)  from  the  Pacific  Coast  of  Panama."  Crustaceana,  volume 
30,  number  3  (1976),  pages  225-228. 

Dexter,  Deborah  M.  "A  Natural  History  of  the  Sand  Dollar  Encope  stokesi 
L.  Agassiz  in  Panama."  Bulletin  of  Marine  Science,  volume  27,  number  3 
(1977),  pages  544-551. 

Dressier,  Robert  L.  "Une  Epidendrum  Bella  del  Subgenero  Oerstedella.  An 
Attractive  Epidendrum  of  the  Subgenus  Oerstedella."  Orquideologia,  vol- 
ume 11,  number  2  (1976),  pages  107-112. 

.  "How  to  Study   Orchid  Pollination  Without  Any  Orchids."   In  Pro- 
ceedings of  the  Eighth  World  Orchid  Conference,  pages  534-537.  1976. 
-.  "Orquideas  Collectadas  en  Fortuna,  1976."  In  Evaluation  Ambiental  y 

Efectos  del  Proyecto  Hidroelectrico  Fortuna,  by  Abdiel  J.  Adames.  Loteria, 
number  254-256   (1977),  pages  209-216. 

"Una    Poinsettia    (Euphorbiaceae)    Nueva    y    Atractiva    de    Guerrero 

(Mexico)."  Boletin  de  la  Sociedad  Botdnica  de  Mexico,  number  35   (1975), 
pages  17-21. 

"Una    Sievekingia   Nueva    de   Colombia.    A    New    Colombian    Sieve- 

kingia."  Orquideologia,  volume  11,  number  3  (1976),  pages  215-221. 

"Tipificacion  de  Epidendrum  insidiosum.  The  Typification  of  Epiden- 

drum insidiosum."  Orquidea  (Mex.),  volume  61,  number  1  (1976),  pages 

Dressier,  Robert  L.,  and  Eric  Hagsater.  "Una  Especie  Nueva  del  Sur  de  Mex- 
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pages  35-42. 

.  "Pachyphyllum  mexicanum,  sp.  nov.;  Un  Genero  Nuevo  Para  la  Or- 

quideoflora  de  Mexico.  Pachyphyllum  mexicanum,  sp.  nov.;  A  New  Genus 
for  the  Mexica  Orchid  Flora."  Orquidea  (Mex.),  volume  6,  number  3  (1976), 
pages  71-79. 

Dressier,  Robert  L.,  and  Norris  H.  Williams.  "Euglossine  Pollination  of 
Spathiphyllum  (Araceae)."  Selbyana,  volume  1  (1976),  pages  349-356. 

Eberhard,  William  G.  "Physical  Properties  of  Sticky  Spirals  and  Their  Con- 
nections: Sliding  Connections  in  Orb  Webs."  Journal  of  Natural  History, 
volume  10,  number  5  (1976),  pages  481-488. 

Fauchald,  Kristian.  "Polychaetes  From  Intertidal  Areas  in  Panama,  with  a 
Review  of  Previous  Shallow-Water  Records."  Smithsonian  Contributions  to 
Zoology,  number  221,  1977. 

Foster,  Robin  B.  "Tachigalia  versicolor  is  a  Suicidal  Neotropical  Tree."  Na- 
ture, volume  268,  number  5621  (1977),  pages  624-626. 

Galef,  Bennett  G.,  Jr.,  and  Mertice  M.  Clark.  "Non-Norturent  Functions  of 
Mother-Young  Interaction  in  the  Agouti  (Dasyprocta  punctata)."  Beha- 
vioral Biology,  volume  17,  number  2  (1976),  pages  255-262. 

Galef,  Bennett  G.,  Jr.,  Russell  A.  Mittermeier,  and  Robert  C.  Bailey.  "Preda- 
tion  of  the  Tayra  (Eira  barbara)."  Journal  of  Mammalogy,  volume  57,  num- 
ber 4  (1976),  pages  760-761. 

Gee,  John  H.  "Buoyancy  and  Aerial  Respiration:  Factors  Influencing  the  Evo- 
lution of  Reduced  Swimbladder  Volume  of  Some  Central  American  Cat- 
fishes  (Trichomycteridae,  Callichthyidae,  Loricariidae,  Astroblepidae)."  Ca- 
nadian Journal  of  Zoology,  volume  54,  number  7  (1976),  pages  1030-1037. 

Gee,  John  H.,  and  Phyllis  A.  Gee.  "Alteration  of  Buoyancy  by  Some  Central 
American  Stream  Fishes,  and  a  Comparison  with  North  American  Species." 
Canadian  Journal  of  Zoology,  volume  54,  number  3  (1976),  pages  386-391. 

Gliwicz,  Zbgniew  Maciej.  "Plankton  Photosynthetic  Activity  and  Its  Regula- 

Appendix  6.  Publications  of  the  Staff  I  313 

tion  in  Two  Neotropical  Man-Made  Lakes."  Polish  Archives  of  Hydrobiol- 
ogy,  volume  23,  number  2  (1976),  pages  61-93. 

"Stratification  of  Kinetic  Origin  and  its  Biological  Consequences  in  a 

Neotropical  Man-Made  Lake."  Ekologia  Polska,  volume  24,  number  2  (1976), 
pages  197-209. 

Glynn,  Peter  W.  "Some  Physical  and  Biological  Determinants  of  Coral  Com- 
munity Structure  in  the  Eastern  Pacific."  Ecological  Monographs,  volume  46, 
number  4  (1976),  pages  431-456. 

.  "Interactions  Between  Acanthaster  and  Hymenocera  in  the  Field  and 

Laboratory."  In  Proceedings  of  the  Third  International  Coral  Reef  Sympo- 
sium, I,  pages  209-215.  1977. 

"Growth  Rate  and  Age  of  Coral  Reefs  on  the  Pacific  Coast  of  Pan- 

ama." In  Proceedings  of  the  Third  International  Coral  Reef  Symposium,  II, 
pages  251-259.  1977. 

Gore,  Robert  H.,  and  Lawrence  G.  Abele.  "Shallow  Water  Porcelain  Crabs  of 
Panama  and  Adjacent  Caribbean  Waters  (Crustacea:  Anomura:  Porcellani- 
dae)."  Smithsonian  Contributions  to  Zoology,  number  237,  1976. 

Green,  Harry  W.  "The  Aardwolf  as  Hyena  Mimic."  Animal  Behaviour,  volume 
25,  number  1  (1977),  pages  245-246. 

Haines,  Bruce,  and  Robin  B.  Foster.  "Energy  Flow  Through  Litter  in  a  Pana- 
manian Forest."  Journal  of  Ecology,  volume  65,  number  1  (1977),  pages  147- 

Healey,  Thomas  S.  "Where  Seaworms  Glow  and  Monkeys  Howl  in  the  Tree- 
tops."  The  Lamp,  Spring  1977,  pages  26-29. 

Heck,  Kenneth  L.,  Jr.  "Comparative  Species  Richness,  Composition,  and  Abun- 
dance of  Invertebrates  in  Caribbean  Seagrass  (Thalassia  testudinum)  Mead- 
ows (Panama)."  Marine  Biology,  volume  41,  number  4  (1977),  pages  335- 

Hendler,  Gordon.  "Development  of  Amphioplus  abditus  (Verrill)  (Echinoder- 
mata:  Ophiuroidea) :  I.  Larval  Biology."  Biological  Bulletin,  volume  152, 
number  1  (1977),  pages  51-63. 

.   "The   Differential   Effects   of   Seasonal   Stress   and   Predation   on   the 

Stability  of  Reef-Flat  Echinoid  Populations."  In  Proceedings  of  the  Third 
International  Coral  Reef  Symposium,  I,  pages  217-224.  1977. 

Heyer,  W.  Ronald,  and  A.  Stanley  Rand.  "Foam  Nest  Construction  in  the 
Leptodactylid  Frogs  Leptodactylus  pentadactylus  and  Physalaemus  pustulo- 
sus  (Amphibia,  Anura,  Leptodactylidae)."  Journal  of  Herpetology,  volume 
11,  number  2  (1977),  pages  225-228. 

Hover,  Edward  L.,  and  Thomas  A.  Jenssen.  "Descriptive  Analysis  and  Social 
Correlates  of  Agonistic  Displays  of  Anolis  limifrons  (Sauria,  Iguanidae)." 
Behaviour,  volume  58,  number  3-4  (1976),  pages  173-191. 

Jaeger,  Robert  G.  "A  Possible  Prey-Call  Window  in  Anuran  Auditory  Per- 
ception." Copeia,  number  4  (1976),  pages  833-834. 

Jaeger,  Robert  G.,  Jack  P.  Hailman,  and  Linda  S.  Jaeger.  "Bimodal  Diel  Ac- 
tivity of  Panamanian  Dendrobatid  Frog,  Colostethus  nubicola,  in  Relation 
to  Light."  Herpetologica,  volume  32,  number  1  (1976),  pages  77-81. 

Janos,  David  P.  "Vesicular-Arbuscular  Mycorrhizae  Affect  the  Growth  of 
Bactris  gasipaes."  Principes,  volume  21,  number  1  (1977),  pages  12-18. 

Jenssen,  Thomas  A.,  and  Edward  L.  Hover.  "Display  Analysis  of  the  Signa- 
ture Display  Anolis  limifrons  (Sauria:  Iguanidae)."  Behaviour,  volume  57, 
number  3-4  (1976),  pages  227-240. 

Karr,  James  R.  "An  Association  Between  a  Grass  (Paspalum  virgatum)  and 
Moths."  Biotropica,  volume  8,  number  4  (1976),  pages  284-285. 

.  "On  the  Relative  Abundance  of  Migrants  from  the  North  Temperate 

Zone  in  Tropical  Habitats."  Wilson  Bulletin,  volume  88,  number  3  (1976), 
pages  433-458. 

314  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

.    "Seasonality,    Resource    Availability,    and    Community    Diversity    in 

Tropical  Bird  Communities."  The  American  Naturalist,  volume  110,  number 
976  (1976),  pages  973-994. 

"Weights   of   African   Birds."   Bulletin   of   the   British    Ornithological 

Club,  volume  96,  number  3  (1976),  pages  92-96. 

"Within-  and  Between-Habitat  Avian  Diversity  in  African  and  Neo- 

tropical Lowland  Habitats."  Ecological  Monographs,  volume  46,  number  4 
(1976),  pages  457-481. 

"Ecological  Correlates  of  Rarity  in   a  Tropical   Forest  Bird  Commu- 

nity." The  Auk,  volume  94,  number  2  (1977),  pages  240-247. 

Kramer,  Donald  L.,  and  Jeffrey  B.  Graham.  "Synchronous  Air  Breathing,  a 
Social  Component  of  Respiration  in  Fishes."  Copeia,  number  4  (1976), 
pages  689-697. 

Lawrence,  J.  M.  "On  the  Role  of  the  Tube  Feet  and  Spines  in  the  Righting 
Response  of  Sea  Urchins  (Echinodermata:  Echinoidea)."  American  Zoolo- 
gist, volume  16,  number  2  (1976),  page  228. 

Leigh,  Egbert  G.,  Eric  L.  Charnov,  and  Robert  R.  Warner.  "Sex  Ratio,  Sex 
Change,  and  Natural  Selection."  In  Proceedings  of  the  National  Academy 
of  Sciences  of  the  United  States  of  America,  volume  73,  number  10,  pages 
3656-3660.    1976. 

Linares,  Olga  F.  "Animals  That  Were  Bad  to  Eat  Were  Good  to  Compete 
With:  An  Analysis  of  the  Conte  Style  from  Ancient  Panama."  In  Ritual 
and  Symbol  in  Native  Central  America,  edited  by  Philip  Young  and  James 
Howe.  University  of  Oregon,  Anthropological  Papers,  number  9  (1976), 
pages  3-19. 

.   "Current   Research:   Central  America."   American  Antiquity,   volume 

41,  number  2   (1976),  pages  225-226. 

"  'Garden  Hunting'  in  the  American  Tropics."   Human  Ecology,  vol- 

ume 4,  number  4  (1976),  pages  331-349. 

[Review]   The  Yukpa  Cultivation  System:  A  Study  of  Shifting  Culti- 

vation  in   Colombia   and   Venezuela,  by   Kenneth   Rudle.    Human    Ecology, 
volume  4,  number  3  (1976),  pages  273-275. 

-.  "Adaptive   Strategies   in   Western  Panama."   World  Archeology,  vol- 

ume 8,  number  3  (1977),  pages  304-319. 

Lubin,  Yael  D.>  G.  Gene  Montgomery,  and  Orrey  P.  Young.  "Food  Resources 
of  Anteaters  (Edentata:  Myrmecophagidae)  I.  A  Year's  Census  of  Arboreal 
Nests  of  Ants  and  Termites  on  Barro  Colorado  Island,  Panama  Canal  Zone." 
Biotropica,  volume  9,  number  1  (1977),  pages  26-34. 

McCosker,  John  E.  "The  Osteology,  Classification,  and  Relationships  of  the 
Eel  Family  Ophichthidae."  In  Proceedings  of  the  California  Academy  of 
Sciences,  volume  41,  number  1,  pages  1-123.  1977. 

McCoy,  Earl  D.,  and  Kenneth  L.  Heck.  "Biogeography  of  Corals,  Seagrasses, 
and  Mangroves:  An  Alternative  to  the  Center  of  Origin  Concept."  Sys- 
tematic Zoology,  volume  25,  number  3  (1976),  pages  201-210. 

McHargue,  Laurie  A.  "Nesting  of  Turkey  and  Black  Vultures  in  Panama." 
The  Wilson  Bulletin,  volume  89,  number  2  (1977),  pages  328-329. 

Maclntyre,  I.  G.,  and  Peter  W.  Glynn.  "Evolution  of  Modern  Caribbean  Fring- 
ing Reef,  Galeta  Point,  Panama."  The  American  Association  of  Petroleum 
Geologists  Bulletin,  volume  60,  number  7  (1976),  pages  1054-1072. 

May,  Michael  L.  "Warming  Rates  as  a  Function  of  Body  Size  in  Periodic 
Endotherms."  Journal  of  Comparative  Physiology,  volume  111,  number  1 
(1976),  pages  55-70. 

Mendel,  Frank.  "Postural  and  Locomotor  Behavior  of  Alouatta  palliata  on 
Various  Substrates."  Folia  Primatologica,  volume  26,  number  1  (1976), 
pages  36-53. 

Mendoza    B.,    Rodolfo   E.    "Estudio   Taxonomico    y    Morfologico    del    Genero 

Appendix  6.  Publications  of  the  Staff  I  315 

Marchantia   en  Panama."    [Thesis]    Universidad   de   Panama,   Republica   de 
Panama,  1976. 

Meyer,  Kaniaulono  B.  "Dorid  Nudibranchs  of  the  Caribbean  Coast  of  the 
Panama  Canal  Zone."  Bulletin  of  Marine  Science,  volume  27,  number  2 
(1977),  pages  299-307. 

Milton,  Katharine.  "The  Foraging  Strategy  of  the  Mantelet  Howler  Monkey 
(Allouatta  palliata)  in  the  Tropical  Forest  of  BCI,  Panama."  [Thesis]  Uni- 
versity of  New  York,  1977. 

Mittermeier,  Russell  A.,  and  John  G.  Fleagle.  "The  Locomotor  and  Postural 
Repertoires  of  Ateles  geoffroyi  and  Colobus  guereza,  and  a  Reevaluation 
of  the  Locomotor  Category  Semibrachiation."  American  Journal  of  Physical 
Anthropology,  volume  45,  number  2  (1976),  pages  235-256. 

Morton,  Eugene  S.  "Intratropical  Migration  in  the  Yellow-Green  Vireo  and 
Piratic  Fly-Catcher."  The  Auk,  volume  94,  number  1  (1977),  pages  97-106. 

.  "Vocal  Mimicry  in  the  Thick-Billed  Euphonia."  The  Wilson  Bulletin, 

volume  88,  number  3  (1976),  pages  485-487. 

-.  "Oxford  Biological  Expedition  to  the  San  Bias  Islands,  Panama,  1974." 

Bulletin  of  the  Oxford  University  Explorers  Club,  New  Series,  volume  1 
(1976),  pages  27-30. 

Reiskind,  Jonathan.  "Ant-Mimicry  in  Panamanian  Clubionid  and  Salticid  Spi- 
ders (Araneae:  Clubionidae,  Salticidae)."  Biotropica,  volume  9,  number  1 
(1977),  pages  1-8. 

Ricklefs,  Robert  E.  "Growth  Rate  of  Birds  in  the  Humid  New  World  Trop- 
ics." The  Ibis,  volume  118,  number  2  (1976),  pages  179-207. 

Robertson,  D.  R.,  H.  P.  A.  Sweatman,  E.  A.  Fletcher,  and  M.  G.  Cleland. 
"Schooling  as  a  Mechanism  for  Circumventing  the  Territoriality  of  Com- 
petitors." Ecology,  volume  57,  number  6  (1976),  pages  1208-1220. 

Robinson,  Michael  H.,  and  Barbara  Robinson.  "Discrimination  Between  Prey 
Types:  An  Innate  Component  of  the  Predatory  Behaviour  of  Araneid  Spi- 
ders." Zeitschrift  fur  Tier  psychologic  volume  41,  number  3  (1976),  pages 

.   "A   Tipulid   Associated  With   Spider  Webs   in   Papua  New   Guinea." 

The  Entomologist's  Monthly  Magazine,  volume  112  (1977),  pages  1-4. 

Robinson,  Michael  H.,  and  Nicholas  D.  Smythe.  "A  Technique  for  Observing 
the  Behaviour  of  Small  Animals  Under  Field  Conditions."  Psyche,  volume 
83,  number  2  (1976),  pages  210-212. 

Rodriguez  T.,  Cesar  A.,  y  Stella  Guerrero  B.  "La  Historia  Natural  y  el  Com- 
portamiento  de  Zygopachylus  albomarginis  (Chamberlain)  (Arachnida, 
Opiliones:  Gonyleptidae)."  Biotropica,  volume  8,  number  4  (1976),  pages 

Schaffer,  William  M.,  and  Egbert  G.  Leigh.  "The  Prospective  Role  of  Mathe- 
matical Theory  in  Plant  Ecology."  Systematic  Botany,  volume  1,  number  3 
(1976),  pages  209-232. 

Scott,  Norman  J.,  Jr.,  Alan  F.  Scott,  and  Linda  A.  Malmgren.  "Capturing  and 
Marking  Howler  Monkeys  for  Field  Behavioral  Studies."  Primates,  volume 
17,  number  4  (1976),  pages  527-533. 

Smith,  Alan  P.  "Albinism  in  Relation  to  Competition  in  Bamboo  Phyllostachys 
bambusoides."  Nature,  volume  266,  number  5602  (1977),  pages  527-529. 

Smith,  W.  John.  The  Behavior  of  Communicating;  An  Ethological  Approach. 
Cambridge,  Massachusetts:  Harvard  University  Press,  1977. 

Smith,  Wayne  L.  "Beneficial  Behavior  of  a  Symbiotic  Shrimp  to  its  Host 
Anemone."  Bulletin  of  Marine  Science,  volume  27,  number  2  (1977),  pages 

Smythe,  Nicholas.  "The  Function  of  Mammalian  Alarm  Advertising:  Social 
Signals  or  Pursuit  Invitation?"  The  American  Naturalist,  volume  111,  num- 
ber 977  (1977),  pages  191-194. 

316  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Vollrath,  Fritz.  "Konkurrenzvermeidung  Bei  Tropischen  kleptoparasitischen 
Haubennetzspinnen  der  Gattung  Argyrodes  (Arachnida:  Araneae:  Theri- 
diidae)."  Entomological  Cermanica,  volume  3,  number  1/2  (1976),  pages 

West,  David  A.  "Aposematic  Coloration  and  Mutualism  in  Sponge-Dwelling 
Tropical  Zoanthids."  In  Coelenterate  Ecology  and  Behavior,  edited  by  G.  O. 
Mackie.  New  York:  Plenum  Press,  1976. 

Wilder,  George  J.  "Structure  and  Development  of  Leaves  in  Carludovica 
palmata  (Cyclanthaceae)  with  Reference  to  Other  Cyclanthaceae  and 
Palmae."  American  Journal  of  Botany,  volume  63,  number  9  (1976),  pages 

.  "Structure  and  Symmetry  of  Species  of  the  Asplundia  Group  (Cyclan- 
thaceae) Having  Monopodial  Vegetative  Axes:  Schultesiophytum  Chorian- 
thum,  Dicranopygium  sp.  nov.,  Asplundia  rigida,  and  Thoracocarpus  bis- 
sectus."  Botanical  Gazette,  volume  138,  number  1  (1977),  pages  80-101. 

Williams,  Ernest  E.,  and  A.  Stanley  Rand.  "Species  Recognition,  Dewlap  Func- 
tion and  Faunal  Size."  American  Zoologist,  volume  17,  number  1  (1977), 
pages  261-270. 

Willis,  Edwin  O.  "Seasonal  Changes  in  the  Invertebrate  Litter  Fauna  on 
Barro  Colorado  Island,  Panama."  Revista  Brasileira  de  Biologia,  volume  36, 
number  3  (1976),  pages  643-657. 

Windsor,  Donald  M.  "Birds  as  Predators  on  the  Brood  of  Polybia  Wasps 
(Hymenoptera:  Vespidae:  Polistinae)  in  a  Costa  Rican  Deciduous  Forest." 
Biotropica,  volume  8,  number  2  (1976),  pages  111-116. 

.  editor.  "Environmental  Monitoring  and  Baseline  Data;  Tropical  Stud- 
ies." [Compiled  under  the  Smithsonian  Institution  Environmental  Science 
Program]  Washington,  D.C. :  Smithsonian  Institution,  1976. 

Wolda,  Hindrik.  "Ecologia  de  Insectos  en  la  Provincia  de  Chiriqui."  Conscien- 
cia,  volume  4,  number  1  (1977),  pages  3-5. 

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ciones."  Resumenes  Recibidos  para  el  IV  Simposium  Internacional  de  Eco- 
logia Tropical,  212  pages,  1977. 

Zaret,  Thomas  M.,  and  J.  Samuel  Suffern.  "Vertical  Migration  in  Zooplankton 
as  a  Predator  Avoidance  Mechanism."  Limnology  and  Oceanography,  vol- 
ume 21,  number  6   (1976),  pages  804-813. 

Zucker,  Naida.  "Neighbor  Dislodgement  and  Burrow-Filling  Activities  by  Male 
Uca  musica  terpsichores:  A  Spacing  Mechanism."  Marine  Biology,  volume 
41,  number  3  (1977),  pages  281-286. 



Dee,  Elaine  Evans.  "Watercolors  and  Drawings."  In  The  Royal  Pavilion  at 
Brighton.  New  York:  Cooper-Hewitt  Museum,  Smithsonian  Institution,  1977. 

Oliver,  Richard  B.  "Drawing  Toward  a  More  Modern  Architecture."  Archi- 
tectural Design  Magazine,  June  1977,  pages  444-446,  London.  (Entire  issue 
served  as  a  catalogue  for  the  Cooper-Hewitt  exhibition  of  the  same  name.) 

Sonday,  Milton.  "Repeat,  Repeat,  Repeat."  Craft  Horizons,  August  1977, 
pages  52-54. 

.  [Introductory  essay]  Fabric  of  Jewish  Life:  The  Textiles  in  the  Collec- 
tion of  the  Jewish  Museum.  New  York:  Jewish  Museum,  1977. 

Taylor,  Lisa  M.  [Foreword]  Man  transforms,  by  Hans  Hollein.  New  York: 
Cooper-Hewitt  Museum,  Smithsonian  Institution,  1976. 

.  [Foreword]  Cooper-Hewitt  Museum  1977  Benefit  Auction.  New  York: 

Cooper-Hewitt  Museum,  Smithsonian  Institution,  1977. 

Appendix  6.  Publications  of  the  Staff  I  317 

.    [Foreword]    The    Royal   Pavilion   at   Brighton.    New    York:    Cooper- 
Hewitt  Museum,  Smithsonian  Institution,  1977. 
.  [Foreword]  The  Sculpture  of  Minoru  and  Niizuma.  Tokyo:  Cibu  Mu- 

seum, 1977. 
.  "Turn  of  the  Century  Life."  Old  Westbury  News,  Spring  1977,  page  4. 


Atil,  Esin.  Monthly  articles  for  Turkey  Today  [the  Embassy  of  Turkey].  Jan- 
uary-September 1977. 
.  "Pottery:  The  High  Art  of  Lusterwares."  The  Washington  Post,  May 

8,  1977. 
Hobbs,  Susan.  "The  Little-Known  Side  of  One  Great  American  Collector." 

Smithsonian,  volume  7,  number  10  (January  1977),  pages  50-57. 
.   "A   Connoisseur's   Vision:   The   American   Art   Collection   of  Charles 

Lang  Freer."  American  Art  Review,  August  1977,  pages  76-101. 
Lovell,  Hin-cheung.  "Some  Northern  Chinese  Ceramic  Ware  of  the  Sixth  and 

Seventh  Centuries."  Oriental  Art,  Winter  1975,  pages  328-343. 
.  "A  Question  of  Choice,  a  Matter  of  Rendition."  Renditions,  number 

6  (Spring  1976),  pages  63-69. 
Winter,  John.    [Obituary]   "Harold  Phillip  Stern."  Washington  Conservation 

Guild  Newsletter,  volume  2,  number  2  (1977),  page  5. 


Fox,    Howard.    "Through    the    Golden    Door:    America's    Immigrant    Artists." 

Jewish  Quarterly,  Spring  1977. 
,  publisher  and  co-editor.  Sun  &  Moon:  A  Quarterly  of  Literature  and 

Art,  Washington,  D.C. 
Fox,  Howard,  and  Douglas  Messerli.  Index  to  Periodical  Fiction  in  English, 

1965-1969.  Metuchen,  New  Jersey:  Scarecrow  Press,  1977. 
Gettings,  Frank.  E.   E.   Cummings:   The  Poet  as  Artist.  Washington,  D.   C. : 

Smithsonian  Institution  Press,  December  1976. 
.   Roger  Long,  Paintings   and  Drawings.   Washington,   D.   C. :   Federal 

Reserve  Board,  Fine  Arts  Program,  April  1977. 
Lerner,  Abram.  Auguste  Rodin:  The  Burghers  of  Calais.  Washington,  D.  C. : 

Museum  Press,  Inc.,  1976. 
Millard,  Charles.  "Fauvism."  Hudson  Review,  Winter  1976/1977,  pages  576- 

.  The  Sculpture  of  Edgar  Degas.  Princeton,  New  Jersey:  Princeton  Uni- 
versity Press,  1977. 
Rosenzweig,  Phyllis.  The  Thomas  Eakins  Collection  of  the  Hirshhorn  Museum 

and  Sculpture  Garden.  Washington:  Smithsonian  Institution  Press,  1977. 
.    [Review]    The  Natural  Paradise,  edited  by  Kynaston  McShine.   Mh- 

seum  News,  July/August  1977. 
Tighe,  Mary  Ann.   "The  Caricature  of  David  Levine."   The  New   Republic, 

March  20,  1976. 
.  "Philip  Pearlstein:   Dis-Armorying  Art  History."  The  New  Republic 

April  24,  1976. 

"The  Daguerreotypes  of  Southworth  and  Hawes."  Smithsonian,  Octo- 

ber 1976. 

.   [Review]    The  Art  Scene,  by  Calvin  Tompkins.   The  New   Republic, 

October  23,  1976. 

.  "A  New  Federal  Agency:  Rx  for  Museum  Malaise."  Art  in  America, 

November/December  1976. 

.  [Review]  Portraits,  by  Richard  Avedon.  The  Washington  Post,  No- 
vember 7,  1976. 

318  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

.  "The  Best  Art  and  Photography  Books  of  1976."   The  Washington 

Post,  December  9,  1976. 

.  "Art  and  Exhibitionism."  The  New  Republic,  December  10,  1976. 

.   [Review]   Persepolis  and  Ancient  Iran.  Smithsonian,  December  1976. 

[Review]    Calder  Universe,  by   Jean    Lipman.    The  Washington   Post, 

December  19,  1976. 

[Review]  Eisenstaedt's  Album,  by  Philip  Kunhadt,  Jr.  The  Washington 

Post,  December  19,  1976. 
.  [Review]  Lisette  Model  Exhibition.  Art  in  America.  January/February 

.  "Gertrude  Kasebier,  Lost  and  Found."  Art  in  America,  March/April 


"DiSuevero  in  Grand  Rapids:  The  Public  Prevails."  Art  in  America, 

March/April  1977. 

-.  "Art  on  the  Line:  New  York,  Moscow,  New  York,  Moscow."  The  New 

Republic,  April  16,  1977. 

[Review]  Callahan  and  Paul  Strand:  Sixty  Years  of  Photographs.  The 

Washington  Post,  March  10,  1977. 

[Review]   Alfred  Stiglitz  and  the  American  Avant-Carde.   The  New 

York  Times  Book  Review,  May  8,  1977. 

[Review]  An  Early  Victorian  Album:  The  Photographic  Masterpieces 

of  David  Octavius  Hill  and  Robert  Adamson,  edited  by  Colin  Ford.  Smith- 
sonian, May  1977. 

Weil,  Stephen  E.  "Art  and  the  Law."  Law  Library  Journal,  volume  70,  number 
1  (February  1977),  pages  1-4. 

.  "  'If  Men  Were  Angels.  .  .,'  An  Overview  of  Museums  and  the  Law." 

Museum  News,  volume  56,  number  1  (September/October  1977),  pages  35-41. 


Mollela,  Arthur  P.,  and  Nathan  Reingold,  editors.  "The  Interaction  of  Science 
and  Technology  in  the  Industrial  Age."  [Special  issue]  Technology  and  Cul- 
ture, volume  17  (October  1976). 

Reingold,  Nathan.  The  Case  of  the  Disappearing  Laboratory."  American 
Quarterly,  volume  29  (Spring  1977),  pages  79-101. 

Reingold,  Nathan,  and  Arthur  P.  Molella.  [Introduction]  "The  Interaction  of 
Science  and  Technology  in  the  Industrial  Age."  [Special  issue]  Technology 
and  Culture,  volume  17  (October  1976). 



Americas:  The  Decorative  Arts  in  Latin  America  in  the  Era  of  the  Revolution. 
80  pages,  4  color  and  71  black-and-white  illustrations.  Washington,  D.C. : 
Smithsonian  Institution  Press,  October  1976.  $6.80. 

Robert  Rauschenberg.  218  pages,  21  color  and  259  black-and-white  illustra- 
tions. Washington,  D.C:  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts,  March  1977.  Paper 


Bermingham,  Peter.  [Essay]  The  Art  of  Poetry.  [Exhibition  checklist]  November 

.  [Essay]  China  Revisited:  Ink  Paintings  by  Thomas  George.  [Exhibition 

checklist]  February  1977. 

Flint,  Janet  A.  [Essay]  Jacob  Kainen:  Prints,  A  Retrospective.  [Exhibition  cata- 
logue] November  1976. 

Appendix  6.  Publications  of  the  Staff  I  319 

.  [Checklist  of  Prints]  Jacob  Kainen:  Prints,  A  Retrospective.  [Exhibition 

catalogue]  November  1976. 

-.  [Essay]   Raphael  Soyer:  Drawings  and  Watercolors.   [Exhibition  cata- 

logue] September  1977. 

Herman,  Lloyd.  [Foreword]  The  Object  as  Poet.  [Exhibition  catalogue]  Decem- 
ber 1976. 

.  [Essay]  Paint  on  Wood:  Decorated  American  Furniture  Since  the  17th 

Century.  [Exhibition  catalogue]  May  1977. 

-.  [Acknowledgments]  Americas:  The  Decorative  Arts  in  Latin  America 

in  the  Era  of  the  Revolution.  [Book]  October  1976. 

Hopps,  Walter.    [Acknowledgments]    Robert  Rauschenberg.   [Exhibition  cata- 
logue] March  1977. 

Hormats,  Bess.  "Whatever  Happened  to   the  German   War  Art  Collection?" 
Art  Monthly  (London),  December  1976. 

Taylor,  Joshua  C.  [Forword]  America:  The  Decorative  Arts  in  Latin  America 
in  the  Era  of  the  Revolution.  [Book]  October  1976. 

.   [Foreword]   Jacob  Kainen:  Prints,  A  Retrospective.    [Exhibition  cata- 
logue] November  1976. 

[Foreword]  Raices  y  Visionesi Roots  and  Visions.  [Exhibition  checklist] 

July  1977. 

.   [Foreword]  Robert  Rauschenberg.  [Exhibition  catalogue]  March  1977. 

[Essay]   Arthur  Wesley  Dow  (1857-1922).   [Exhibition  checklist]   July 


-.   [Essay]   Robert  Rauschenberg.   [Exhibition  checklist]   October  1976. 

Truettner,  William.  "George  Catlin,  Frank  Wilkin,  and  the  Prince  of  Econ- 
chatti."  Apollo,  volume  105  (February  1977),  pages  124-126. 


Kaleidoscope  Day:  The  Third  Dimension.  May  1977. 

The  Philadelphia  Trio.  October  1976. 

Carmina  Gallo.  November  1976. 

"Poetry  in  Sound."  December  1976. 

Liliane  Questel.  January  1977. 

Sara  Stern,  Alice  Takemoto.  May  1977. 

Daniel  Comegys,  Maurice  Murphy.  June  1977. 

Kathleen  Colding,  Alice  Takemoto.  June  1977. 

Candace  Johnson,  Al  Cifford,  Marjorie  Lee.  June  1977. 

Pamela  Barr,  Lydia  Bernstein.  July  1977. 

Lydian  Chamber  Players.  August  1977. 


Office  of  the  Director 

Bedini,  Silvio  A.  "Owls  in  the  Attic."  In  The  Smithsonian  Experience,  pages 
141-143.  Washington,  D.C. :  Smithsonian  Institution,  1977. 

"The  Hardware  of  History."  In  The  Smithsonian  Experience,  pages 

96-103.  Washington,  D.C:  Smithsonian  Institution,  1977. 

Friedel,  Robert.  Men,  Materials,  and  Ideas:  A  History  of  Celluloid.  [Ph.D. 
Dissertion]  Baltimore:  Johns  Hopkins  University,  1977. 

Friedel,  Robert,  and  John  W.  Servos.  "The  Saccharin  Flap  of  '07."  The  Wash- 
ington Post,  March  27,  1977,  page  C5. 

Hindle,  Brooke.  The  Meaning  of  the  Bethlehem  Waterworks.  Bethlehem, 
Pennsylvania,  1977. 

.    "Military    History    and    the    Museum."    Army    Museum    Newsletter, 

number  14  (1977),  pages  4-7. 

320  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

.  "Science  and  the  American  Revolution."  The  Journal  of  General  Edu- 
cation, number  28  (Fall  1976),  pages  223-236. 

Lawless,  Benjamin  W.  "The  Smithsonian  Style."  The  Smithsonian  Experience, 
pages  52-59.  Washington,  D.C. :  Smithsonian  Institution,  1977. 

Lawless,  Benjamin  W.,  and  Michael  Harris.  "Letters  to  a  Highly  Regarded 
Institution,"  by  Michael  Lawless  and  Benjamin  Harris  [sic].  Gargoyle, 
September  1977,  pages  8-19. 

Post,  Robert  C.  Physics,  Patents,  and  Politics:  A  Biography  of  Charles  Graf- 
ton Page.  New  York:  Science  History  Publications,  1976. 

.  "Steel  Ropes  into  the  Howling  Wilderness."  In  Los  Angeles:  Biog- 
raphy of  a  City,  edited  by  Johns  and  Laree  Caughey,  pages  192-197,  Berkeley, 
Los  Angeles,  and  London:  University  of  California  Press,  1976. 

-.  "Story  of  the  Pacific  Railway."  Evening  Outlook,  Santa  Monica,  Cali- 

fornia, September  11,  1976,  pages  6A-7A. 

"Stray  Sparks  from  the  Induction  Coil:  The  Volta  Prize  and  the  Page 

Patent."  In  Proceedings  of  the  Institute  of  Electrical  Engineers,  volume  64, 
page  1279-1287.  1976. 

-,    contributing    author.    Signers    of    the    Constitution:    Historic    Places 

Commemorating  the  Signing  of  the   Constitution.   Washington,  D.C:   De- 
partment of  the  Interior,  National  Park  Service,  1976. 
Tillotson,   Robert  G.   Museum  Security/Le  Securite   dan   les  Musees.   Edited 
by  Diana  D.  Menkes.  Paris:  International  Council  of  Museums,  May  1977. 

Department  of  Applied  Arts 

Adrosko,  Rita  J.  "18th  Century  American  Weavers,  Their  Looms  and  Their 
Products."  In  Imported  and  Domestic  Textiles  in  Eighteenth-Century  Amer- 
ica. 1975  Proceedings  of  the  Irene  Emery  Roundtable  on  Museum  Textiles. 
Washington,  D.C:  The  Textile  Museum,  1976. 

.  [Introduction]  22  Polish  Textile  Artists.  Washington,  DC:  Smith- 
sonian Institution  Press,  1977. 

"Weaving."    In   Spinning    and   Weaving.    Washington,   DC:    Smith- 

sonian Institution  Press,  1977. 

Bruns,  Franklin  R.,  Jr.  "The  United  States  'Liberty'  Issue,  1954-1963."  In  The 
American  Philatelic  Congress  Book,  1976,  pages  45-76.  Wilmington,  Dela- 
ware: The  American  Philatelic  Congress,  1976. 

.  American  Stamps.  Washington,  DC:  Smithsonian  Institution  Press, 


Clain-Stefanelli,  Elvira.  America  di  ieri  nelle  medaglie  e  nelle  placchette  di 
Victor  D.  Brenner.  [Reprint  from  La  Medaglia,  pages  53-67]  Milan,  Italy: 
S.  Johnson,  1976. 

.  Dimitri  Ferentinos  and  His  Art.  Athens,  Greece  1977. 

Clain-Stefanelli,  Elvira,  and  Vladimir  Clain-Stefanelli.  Das  grosse  Buch  der 
Miinzen  und  Medaillen.  Munich,  Germany:  Battenberg,  1976.  [Published 
with  an  appendix  by  Giinter  Shon.  Munzkatalog  Europa  von  1900  bis 

Hebert,  Raymond  J.  "The  Mecklenberg  Declaration  of  Independence  Centen- 
nial Medal."  The  Numismatist,  February  1977,  pages  273-284. 

Marzio,  Peter  C.  The  Art  Crusade.  Washington,  DC:  Smithsonian  Institution 
Press,  1976. 

.  "Democracy  in  American  Art."  In  Papers  on  American  Art.  Philadel- 
phia: Friends  of  Independence  Historical  Park,  1976. 

-.  "Illustrated  News  in  Early  American  Prints."  In  American  Printmak- 

ing  before  1876.  Washington,  DC:  Library  of  Congress,  1976. 

-.  "Mr.  Audubon  and  Mr.  Bien:  An  Early  Phase  in  the  History  of  Amer- 

ican Chromolithography."  In  Prospects,  edited  by  Jack  Salzman.  New  York: 
Burt  Franklin,  1976. 

Appendix  6.  Publications  of  the  Staff  I  321 

.  "The  American  Drawing  Books."  In  Philadelphia  Printmaking  before 

1860.  Philadelphia:  Tinicum  Press,  1977. 

Perfect  Likenesses:  Portraits  for  History  of  the  Indian  Tribes  of  North 

America  (1837-44).  Washington,  D.C. :  Smithsonian  Institution  Press,  1977. 

Norby,  Reidar.  "The  Scandinavian  Stamp  Lexicon."  Scandinavian  Scribe, 
volume  12,  number  1   (1976),  pages  5-6  and  11-12. 

.    Foreign   Stamps.    Washington,   D.C:    Smithsonian    Institution    Press, 


Ostroff,  Eugene.  Conserving  and  Restoring  Photographic  Collections.  [Re- 
vised edition]  Washington,  D.C:  American  Association  of  Museums,  1976. 

.  Photography.  Washington,  DC:  Smithsonian  Institution  Press,  1977. 

Scheele,  Carl  H.  American  Post  Offices.  Washington,  DC:  Smithsonian  Insti- 
tution Press,  1977. 

Department  of  Cultural  History 

Ahlborn,  Richard  E.  "Comments  on  Textiles  in  Eighteenth  Century  Spanish 
New  Mexico."  In  Imported  and  Domestic  Textiles  in  18th  Century  Amer- 
ica, edited  by  Patricia  L.  Fiske,  pages  132-146.  Washington,  DC:  The 
Textile  Museum,  1976. 

Fesperman,  John  T.  "Spanish  and  American  Organbuilding  in  Mexico."  News- 
letter of  the  American  Musical  Instrument  Society,  volume  5,  number  2/3 
(June/October  1976),  pages  1-2,  and  4. 

.  Works  of  Nicolas  de  Crigny.  [Performance  on  organ  built  by  Charles 

Fisk    at    the    University    of    Vermont]     Orion    Master    Recordings,    Inc. 

Golovin,  Anne  C.  "William  King  Jr.,  Georgetown  Furniture  Maker."  Antiques, 
volume  111,  number  5  (May  1977),  pages  1032-1037. 

Harris,  Karyn  Jean.  Costume  Display  Techniques.  Nashville,  Tennessee: 
American  Association  for  State  and  Local  History,  1977. 

Hollis,  Helen  R.  The  Musical  Instruments  of  Joseph  Haydn:  An  Introduction. 
Washington,  D.C:  Smithsonian  Institution  Press,  1977. 

Kidwell,  Claudia.  "Apparel  for  Ballooning  with  Speculations  on  More  Com- 
monplace Garb."  Costume  (London),  number  11,  pages  73-87. 

Roth,  Rodris.  "Relic  Furniture  and  George  J.  Henkels."  In  Collector's  Notes, 
edited  by  Dorothy  E.  Ellesin.  Antiques,  volume  110,  number  2  (August 
1976),  pages  276  and  356. 

.    "A   Patent   Model    by   John   Henry   Belter."   Antiques,   volume   111, 

number  5  (May  1977),  pages  1038-1040. 

Sheldon,  Robert.  "Brandenburg  Concerto  I."  In  Brandenburg  Concerti,  by 
J.  S.  Bach.  [Performance  with  Aston  Magna  Foundation  on  horn  in  F  by 
Johann  Grinwald,  Munich,  1725,  from  Smithsonian  collection]  Columbia 

Weaver,  James.  Pieces  de  Clavecin,  by  Jacques  Duphly.  [Performance  on 
harpsichord  by  Benoist  Stehlin,  Paris,  1770,  from  Smithsonian  collection] 
The  Smithsonian  Label. 

.  Pieces  de  Clavecin,  by  Antoine  Forqueray.  [Performance  on  harpsi- 
chord] Nonesuch  Records. 

"Brandenburg  Concerto  II."  In  Brandenburg  Concerti,  by  J.  S.  Bach. 

[Performance   with    Aston   Magna    Foundation   on    harpsichord]    Columbia 

.   Sonatas   for   Violin   and   Basso    Continuo   by    Francesco    Geminiani. 

[Performance  on  harpsichord]  Musical  Heritage  Society. 

322  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Department  of  Industries 

Berkebile,  Don  H.  American  Carriages,  Sleighs,  Sulkies  and  Carts.  New  York: 

Dover  Publications,  Inc.,  1977. 
Gardner,  Paul  V.  In  the  Smithsonian:  The  National  Museum  of  History  and 

Technology:   American   Class.   Washington,  D.C. :   Smithsonian   Institution 

Press,  1977. 
Schlebecker,  John  T.  "The  Use  of  Objects  in  Historical  Research."  Agricultural 

History,  volume  51  (January  1977),  pages  200-208. 
.   "Who's  a  Leader?  The  Published  Documents:  A   Commentary."  In 

Agricultural   Literature:    Proud   Heritage — Future   Promise,   pages    169-171. 

Washington,  D.C:  Associates  of  the  National  Agricultural  Library,  1977. 

"Eighteenth  Century  Living  Historical  Farms:  A  Search  for  Identity." 

In  Proceedings  of  the  Annual  Meeting,  1976,  pages  32-34.  Washington,  D.C. 
Association  for  Living  Historical  Farms  and  Agricultural  Museums,  1977. 

"Standards  of  Excellence  for  Living  Historical  Farms  and  Agricultural 

Museums."  In  Proceedings  of  the  Annual  Meeting,  1976,  pages  1-8.  Washing- 
ton, D.C:  Association  for  Living  Historical  Farms  and  Agricultural  Mu- 
seums, 1977. 

-,  editor.  [Bi-monthly]  Living  Historical  Farms  Bulletin,  volume  6,  num- 

bers 1-6  (November  1976-September  1977). 

Sharrer,  G.  Terry.  "Alexandria  Industry  and  Commerce,  1800-1900."  In  Alex- 
andria, A  Town  in  Transition,  edited  by  John  Macoll.  Alexandria,  Virginia: 
Alexandria  Historical  Society,  1977. 

White,  John  H.,  Jr.  "Grice  and  Long:  Steam-Car  Builders."  In  Prospects,  An 
Annual  of  American  Cultural  Studies,  volume  2,  pages  25-39.  New  York: 
Burt  Franklin  &  Co.,  Inc.,  1976. 

.  "Splendor  and  Gloom:  The  Decoration  of  Victorian  Railroad  Cars."  In 

Nineteenth  Century,  volume  3  (Spring  1977),  pages  38-47. 

.  "The  Why  in  History."  In  Trains  Magazine,  volume  37  (1977)  page  66. 

"The  Cover  Design  'A  Perfect  Light  Is  a  Luxury':   Pintsch  Gas  Car 

Lighting."  In  Technology  and  Culture,  volume  18,  pages  64-69. 

-,  editor.  Railroad  History,  numbers  135  (Autumn  1976)  and  136  (Spring 


Department  of  National  and  Military  History 

Klapthor,  Margaret  B.  "Presidential  China."  Cincinnati  Antiques  Festival  1976, 

pages  76-80,  October  1976. 
.   [Foreword]   Behind  the  Scenes,  by  the  Southern  Maryland  Regional 

Committee  of  National  Society  of  Colonial  Dames  of  America.  1977. 

The  First  Ladies  Cookbook.  Historical  text  of  Parents'  Magazine  Press, 

New  York,  1977.  [Chapters  on  the  Ford  administration  and  the  Carter  admin- 
Langley,    Harold   D.,    Francis    L.    Loewenheim,    and    Manfred    Jones,   editors. 

Roosevelt  and   Churchill:   Carteggi  Segreto   Di  Cuerra.    [Italian  edition  of 

Roosevelt   and   Churchill:    Their   Secret   Wartime    Correspondence]    Milan: 

Arnoldo  Mondadori,  1977. 
Lundeberg,  Philip  K.  "Convoy  and  Dry  Docks."  In  Dictionary  of  American 

History,  volume  2,  pages  217-218  and  375.  New  York:   Charles  Scribner's 

Sons,  1976. 
.  "Nautical  Archaeology:  Legal  Aspects."  In  Proceedings  of  the  Second 

International  Conference  of  Maritime  Museums,  Oslo,  1975,  pages  27-33. 

Oslo:  Norsk  Sjofartsmuseum,  1977. 
.    "Samuel    Eliot    Morison,    1887-1976."    Military    Affaires,    volume    40 

(1976),  pages  145-146. 

Appendix  6.  Publications  of  the  Staff  I  2>22> 

.  "Search  for  Continental  Gunboats  at  Schuylers  Island,  Lake  Cham- 
plain,  New  York."  In  National  Geographic  Society  Research  Reports,  1968, 
pages  213-223.  Washington,  D.C. :  Washington  National  Geographic  So- 
ciety, 1976. 

"Staff  Security  Training."  In  Museum  Security:  La  Securite  dans  les 

Musees,  pages  12-15,  65-67,  and  190-193.  Paris:  International  Council  of 
Museums,  1977. 

Mayo,  Edith  P.  "The  Woman's  Pavillion  at  the  Philadelphia  Centennial."  In 
Bulletin  of  the  National  Council  of  Women,  volume  24,  number  3  (Novem- 
ber/December 1976). 

.  "Ladies  and  Liberation:  Icon  and  Iconoclast  in  the  Women's  Move- 
ment." Icons  of  America,  Fall  1977. 

Department  of  Science  and  Technology 

Belfield,  Robert  B.  Relics  of  the  Electrical  Age.  Washington,  D.C:  Smith- 
sonian Institution,  Division  of  Electricity,  1977. 

Eklund,  Jon  B.  "Of  a  Spirit  in  the  Water:  Some  Early  Ideas  on  the  Aerial 
Dimension."  ISIS,  volume  67  (1976),  pages  527-550. 

Finn,  Bernard  S.  "Franklin  as  Electrician."  In  Proceedings  of  the  IEEE,  volume 
64,  pages  1270-1273.  1976. 

.  "Growing  Pains  at  the  Crossroads  of  the  World:  A  Submarine  Cable 

Station  in  the  1870s."  In  Proceedings  of  the  IEEE,  volume  64,  pages  1287- 
1292.  1976. 

Person-to-Person  Exhibit  Directory.   Washington,  D.C:   Smithsonian 

Institution,  Division  of  Electricity,  1976. 

Forman,  Paul.  "'Atom  Smashers:  Fifty  Years' — Preview  of  an  Exhibit  on  the 
History  of  High  Energy  Accelerators."  In  Proceedings  of  the  1977  Particle 
Accelerator  Conference.  IEEE  Transactions  on  Nuclear  Science,  volume 
NS-24,  pages  1896-1899.  1977. 

Hamarneh,  Sami  K.  "India's  Contribution  to  Medieval  Arabic  Medical  Edu- 
cation and  Practice."  Studies  in  History  of  Medicine,  volume  1,  New  Delhi, 
India,  page  5-35.  1977. 

.  "Reconstruction  of  an  1884  American  Pharmacy."  Pharmacy  in  His- 
tory, volume  19  (1977),  pages  109-114. 

Hamarneh,  Sami  K.,  and  A.  Y.  al-Hassan,  editors.  Institute  for  the  History  of 
Arabic  Science  News  Letter,  numbers  1-5  (June  1976-April  1977). 

Mayr,  Otto.  "The  Science-Technology  Relationship  as  a  Historiography 
Problem."  In  Technology  and  Culture,  volume  17  (1976),  pages  663-673. 

Multhauf,  Robert  P.  "Geology,  Chemistry,  and  the  Production  of  Common 
Salt."  Technology  and  Culture,  volume  17  (1976),  pages  634-645. 

Sivowitch,  Elliot  N.  [Introductory  essay]  The  Telephone,  An  Historical  An- 
thology. New  York:  Arno  Press,  1977. 

Tyne,  Gerald  F.  J.  Saga  of  the  Vacuum  Tube.  Indianapolis:  Howard  W.  Sams 
and  Co.,  Inc.,  1977. 


Beard,  Richard  E.,  and  Nancy  B.  Beard.  "Some  Notion  of  Nations."  [Review 
of  the  exhibition  "A  Nation  of  Nations"]  Roundtable  Reports,  Summer 

Henderson,  Amy  E.  "Expansionism  and  Louisiana."  [Review]  This  Affair  of 
Louisiana,  by  Alexander  De  Conde.  Reviews  in  American  History,  June 

.  [Review]  The  Impact  of  the  American  Revolution  Abroad,  Library  of 

Congress  Symposia  on  the  American  Revolution.  The  New  England  Quar- 
terly, June  1977. 

324  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

.  [Review]  A  Fair  and  Happy  Land,  by  William  A.  Owen.  The  Filson 

Club  History  Quarterly,  June  1977. 

[Review]  Revolt  in  Louisiana,  by  John  Preston  Moore.  Illinois  State 

Historical  Journal,  August  1977. 

Miles,  Ellen  G.  [Doctoral  dissertion]  Thomas  Hudson  (1701-1779):  Portraitist 
to  the  British  Establishment.  University  Microfilms,  June  1977. 

.   Portrait  Painting  in  America:   The  Nineteenth   Century.   New   York: 

Antiques  Magazine  Library,  1977. 

Miller,  Lillian  B.  [Review]  The  Patriots:  The  American  Revolution  Genera- 
tion of  Genius,  edited  by  Virginius  Dabney.  The  Journal  of  American  His- 
tory, September  1976. 

.   [Review]   The  New  York  Little  Renaissance:  Iconoclasm,  Modernism 

and  Nationalism  in  American   Culture,  1908-1927,  by  Arthur  Frank  Wer- 
theim.  History  Reviews  of  New  Books,  September  1976. 

-.  [Review]  Toward  a  National  Taste,  by  J.  Meredith  Neil.  The  William 

and  Mary  Quarterly,  October  1976. 

-.   [Review]   A  Rising  People:  The  Founding  of  the  United  States  1765 

to  1789,  by  the  American  Philosophical  Society,  1976.  Pennsylvania  Maga- 
zine of  History  and  Biography,  January  1977. 

[Review]  Architecture  in  the  United  States:  A  Survey  of  Architec- 

tural Styles  Since  1776,  by  Ralph  W.  Hammett.  History:  Reviews  of  New 
Books,  February  1977. 

[Review]   A  Cultural  History  of  the  American  Revolution:  Painting, 

Music,  Literature  and  the  Theatre  in  the  Colonies  and  the  United  States 
from  the  Treaty  of  Paris  to  the  Inauguration  of  George  Washington,  1763- 
1789,  by  Kenneth  Silverman.  The  Journal  of  American  History,  June  1977. 

O'Toole,  Dennis.  [Review]  The  Message  in  the  Bottle,  by  Walker  Percy. 
Roundtable  Reports,  Summer  1977. 

Voss,  Frederick.  [Review]  Manual  for  Museums,  by  Ralph  Lewis.  American 
Archivist,  July  1977. 

Yellis,  Kenneth.  "To  Speak  the  Name  of  the  Dead."  [Review  of  the  exhibition 
"Treasures  of  Tutankhamen"]  Roundtable  Reports,  Winter  1977. 


Washburn,  Wilcomb  E.  The  Indian  in  America.  [Japanese  translation  arranged 

with  Harper  and  Row   Publishers   Inc.   through   Japan  UNI   Agency,   Inc.] 

Tokyo:  Nan'un-do  Company,  Ltd.,  1977. 
.  "The  Moral  Equivalent  to  Football."  The  New  Republic,  volume  177, 

number  4  (July  23,  1977),  pages  33-36. 
Washburn,  Wilcomb  E.,  and  Robert  M.  Utley.  The  American  Heritage  History 

of  the  Indian  Wars.  New  York:  American  Heritage  Publishing  Company, 




Goodway,  Martha  E.  "Metallographic  Preparation  of  Art  and  Archaeological 
Specimens."   Technology  and  Conservation,   Spring   1977,   pages   10-13. 

,  editor.  Corrosion  and  Metal  Artifacts — A  Dialogue  between  Con- 
servators and  Archaeologists  and  Corrosion  Scientists,  NBS  Special  Publi- 
cation 479.  [Proceedings  of  meeting  at  the  National  Bureau  of  Standards] 
March  1976. 

Appendix  6.  Publications  of  the  Staff  I  325 


Lytle,  Richard  H,  Maynard  Brichford,  Harriet  Ostroff,  and  John  P.  Butler. 
"Intellectual  Central  of  Historical  Records."  The  American  Archivist,  vol- 
ume 40  (1977),  pages  307-313. 

.  [Review]  SP1NDEX  II  at  Cornell  University  and  a  Review  of  Archival 

Automation  in  the  United  States,  by  H.  Thomas  Hickerson,  Joan  Winters,  and 
Venetia  Beale.  The  American  Archivist,  volume  40  (1977). 


Abelson,  Alison  [Review]  Theatre  Came  File,  by  Viola  Spolin.  Roundtable 
Reports,  Spring  1967,  page  10. 

Coodwin,  Jack.  "Current  Bibliography  in  the  History  of  Technology  (1975)." 
Technology  and  Culture,  volume  18  (April  1977),  pages  272-390. 

Pisano,  Dominick.  "Charles  Lindbergh:  A  Selected  Bibliography."  In  Charles 
A.  Lindbergh:  An  American  Life,  by  Tom  D.  Crouch.  Washington,  D.C. : 
Smithsonian  Institution  Press,  1977. 

Ratzenberger,  Katharine.  [Review]  The  American  Personality:  The  Artist- 
Illustrator  of  Life  in  the  United  States,  1860-1930.  [Exhibition  at  the  Grun- 
wald  Center  for  the  Graphic  Arts]  Library  Journal,  November  1,  1976. 

.    [Review]    American   Architecture  and  Art:   A   Guide   to  Information 

Sources,  by  David  M.  Sokol.  Art  Libraries  Society  of  North  America  News- 
letter, volume  5,  number  1,  (December  1976). 

[Review]    The   Paintings   and  the  Journal   of  Joseph   Whiting  Stock. 

Library  Journal,  February  15,  1977. 

[Review]  Women  in  American  Architecture:  A  Historic  and  Contem- 

porary Perspective.  Library  Journal,  May  15,  1977. 

[Review]  American  Architects  from  the  First  World  War  to  the  Pres- 

ent, by  Lawrence  Wodehouse.  Library  Journal,  June  15,  1977. 
Shank,   Russell.    "Smithsonian    Institution   Libraries."   Bowker    Annual,   1977, 
pages  46-49. 



Karageorghis,  Vassos.  Treasures  of  Cyprus.  November  1976. 

Tanavoli,  Parvi,  and  John  Wertime.  Locks  from  Iran:  Pre-Islamic  to  Twen- 
tieth Century.  October  1976. 

Silverworks  from  Rio  de  la  Plata,  Argentina.  October  1976. 

The  Human  Form:  Sculpture,  Prints  and  Drawings  by  Fritz  Wotruba.  April 


Davis,  Nancy.  Folk  Woodcuts  from  Brazil's  Northeast.  November  1976. 
Mirage  in  the  West.  January  1977. 


Timbrell,  Charles.  Salzburger  Festspielel.  April  1977. 

Naive  Art  in  Yugoslavia.  October  1976. 

Treasures  of  Cyprus.  November  1976. 

Divine  Favors,  Human  Vows:  Milagros  from  Puerto  Rico.  May  1977. 

America's  First  Ladies.  July  1977. 

326  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 


Oliphant:  Paintings  and  Cartoons.  June  1977. 

And  Now  a  Message  .  .  .  A   Century  of  American   Advertising,   1830-1930. 
August  1977. 


The  Anacostia  Story:  1608-1930,  March  3,  1977. 


Taylor,  J.   R.    [Liner   notes]    "Fletcher   Henderson:    Developing   an   American 
Orchestra,  1923-1937."  Smithsonian  Collection  recording. 

.    [Liner   notes]    "Jammin'   for   the   Jackpot:    Big   Bands    and   Territory 

Bands  of  the  1930s."  New  World  Records  recording. 

.   [Liner  notes]  "Jim  Hall:  Commitment."  Horizon  recording. 

— .  [Liner  notes]  "Max  Roach:  The  Many  Sides  of  Max."  Trip  recording. 
[Liner  notes]  "Duke  Ellington:  Carnegie  Hall  Concert  1947."  Fantasy 


.   [Liner  notes]   "Charlie  Parker:  Encore."  Savoy  recording. 

.  "Jimmy  Owens:  A  Master's  Voice."  Radio  Free  Jazz,  December  1976. 

.  "Horace  Silver  Discography."  Radio  Free  Jazz,  March  1977. 

.  "Bond  Street  Breakdown."  Village  Voice,  July  18,  1977. 

.  [Review]  "Fats  Waller  Strides  Out  of  Sight."  Village  Voice,  August  1, 


— .  "Newport  Jazz  Festival  Events."  Radio  Free  Jazz,  August  1977. 

[Review]  "McCoy  Turner:  Fly  with  the  Wind."  Jazz  Magazine,  num- 

ber 2. 

.  [Review]  "Sonny  Clark  Memorial  Album."  Jazz  Magazine,  number  2. 

.  [Review]  Jazz  Is,  by  Nat  Hentoff.  Jazz  Magazine,  number  3. 

.  [Review]  "Kenny  Dorham:  But  Beautiful."  Jazz  Magazine,  number  3. 

.   [Review]   "Mai  Waldron:  One  and  Two."  Jazz  Magazine,  number  3. 

.  [Review]  "Art  Farmer:  Crawl  Space."  Jazz  Magazine,  number  4. 

.   [Review]  "Urbie  Green:  The  Fox."  Jazz  Magazine,  number  4. 

[Program  notes]    Smithsonian  Jazz   Heritage,  Jazz  Connoisseur,  and 

Blues  concerts.  1976-1977. 

[Preface  and  Introductions]  Greenwood  Press  Jazz  Periodicals,  Micro- 

form Series. 
Williams,  Martin.  "American  Jazz"  and  "Duke  Ellington."  In  The  Enjoyment 

of  Music,  by  Joseph  Machlis,  fourth  edition.  New  York:  W.  W.  Norton  and 

Co.,  Inc. 
.  [Liner  notes  for  recording]  "Ellington:  American  Composer."  In  Duke 

Ellington  1938,  Smithsonian  Collection  recording. 
.  [Program  notes]  "Ellington  and  Black,  Brown  and  Beige."  September 

29,  1977. 
.   [Liner  notes  for  recording]   "John  Birks  Gillespie:  The  Development 

of  an  American  Artist."  Smithsonian  Collection  recording. 


[Newsletter]  Art-to-Zoo.  Published  several  times  during  the  year. 
Let's  Go  to  the  Smithsonian:  A  Bulletin  for  Schools.  Published  several  times 
during  the  year. 

Appendix  6.  Publications  of  the  Staff  I  327 

Smithsonian  Learning  Opportunities  for  Schools:  1977-1978.  Washington, 
D.C. :  Smithsonian  Institution  Press,  August  15,  1977. 


Edelson,  Paul  J.,  co-author.  "Community  College  Aims  to  Expand  Occupa- 
tional Opportunities  for  the  Deaf."  Hearing  Rehabilitation  Quarterly,  Win- 
ter 1977. 

Lee,  Margaret  V.,  art  director,  and  Janet  W.  Solinger,  producer.  "Inscapes: 
Words  and  Images."  Poster  reproduction  of  an  original  serigraph  by  Philip 
Guston  with  poetry  by  Stanley  Kunitz.  [Commissioned  to  commemorate 
the  city-wide  poetry  and  visual  arts  festival]  Washington,  D.C,  December 


Brown,  David  A.  "An  Apollo  and  Marsyas  by  Anselmi."  Antologia  di  Belle 

Arti,  volume  1,  number  1  (March  1977),  pages  2-6. 
.  "A  Drawing  by  Zanetti  after  a  Fresco  on  the  Fondaco  dei  Tedeschi." 

Master  Drawings,  volume  15,  number  1  (Spring  1977),  pages  31-44. 
Carmean  E.  A.,  Jr.  "Morris  Louis  and  the  Modern  Tradition:  Part  II,  Cubism; 

Part  III,  Impression."  Arts  Magazine,  volume  51,  number  2  (October  1976), 

pages  112-117. 
.  Notes  on  Anne  Truitt.  [Exhibition  catalogue.]  Charlottesville,  Virginia: 

University  of  Virginia  Art  Museum,  October  1976. 

"Morris  Louis  and  the  Modern  Tradition:  Part  IV,  Fauvism;  Part  V, 

Later   Matisse."   Arts   Magazine,   volume  51,  number   3    (November   1976), 
pages  122-126. 

"Morris  Louis  and  the  Modern  Tradition:  Part  VI,  Abstraction."  Arts 

Magazine,  volume  51,  number  4  (December  1976),  pages  116-119. 

-.  "Juan  Gris  Fantomas."  Arts  Magazine,  volume  51,  number  5  (January 

1977),  pages  116-119. 

"Les  Fleurs  de  Malraux."  [Review]  Picasso's  Mask,  by  Andre  Malraux. 

The  Washington  Post,  January  2,  1977. 
Collins,  Jane  D.   "Plural/Singular   Headings   for   Art   Media:   an   ARLIS/NA 

Position    Paper."    ARLIS/NA    Newsletter,    volume    4,    number    6    (October 

1976),  page  171. 
Edelstein,  J.  M.  [Review]  Black  Sun:  The  Brief  Transit  and  Violent  Eclipse  of 

Harry  Crosby,  by  Geoffrey  Wolff.  The  New  Republic,  volume  175,  number 

19  (November  6,  1976),  pages  25-26. 
.  [Review]  The  Death  of  Venice,  by  Stephen  Fay  and  S.  Knightley.  The 

New  Republic,  volume  176,  number  5  (January  29,  1977),  pages  34-36. 

-.  [Review]  William  Caxton,  by  George  Painter.  The  New  Republic,  vol- 

ume 177,  number  27,  (July  2,  1977),  pages  37-38. 

Fine,  Ruth  Eileen.  Ernest  Haskell:  1876-1925.  [Exhibition  catalogue]  Bruns- 
wick, Maine:  Bowdoin  College  Museum  of  Art,  1976.  [Introductory  essay 
under  the  name  of  Ruth  Fine  Lahrer] 

.  Watercolors  by  Robert  Murray  and  Toni  Onley.  [Exhibition  cata- 
logue] Philadelphia:  Olympia  Galleries,  Ltd.,  1976.  [Introductory  essay  under 
the  name  Ruth  Fine  Lehrer] 

-,  editor.  "Notes  from   the  Women's  Caucus."  Art  Journal  and  News- 

letter, College  Art  Association,  1977. 
Lewis,    Douglas.    "Jacopo    Sansovino,    Sculptor    of    Venice."    In    symposium, 
Titan:  His  World  and  His  Legacy  (The  Bampton  Lectures  in  America).  New 
York:  Columbia  University,  October  16,  1976. 

328  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

.    "A   New   Book   of   Drawings   by   Francesco   Muttoni."    Arte    Veneta, 

volume  30  (1976),  pages  200-214. 

"Sculpture,   XIII   to  XX   Century."   In    The  National  Gallery   of  Art, 

edited  by  John  Walker.  New  York:  Harry  N.  Abrams,  Inc.,  1976. 

-.   "Interrelationships   between  Media  in   Palladio's  Domestic  Designs." 

[Paper  for  joint  session]  The  Renaissance  in  Italy,  meetings  of  the  College 
Art  Association  and  the  Society  of  Architectural  Historians,  Los  Angeles, 
February  3,  1977. 

"The   St.   Petersburg   Bronzes   of    Barye's   War   and   Peace."   Pharos, 

volume  14,  number  1  (May  1977),  pages  1-12. 

-.   "Patronage  of  Sixteenth-Century   Architects   by   the   Venetian   Patri- 

ciate." [Paper  for  conference]  Patronage  in  Renaissance  Europe.  The  Folger 

Institute    of    Renaissance    and    Eighteenth-Century    Studies,    Washington, 

D.C.,  May  20,  1977. 
Powell,  Earl  A.,  III.  "Manierre  Dawson's  Woman  in  Brown."  Arts  Magazine, 

September  1976,  pages  76-77. 
.  "Morton  Schanberg:  The  Machine  as  Icon."  Arts  Magazine  May  1977, 

pages  122-123. 
Robison,  Andrew.   Paper  in  Prints    [Exhibition  catalogue]   Washington,  D.C. : 

National  Gallery  of  Art,  1977. 
.   [Reviews]  Piranesi:  Etchings  and  Drawings,  by  Roseline  Bacou;  and 

Piranesi,  by   Jonathan   Scott.    The   Print   Collector's   Newsletter,   volume   8, 

number  2  (May-June  1977),  pages  48-49. 
Russell,  H.  Diane.   [Review]  Les  dessins  de  Stefano  Delia  Bella,  by  Francoise 

Viatte.  Art  Bulletin,  September  1977. 
.  "Reviews  of  Four  Books  on  Venetian  Drawings."  Master  Drawings, 

volume  14,  number  3  (Autumn  1976). 

"Walter  Pater  and  John  Addigton  Symonds:  A  Raking  View."  [Paper 

for  session]   Art  and  Homosexuality:   Classical  to  Modern   Times.   College 

Art  Association  of  America,  February  1977. 
Wheelock,  Arthur  K.,  Jr.  Perspective,  Optics  and  Delft  Artists  around  1650. 

New  York:  Garland  Press,  1977. 
.  "Gerard  Houckgeest  and  Emmanuel  de  Witte:  Architectural  Painting 

in  Delft."  Simiolus,  volume  8,  number  3   (1975-1976),  pages  167-185. 

"Constantijn  Huygens  and  Early  Attitudes  towards  the  Camera  Ob- 

scura."  History  of  Photography,  volume  1,  number  2  (1977),  pages  93-103. 
-.  "De  geschiendenis  en  bekoring  van  'De  Molen'."  De  Kroniek  van  het 

Rembr andthuis ,  volume  29,  number  1   (1977),  pages  20-32. 

-.    [Review]   Johannes   Vermeer,   by   Albert  Blankert.   The   Art  Bulletin, 

volume  59   (1977),  pages  439-441. 

Appendix  6.  Publications  of  the  Staff  I  329 

APPENDIX  7.  Academic  Appointments  in  Fiscal  Year  1977 

Smithsonian  Fellows  pursue  research  problems  in  Smithsonian  facilities  and 
collections  in  collaboration  with  professional  staff  members. 


Program  in  American  and  Cultural  History 

Alfred  P.  Hurley,  Ph.D.,  Princeton  University.  History  of  the  United  States 
Air  Force,  with  Forrest  C.  Pogue,  Eisenhower  Institute  for  Historical  Research, 
from  August  1,  1976,  through  July  31,  1977. 

Warren  B.  Walsh,  Ph.D.,  Harvard  University.  Impact  of  selected  senior  mili- 
tary colleges  upon  their  graduates,  especially  their  influence  toward  nonmili- 
tary  responses  to  problems  of  United  States  national  security,  with  Forrest  C. 
Pogue,  Eisenhower  Institute  for  Historical  Research,  from  January  1,  1977, 
through  June  30,  1977. 

Program  in  Anthropology 

M.  James  Blackman,  Ph.D.,  Ohio  State  University.  Study  of  the  obsidian  and 
"steatite"  from  Tel-e  Malyan,  Iran,  with  William  W.  Fitzhugh,  Department  of 
Anthropology,  and  Jacqueline  S.  Olin,  Conservation  Analytical  Laboratory, 
from  December  1,  1976,  through  November  30,  1977. 

Claire  M.  Cassidy,  Ph.D.,  University  of  Wisconsin.  Historical  analysis  of  char- 
acter and  distribution  of  New  World  Treponematoses,  with  Donald  J.  Ortner, 
Department  of  Anthropology,  from  September  1,  1976,  through  August  31, 

Steven  L.  Cox,  Ph.D.,  Harvard  University.  Analysis  of  Dorset  Eskimo  archeo- 
logical  collections  from  Southampton  and  Walrus  Islands,  N.W.T.,  Canada, 
with  William  W.  Fitzhugh,  Department  of  Anthropology,  December  1,  1976, 
through  November  30,  1977. 

Loretta  Fowler,  Ph.D.,  University  of  Illinois.  Historical  development  of  Arapa- 
hoe political  institutions,  with  John  C.  Ewers,  Department  of  Anthropology, 
September  1,  1976,  through  August  31,  1977. 

Program  in  Astrophysics 

John  Huchra,  Ph.D.,  California  Institute  of  Technology.  Near-infrared  photo- 
graphic survey  of  the  palactic  plane  on  the  48"  Schmidt,  complementary  to 
the  Palomar  Sky  Survey;  also  a  study  of  metal  abundance  in  galaxies  from 
emission  lines;  a  study  of  variability  of  Seyfert  galaxies;  and  the  extension  of 
theoretical  models  of  galaxy  evolution  to  systems  with  differing  metal  and 
helium  abundances,  with  George  Field,  Smithsonian  Astrophysical  Observa- 
tory, from  September  20,  1976,  through  September  20,  1977. 

330  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Charles  Lada,  Ph.D.,  Harvard  University.  Studies  of  interstellar  cloud  forma- 
tion and  star  formation,  with  A.  E.  Lilley,  Smithsonian  Astrophysical  Observa- 
tory, from  July  1,  1976,  through  June  30,  1977. 

Alan  M.  Levine,  Ph.D.,  Massachusetts  Institute  of  Technology.  Research  in 
X-ray  astronomy,  with  Riccardo  Giacconi,  Smithsonian  Astrophysical  Observa- 
tory, from  September  1,  1976,  through  August  31,  1977. 

Mark  J.  Reid,  Ph.D.,  California  Institute  of  Technology.  Studies  in  radio  as- 
tronomy, with  George  Field,  Smithsonian  Astrophysical  Observatory,  from 
September  1,  1976,  through  August  31,  1977. 

Program  in  Earth  Sciences 

R.  John  Knight,  Ph.D.,  McMaster  University,  Ontario,  Canada.  A  sedimento- 
logical  and  mineralogical  study  of  selected  basins  of  the  Hellenic  Trough  in 
the  eastern  Mediterranean  Sea,  with  Daniel  J.  Stanley,  Department  of  Paleo- 
biology, from  December  1,  1976,  through  November  30,  1977. 

Program  in  Environmental  Sciences 

Jozef  Grabowski,  Ph.D.,  Adam  Mickiewicz  University,  Poland.  Structure  and 
function  of  phycobiliproteins  and  their  natural  complexes  in  the  process  of 
photosynthesis,  with  Elisabeth  Gantt,  Radiation  Biology  Laboratory  from  July 
1,  1976,  through  June  30,  1977. 

David  W.  Hopkins,  Smithsonian-Eppley  Fellow,  Ph.D.,  University  of  Califor- 
nia, San  Diego.  Solar  energy  in  the  ultraviolet  and  blue  spectral  regions  and 
possible  effects  on  plant  growth  and  development  caused  by  changes  in  en- 
vironmental conditions,  with  William  H.  Klein,  Radiation  Biology  Laboratory, 
from  August  1,  1976,  through  July  31,  1977. 

Merten  H.  Jabben,  Ph.D.,  University  of  Freiburg,  Germany.  The  action  of 
phytochrome  on  the  flowering  response  of  wintex  barley,  with  Gerald  F. 
Dietzer,  Radiation  Biology  Laboratory,  from  May  24,  1976,  through  April  30, 

Douglas  W.  Mock,  Ph.D.,  University  of  Minnesota.  Nocturnal  adaptations  in 
neotropical  night  herons,  with  Eugene  S.  Morton,  National  Zoological  Park, 
from  September  1,  1976,  through  August  31,  1977. 

Galen  B.  Rathbun,  Ph.D.,  University  of  Nairobi,  Kenya.  Studies  of  the  terri- 
torial and  pair-bonding  behaviors  of  captive  Elephantulus  rufesceus  (Macro- 
scelididae)  and  the  significance  of  scent  marking,  with  John  F.  Eisenberg, 
National  Zoological  Park,  from  October  1,  1976,  through  September  30,  1977. 

Rasanayagam  Rudran,  Ph.D.,  University  of  Maryland.  The  ecology  and  be- 
havior of  the  red  howler  monkeys  of  Guatupo  National  Park  in  Venezuela, 
with  John  F.  Eisenberg,  National  Zoological  Park,  from  May  1,  1976,  through 
April  30,  1977. 

Stephen  N.  Turitzin,  Ph.D.,  Stanford  University.  Foliage  canopy  architecture 
and  the  efficiency  of  solar  energy  capture  by  a  salt-marsh  ecosystem,  with 
Bert  G.  Drake,  Radiation  Biology  Laboratory,  from  November  15,  1976, 
through  November  14,  1977. 

Program  in  Evolutionary  and  Systematic  Biology 

Gregory  D.  Bentz,  Ph.D.,  University  of  Pittsburgh.  Postcranial  adaptations  in 
the  osteology  and  myology  of  hummingbirds,  with  Richard  L.  Zusi,  Depart- 
ment of  Vertebrate  Zoology,  from  September  1,  1976,  through  August  31,  1977. 

Appendix  7.  Academic  Appointments  in  Fiscal  Year  1977  I  331 

Robert  S.  Carney,  Ph.D.,  Oregon  State  University.  Distribution  and  syste- 
matic affinities  of  Antarctic  holothurians  of  the  order  Elasipoda  Theel,  with 
David  L.  Pawson,  Department  of  Invertebrate  Zoology,  from  November  1, 
1976,  through  October  31,  1977. 

Russell  W.  Graham,  Ph.D.,  University  of  Texas,  Austin.  Pleistocene  mammals 
of  the  Valsequillo  fauna,  Pueblo,  Mexico,  with  Clayton  E.  Ray,  Department  of 
Paleobiology,  from  September  1,  1976,  through  August  31,  1977. 

Gerardo  Lamas,  Ph.D.,  University  of  Sao  Paulo,  Brazil.  Systematics  and  evolu- 
tion of  American  Dismorphiinae,  Danainae,  and  Ithomiinae,  with  William  D. 
Field,  Department  of  Entomology,  from  July  1,  1976,  through  June  30,  1977. 

Jan  J.  Roth,  Ph.D.,  University  of  Colorado.  The  parietal  eye,  an  evolutional 
approach  to  thermoregulation,  with  Nicholas  Hotton  III,  Department  of  Paleo- 
biology, from  October  1,  1976,  through  September  30,  1977. 

Program  in  the  History  of  Art 

Rena  N.  Coen,  Ph.D.,  University  of  Minnesota.  Coleridge's  Kubla  Khan  and 
Cole's  Voyage  of  Life,  also  Jacque-Louis  David  in  the  Wild  West,  with  William 
H.  Truettner,  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts,  from  September  1,  1976, 
through  August  31,  1977. 

Program  in  the  History  of  Science  and  Technology 

Joan  Bromberg,  Ph.D.,  University  of  Wisconsin.  Impact  of  electrical  technology 
and  laboratory  techniques  upon  the  concepts  of  electromagnetism,  1840-1940, 
with  Bernard  S.  Finn,  Department  of  Science  and  Technology,  from  November 
1,  1976,  through  October  31,  1977. 

R.  Douglas  Hurt,  Ph.D.,  Kansas  State  University.  Agricultural  technology  and 
farmer  organizations  on  the  Great  Plains,  with  John  T.  Schlebecker,  Depart- 
ment of  Industries,  from  June  15,  1976,  through  June  14,  1977. 

Thomas  F.  Jaras,  Ph.D.,  Georgetown  University.  Research  on  the  impact  of 
transoceanic  submarine  telegraphy  on  society,  with  Bernard  S.  Finn,  Depart- 
ment of  Science  and  Technology,  from  November  1,  1976,  through  May  31, 1977. 

Program  in  Tropical  Biology 

John  D.  Cubit,  Ph.D.,  University  of  Oregon.  The  effects  of  grazing  on  succes- 
sion in  marine  algae,  with  Peter  W.  Glynn,  Smithsonian  Tropical  Research 
Institute,  from  October  1,  1976,  through  September  30,  1977. 

William  E.  Glanz,  Ph.D.,  University  of  California,  Berkeley.  Community  ecol- 
ogy of  small  mammals  in  Panama  emphasizing  arboreal  species,  with  Nicholas 
D.  Smythe,  Smithsonian  Tropical  Research  Institute,  from  January  1,  1977, 
through  December  31,  1977. 

David  Janos,  Ph.D.,  University  of  Michigan.  The  synecology  of  vesicular- 
arbuscular  mycorrhizae,  with  Dr.  Nicholas  Smythe,  from  January  1  to  May 

Douglas  W.  Schemske,  Ph.D.,  University  of  Illinois.  A  coevolutionary  analysis 
of  plant-animal  interactions  in  the  genus  Costus  (Zingiberaceae),  with  Robert 
L.  Dressier,  Smithsonian  Tropical  Research  Institute,  from  January  1,  1977, 
through  December  31,  1978. 

332  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 


Program  in  American  and  Cultural  History 

Hazel  D.  Garcia,  Ph.D.  candidate,  University  of  Wisconsin.  Communications 
structure  during  the  westward  movement  to  Kentucky,  1769  to  1792,  with  Peter 
Marzio  and  Carl  Scheele,  Department  of  Applied  Arts,  from  August  1,  1976, 
through  July  31,  1977. 

Hans  L.  Paeffgen,  Ph.D.  candidate,  University  of  Michigan.  The  Berlin  block- 
ade and  airlift — a  study  in  Cold  War  diplomacy,  with  Forrest  C.  Pogue,  Eisen- 
hower Institute  for  Historical  Research,  from  July  1,  1976,  through  June  30, 

Steven  J.  Zeitlin,  Ph.D.  candidate,  University  of  Pennsylvania.  An  analysis  of 
the  content  and  structure  of  the  family  story  in  America,  with  Robert  H. 
Byington,  Division  of  Performing  Arts,  from  October  1,  1976  through  Septem- 
ber 30,  1977. 

Program  in  Anthropology 

Sara  L.  C.  Bisel,  Ph.D.  candidate,  University  of  Minnesota.  The  nutritional 
status  of  a  Greek  Bronze  Age  population,  with  J.  Lawrence  Angel,  Department 
of  Anthropology,  from  February  1,  1977,  through  September  30,  1977. 

Miguel  A.  Pazos,  University  of  San  Marcos,  Lima,  Peru.  Specialized  training 
in  archeological  conservation  emphasizing  conservation  and  preservation  of 
perishable  archeological  materials,  with  Clifford  Evans,  Jr.,  Department  of 
Anthropology,  from  May  15,  1976,  through  August  15,  1976. 

Jerome  Schaefer,  Ph.D.  candidate,  University  of  Arizona.  Archeological  inves- 
tigations of  a  late  Roman  community  in  the  Negev,  with  Gus  W.  Van  Beek, 
Department  of  Anthropology,  from  September  1,  1976,  through  August  31, 

Ann  M.  P.  Shaw,  Ph.D.  candidate,  Northwestern  University.  A  study  of  short- 
term  population  dynamics  in  the  American  Southwest,  with  Douglas  H.  Ube- 
laker,  Department  of  Anthropolgy,  from  August  1,  1976,  through  July  31,  1977. 

Program  in  Astrophysics 

Marc  Aaronson,  Ph.D.  candidate,  Harvard  University.  Infrared  observations 
and  stellar  synthesis  models  of  galaxies,  with  Giovanni  Fazio,  Smithsonian 
Astrophysical  Observatory,  from  September  1,  1976,  through  May  31,  1977. 

Scott  E.  Butler,  Ph.D.  candidate,  Harvard  University.  Charge  exchange  calcu- 
lations, radiative  and  collisional  processes,  with  Alexander  Dalgarno,  Smith- 
sonian Astrophysical  Observatory,  from  September  1,  1976,  through  May  31, 

Eric  D.  Feigelson,  Ph.D.  candidate,  Harvard  University.  Research  projects  in 
extra-galactic  and  high-energy  astrophysics,  with  Riccardo  Giaconni,  Smith- 
sonian Astrophysical  Observatory,  from  September  1,  1976,  through  May  31, 

Jules  P.  Halpern,  Ph.D.  candidate,  Harvard  University.  Imaging  studies  of  soft 
X-ray  objects  with  Riccardo  Giaconni,  Smithsonian  Astrophysical  Observatory, 
from  September  1,  1976,  through  May  31,  1977. 

Sten  Odenwald,  Ph.D.  candidate,  Harvard  University.  Comparative  studies  of 
giant  Cd  galaxies  which  are  radio  quiet  and  strong  radio  sources,  with  George 

Appendix  7.  Academic  Appointments  in  Fiscal  Year  1977  i  333 

B.  Field,  Smithsonian  Astrophysical  Observatory,  from  September  1,  1976, 
through  May  31,  1977. 

Carleton  R.  Pennypacker,  Ph.D.  candidate,  Harvard  University.  Research  on 
galactic  and  extra-galactic  objects  which  vary  with  speed  in  the  infrared,  with 
Costas  Papaliolios,  Smithsonian  Astrophysical  Observatory,  from  September 
1,  1976,  through  May  31,  1977. 

Stephen  C.  Perrenod,  Ph.D.  candidate,  Harvard  University.  Evolution  of  hot 
gas  in  clusters  of  galaxies,  with  George  B.  Field,  Smithsonian  Astrophysical 
Observatory,  from  June  17, 1976,  through  December  17,  1976. 

Ira  M.  Wasserman,  Ph.D.  candidate,  Harvard  University.  Studies  in  gravita- 
tion theory  and  relativistic  and  high  energy  astrophysics,  with  George  B.  Field 
and  S.  Weinberg,  Smithsonian  Astrophysical  Observatory,  from  June  1,  1976, 
through  August  31,  1976. 

Program  in  Environmental  Sciences 

Peter  V.  August,  Ph.D.  candidate,  Texas  Tech  University.  Population  ecology 
of  a  tropical  small-mammal  community,  with  John  F.  Eisenberg,  National  Zoo- 
logical Park,  from  June  15,  1976,  through  June  14,  1977. 

Margaret  A.  O'Connell,  Ph.D.  candidate,  Texas  Tech  University.  Population 
ecology  of  neotropical  rodents,  with  John  F.  Eisenberg,  National  Zoological 
Park,  from  June  15,  1976,  through  June  14, 1977. 

Rebecca  Gay  Troth,  Ph.D.  candidate,  University  of  Michigan.  Field  research 
on  the  problem  of  community  distribution  and  dynamics  of  Bombax  ceiba  and 
its  survival  tactics,  with  Dan  H.  Nicolson,  National  Herbarium,  from  February 
1,  1976,  through  January  31,  1977. 

Program  in  Evolutionary  and  Systematic  Biology 

John  B.  Heppner,  Ph.D.  candidate,  University  of  Florida.  A  revision  of  the 
North  American  Glyphipterygidae,  with  W.  Donald  Duckworth,  Department 
of  Entomology,  from  August  1,  1976,  July  31,  1977. 

Katherine  M.  Muzik,  Ph.D.  candidate,  University  of  Miami.  Systematics  and 
zoogeography  of  Indo-Pacific  octocorals,  with  Frederick  Bayer,  Department  of 
Invertebrate  Zoology,  from  June  1,  1976,  through  May  31, 1977. 

Alan  H.  Savitsky,  Ph.D.  candidate,  University  of  Kansas.  The  intergeneric 
relationships  of  xenodontine  snakes,  with  George  R.  Zug,  Department  of  Ver- 
tebrate Zoology,  from  July  1,  1976,  through  June  30,  1977. 

David  E.  Schindel,  Ph.D.  candidate,  Harvard  University.  Intrapopulational 
variability  during  changing  environments — a  case  study  of  Pennsylvania  gas- 
tropoda of  the  United  States,  with  Ellis  L.  Yochelson,  Department  of  Paleo- 
biology, from  February  15,  1976,  through  February  14,  1977. 

John  Utley,  Ph.D.  candidate,  Duke  University.  Systematic  studies  of  Theco- 
phylloid  Vriesea  species  (Bromeliaceae),  with  Lyman  B.  Smith,  Department  of 
Botany,  from  January  1,  1977,  through  December  31,  1977. 

Program  in  the  History  of  Art 

L.  Bruce  Darling,  Ph.D.  candidate,  University  of  Michigan.  Development  of 
Kumano  Mandara  paintings,  especially  the  Kumano  Miya  Mandara,  with 
Harold  P.  Stern,  Freer  Gallery  of  Art,  from  November  1,  1976,  through  April 
30,  1977. 

334  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Mitchell  D.  Kahan,  Ph.D.  candidate,  City  University  of  New  York.  Subjective 
trends  in  American  art  in  the  1930s,  surrealism  and  magic  realism,  with  Lois 
M.  Fink,  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts  and  Cynthia  J.  McCabe,  Hirshhorn 
Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden,  from  November  1,  1976,  through  October  31, 

Marc  E.  Krug,  Ph.D.  candidate,  University  of  Chicago.  A  social  realist  vision 
of  the  Great  Depression,  with  Joshua  C.  Taylor,  National  Collection  of  Fine 
Arts,  from  September  1,  1976,  through  May  31,  1977. 

Melinda  A.  Lorenz,  Ph.D.  candidate,  University  of  California,  Santa  Barbara. 
DeStijl  theory  and  its  relationship  with  American  geometric  abstraction,  1930- 
1950,  with  Lois  M.  Fink,  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts  and  Cynthia  J. 
McCabe,  Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden,  from  February  1,  1977, 
through  September  30,  1977. 

Miranda  McClintic,  Ph.D.  candidate,  New  York  University  Institute  of  Fine 
Arts.  Paintings  of  twentieth-century  sculptor  David  Smith,  with  Joshua  C. 
Taylor,  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts,  from  May  1,  1976,  through  April  30, 

Harold  B.  Nelson,  Jr.,  Ph.D.  candidate,  State  University  of  New  York,  Bing- 
hamton.  The  image  of  the  self  and  the  other  in  the  paintings  and  drawings  of 
Romaine  Brooks,  with  Adelyn  Breeskin,  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts,  from 
October  1,  1976,  through  August  31,  1977. 

Patrick  L.  Stewart,  Jr.,  Ph.D.  candidate,  University  of  Delaware.  Precisionism 
— avant-garde  and  tradition  in  American  art,  1915-1935,  with  Charles  W. 
Millard  III,  Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden,  from  September  1, 
1976,  through  July  31,  1977. 

Gilbert  T.  Vincent,  Ph.D.  candidate,  University  of  Delaware.  Artistic  percep- 
tions of  eighteenth-century  America  from  1870  to  1920,  with  Lois  M.  Fink, 
National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts,  from  September  1,  1976,  through  August  31, 

Barbara  A.  B.  Wolanin,  Ph.D.  candidate,  University  of  Wisconsin.  Arthur  B. 
Carles,  1882-1952,  Philadelphia  colorist,  with  Inez  Garson,  Hirshhorn  Museum 
and  Sculpture  Garden,  from  May  1,  1976,  through  October  31,  1977. 

Program  in  the  History  of  Science  and  Technology 

David  A.  Hounshell,  Ph.D.  candidate,  University  of  Delaware.  The  "American 
System"  of  manufacturing,  1850-1930,  with  Robert  C.  Post,  Office  of  the 
Director  of  the  Museum  of  History  and  Technology,  from  October  1,  1976, 
through  September  30,  1977. 

Allan  A.  Needell,  Ph.D.  candidate,  Yale  University.  Max  Planck's  contribution 
to  the  quantum  theory,  1910-1917,  with  Paul  Hanle,  National  Air  and  Space 
Museum,  from  September  1,  1976,  through  August  31,  1977. 

John  W.  Servos,  Ph.D.  candidate,  Johns  Hopkins  University.  Kahlenberg  and 
Noyes,  an  axis  for  development  of  physical  chemistry  in  the  United  States, 
with  Jon  B.  Eklund,  Department  of  Science  and  Technology,  from  September 
1,  1976,  through  August  31,  1977. 

Program  in  Tropical  Biology 

Charlotte  Gyllenhaal-Davis,  Ph.D.  candidate,  University  of  Chicago.  The  effect 
of  diversity  of  agricultural  plant  communities  on  the  rate  of  loss  of  nutrients 

Appendix  7.  Academic  Appointments  in  Fiscal  Year  1977  I  335 

from  the  ecosystem  in  slash-and-burn  agriculture,  with  Dr.  Olga  Linares.  July  1, 
1976  to  June  30,  1977. 

Steven  G.  Hoffman,  Ph.D.  candidate,  University  of  California  at  Santa  Bar- 
bara. The  sociobiology  of  two  tropical  reef  fishes,  with  D.  Ross  Robertson, 
Smithsonian  Tropical  Research  Institute,  from  February  1,  1977,  through 
January  31,  1978. 

Harilaos  A.  Lessios,  Ph.D.  candidate,  Yale  University.  Evolutionary  divergence 
of  shallow-water  sea  urchins  of  the  two  coasts  of  Panama,  with  Roberta 
Rubinoff,  Smithsonian  Tropical  Research  Institute,  from  April  1,  1976,  through 
March  31,  1977. 

John  Pickering,  Ph.D.  candidate,  Harvard  University.  Reproductive  strategies 
of  the  wasp,  Polistes  canadensis,  with  Donald  Windsor,  Smithsonian  Tropical 
Research  Institute,  from  June  1,  1976,  through  May  31,  1977. 

Program  in  American  and  Cultural  History 

Devon  Miller,  Yale  University.  An  examination  of  the  subject  matter  of  the 
Harry  T.  Peters  "America  on  Stone"  collection  of  lithographs,  1830-1870,  with 
Rodris  Roth,  Department  of  Cultural  History. 

Robert  Rydell,  University  of  California,  Los  Angeles.  America's  international 
expositions  in  the  late  nineteenth  and  early  twentieth  centuries — racial  under- 
pinnings of  Utopian  artifacts,  with  Herman  Viola,  Department  of  Anthro- 
pology, and  Wilcomb  Washburn,  Office  of  American  Studies. 

Deborah  Schaefer,  Texas  Tech  University.  The  history  of  taste  as  seen  in  the 
costume  of  political  figures,  with  Margaret  Klapthor,  Department  of  National 
and  Military  History. 

Program  in  Anthropology 

Joseph  Porter,  University  of  Texas.  Captain  John  G.  Bourke,  1846-1896,  and 
his  role  in  the  development  of  the  Bureau  of  American  Ethnology,  the  Ameri- 
can Folklore  Society,  and  the  role  of  government  in  late  nineteenth-century 
American  science,  with  John  Ewers,  Department  of  Anthropology. 

Program  in  Environmental  Sciences 

Pamela  Clark,  Clemson  University.  Mathematical  modeling  of  biological  pro- 
cesses, specifically  concerning  data  collected  on  carbon  dioxide  exchange  of 
vegetation  as  dependent  upon  light  intensity,  with  Bert  Drake,  Radiation 
Biology  Laboratory. 

Kerry  Malson,  Virginia  Polytechnic  Institute  and  State  University.  Research 
on  the  development  of  techniques  which  will  determine  pasture  forage  pro- 
duction and  utilization  by  exotic  hoofstock,  with  Christen  Wemmer,  National 
Zoological  Park's  Conservation  and  Research  Center. 

Jeanne  Roush,  University  of  Oklahoma.  Primate  studies — social  organization 
among  the  great  apes,  with  Devra  Kleiman,  National  Zoological  Park. 

Program  in  Evolutionary  and  Systematic  Biology 

Bruce  Beehler,  Princton  University.  Compilation  and  analysis  of  data  on  alti- 
tudinal  distribution  of  New  Guinea  forest  birds,  with  George  E.  Watson, 
Department  of  Vertebrate  Zoology. 

336  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Ralph  Chapman,  University  of  Rochester.  An  examination  of  character  dis- 
placement in  Cambrian  ptychopariid  trilobites,  with  Richard  Grant,  Depart- 
ment of  Paleobiology. 

Yenbutra  Songsakdi,  Chulalonghorn  University,  Thailand.  Curatorial  and  sys- 
tematic studies  of  museum  mammal  collections,  with  Richard  W.  Thorington, 
Jr.,  Department  of  Vertebrate  Zoology. 

Program  in  the  History  of  Art 

Diane  Robbins,  University  of  Michigan.  Edith  Halpert  and  the  Downtown 
Gallery,  with  Garnett  McCoy,  Archives  of  American  Art,  and  Judith  Zilczer, 
Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden. 

Program  in  the  History  of  Science  and  Technology 

Robert  Block,  University  of  California,  Los  Angeles.  William  John  McGee, 
1853-1912,  a  geographical  analysis  of  an  interdisciplinary  scientist,  with  James 
Glenn  and  Herman  Viola,  Department  of  Anthropology. 

Eda  Fowlks,  University  of  Minnesota.  Study  of  auxiliary  steam  engine  and 
locomotive  devices  and  suspension  bridges,  with  John  White,  Department  of 
Science  and  Technology. 

William  Pretzer,  Northern  Illinois  University.  Technology  and  work  culture  in 
nineteenth-century  American  printing,  with  Elizabeth  Harris,  Department  of 
Applied  Arts. 

Marc  Stern,  State  University  of  New  York,  Stony  Brook.  The  potters  of  Tren- 
ton, 1850-1890,  with  Susan  Myers,  Department  of  Cultural  History. 

Program  in  Tropical  Biology 

Susan  Farabaugh,  University  of  Maryland.  Sources  of  selection  on  pair  com- 
munication behavior  of  Thryothorus  wrens  in  Panama,  with  Neal  Smith, 
Smithsonian  Tropical  Research  Institute. 


Malcolm  Daniel,  Trinity  College,  Hartford.  Research  projects  in  the  Education 
Department  and  general  study  of  museum  procedures,  with  Edward  P.  Law- 
son,  Department  of  Education. 

Deborah  Fenton,  Stanford  University.  Participation  in  museum  activities  in 
the  educational  and  curatorial  departments,  with  Edward  P.  Lawson,  Depart- 
ment of  Education. 

Beatrice  Kernan,  Trinity  College,  Hartford.  Research  and  curatorial  work  in 
the  painting  and  sculpture  departments,  with  Edward  P.  Lawson,  Department 
of  Education. 

David  Penney,  New  York  University.  Research  and  study  in  the  educational 
and  curatorial  departments,  with  Edward  P.  Lawson,  Department  of  Education. 

Kimerly  Rorschach,  Brandeis  University.  Research  and  general  study  projects 
in  the  Education  Department,  with  Edward  P.  Lawson,  Department  of  Edu- 


Lewis  Kachur,  Columbia  University.  Research  for  cataloguing  modern  graphics 
and  paintings  from  the  recent  Woodward  Foundation  gift,  with  Lois  M.  Fink, 
Office  of  Research  and  Professional  Training. 

Appendix  7.  Academic  Appointments  in  Fiscal  Year  1977  I  337 

Jan  Lendman,  University  of  Buffalo.  Work  on  post-tour  booklet  for  elementary 
school  teachers  who  have  led  groups  touring  the  Museum,  with  Peter  Berming- 
ham  and  Margery  Gordon,  Office  of  Education. 

Kim  Sichel,  Brown  University.  Work  with  exhibitions  staff  installing  summer 
shows  at  the  National  Collection  and  at  the  Renwick  Gallery,  with  David 
Keeler,  Office  of  Exhibition  and  Design. 


Victoria  Page,  Northern  Virginia  Community  College.  Sorting  and  identifying 
marine  nematodes,  with  W.  Duane  Hope,  Department  of  Invertebrate  Zoology. 

Debra  Ann  Rudik,  Gallaudet  College.  Research  and  instruction  in  archival 
studies,  with  Richard  Lytle,  Smithsonian  Archives. 

Jil  Swearingen,  Northern  Virginia  Community  College.  Preparing  leaf  speci- 
mens by  leaf-clearing  process,  research  on  leaf  families,  and  study  of  leaf 
architectural  features,  with  Leo  Hickey,  Department  of  Paleobiology. 


Mahdokht  Javidpour,  Belgrade  University,  Yugoslavia.  Study  of  Gastropoda, 
with  Norman  F.  Sohl  and  Ellis  Yochelson,  Department  of  Paleobiology,  from 
November  15,  1976,  through  January  15,  1977. 


Tjako  Singleton  Mpulubusi,  National  Museum  and  Art  Gallery,  Gaborone, 
Botswana.  Cataloguing  ethnographic  material;  conserving  and  repairing  eth- 
nographic material;  registration;  storage;  exhibition  techniques  including 
photography,  model-making,  lighting,  and  preparation  of  labels  using  silk- 
screen  and  lettraset,  with  William  Fitzhugh,  Department  of  Anthropology,  and 
Eugene  Behlen,  Department  of  Exhibits,  from  April  1,  1976,  through  March  31, 


Suzanne  Kennedy,  Michigan  State  University.  Intern  in  exotic  animal  medicine, 
with  Dr.  Mitchell  Bush,  Office  of  Animal  Health,  from  June  1,  1976,  through 
September  1,  1977. 


Virginia  F.  Butera,  Johns  Hopkins  University.  Research  and  study  of  the  dif- 
ferent aspects  and  functions  of  the  various  departments  at  the  National  Col- 
lection of  Fine  Arts,  with  Patricia  Chieffo,  Office  of  Research  and  Profes- 
sional Training,  from  September  1,  1976  through  July  31,  1977. 


James  S.  Berkman,  Harvard  University.  Research  for  the  preparation  of  an- 
notations for  volume  three  of  the  Joseph  Henry  Papers,  with  Arthur  Molella, 
Assistant  Editor,  Joseph  Henry  Papers. 

Bruce  Craig,  George  Washington  University.  Assisting  the  Anthropology  De- 
partment Information  Specialist  answering  letters  and  doing  research  on  in- 
quiries from  the  public,  with  Ruth  Selig,  Department  of  Anthropology. 

Vicki  Enerson,  Carroll  College.  Study  of  all  phases  of  graphic  production 
techniques  and  practices,  with  Joseph  W.  Saunders,  Office  of  Exhibits  Central. 

338  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Richard  H.  Efthim,  University  of  Massachusetts.  Projects  in  collections  man- 
agement and  specimen  preparation,  with  Frederick  Collier,  Department  of 

Kenneth  Fannelli,  American  University.  Studies  in  cataloguing,  indexing,  and 
interpreting  historical  manuscripts  relating  to  nineteenth-century  American 
science  and  culture,  with  Arthur  P.  Molella,  Assistant  Editor,  Joseph  Henry 

Josephine  Ferrugia,  University  of  Maryland.  Research  on  the  history  of  Rock 
Creek  Cemetery  and  the  history  of  rural  cemeteries,  with  James  Goode,  Cura- 
tor, Smithsonian  Institution  Building. 

Sarah  L.  Henderson,  Lake  Forest  College.  Study  in  museum  registration  tech- 
niques; orientations  in  the  fields  of  textile  analysis,  conservation  of  museum 
objects,  techniques  of  exhibit  presentation;  and  research  in  the  libraries  and 
the  National  Archives,  with  Donald  Kloster,  Department  of  National  and 
Military  History. 

Alison  Herlihy,  University  of  California,  Berkeley.  Research  at  Smithsonian 
Libraries  and  at  the  Library  of  Congress  for  historical  material  to  be  used  in 
annotations  for  the  Papers  of  Joseph  Henry,  with  Marc  Rothenberg,  As- 
sistant Editor,  Joseph  Henry  Papers. 

Stephanie  Higgins,  Scripps  College.  Work  as  house  manager  for  the  Puppet 
Theatre  and  assistant  house  manager  for  the  winter  concert  series  and  box- 
office  assistant  for  both,  with  B.  C.  May,  Division  of  Performing  Arts. 

W.  Joy  Hughes,  George  Fox  College.  Studies  to  learn  skills  and  procedures 
needed  to  make  the  Division  of  Performing  Arts  function,  with  Suzanne 
Roschwalb,  Division  of  Performing  Arts. 

Nancy  Kessler,  Skidmore  College.  Assisting  in  the  preparation  of  a  major 
museum  exhibit,  learning  exhibits  production  techniques  and  practical  ex- 
hibits techniques,  with  Edith  Mayo  and  Herbert  Collins,  Department  of  Na- 
tional and  Military  History. 

Peggy  Levere,  Wellesley  College.  Social  and  architectural  research  on  various 
public  and  private  demolished  buildings,  with  James  Goode,  Curator,  Smith- 
sonian Institution  Building. 

Julia  McCoy,  American  University.  Research  relating  to  the  cultural  and 
architectural  history  of  prominent  demolished  Washington,  D.C.,  buildings, 
with  James  Goode,  Curator,  Smithsonian  Institution  Building. 

James  McNally,  New  York  University.  Researching,  collating,  and  describing 
the  data  sources  that  relate  to  the  changes  resulting  from  the  Immigration 
and  Nationality  Act  of  1965,  with  Roy  S.  Bryce-Laporte,  Research  Institute 
for  Immigration  and  Ethnic  Studies. 

David  Moin,  State  University  of  New  York  at  Binghamton.  Work  with  the 
Smithsonian  News  Bureau,  with  Gerald  Lipson,  Office  of  Public  Affairs. 

Kimberly  Morris,  University  of  Pittsburgh.  Work  as  assistant  to  fellows  in 
the  Woodrow  Wilson  Center;  participation  in  active  functions  of  Office  of 
International  Programs  and  Office  of  Seminars  and  Symposia,  with  Zadnek 
David,  Woodrow  Wilson  Center  for  International  Scholars;  Kennedy 
Schmertz,  Office  of  International  Programs;  and  Wilton  Dillon,  Office  of 
Seminars  and  Symposia. 

Brenda  Ray,  Emma  Willard  School.  Conservation  and  restoration  of  South- 
west American  Indian  pottery  collection  and  also  a  fit  study  of  tibia  from 
bison  antiquus  from  a  Colorado  site,  with  Jane  Norman  and  Dennis  Stanford, 
Department  of  Anthropology. 

Appendix  7.  Academic  Appointments  in  Fiscal  Year  1977 1  339 

Christine  Reese,  University  of  Pennsylvania.  Research  assistant  for  the  de- 
velopment of  the  Roots  of  Civilization  Hall  at  the  Museum  of  Natural  His- 
tory, with  Robert  K.  Evans,  Department  of  Exhibits. 

Sue  Rudo,  American  University.  Research  on  the  cultural  and  architectural 
history  of  prominent  buildings  in  Washington,  D.C.  which  have  been  demol- 
ished, with  James  Goode,  Curator,  Smithsonian  Institution  Building. 

Jane  Saginaw,  University  of  California,  Berkeley.  Assisting  with  the  survey 
of  collections  and  selection  of  specimens  and  with  the  development  of  exhibit 
planning  and  script  writing  for  the  Old  World  Archaeology  exhibit,  with 
Robert  K.  Evans,  Office  of  Exhibits. 

Gary  Smith,  The  Lindenwood  Colleges.  Study  to  gain  practical  experience  in 
marionette  theatre  production  including  manipulating  the  marionettes,  light- 
ing, sound,  construction,  setting  up  budget,  initial  financing,  advertising,  and 
booking,  with  Phyllis  Nierendorf,  Nicolo  Marionette  Company,  Division  of 
Performing  Arts. 

Kathleen  Spudis,  University  of  North  Carolina.  Study  in  museum  registra- 
tion techniques,  conservation  of  museum  objects,  techniques  of  exhibit  pres- 
entation, and  research  in  the  libraries  and  in  the  National  Archives,  with 
Donald  Kloster,  Department  of  National  and  Military  History. 

Lisa  A.  Wagner,  University  of  Massachusetts.  Research  on  African  weapons 
from  Belgian  Congo  in  order  to  identify  them,  with  Gordon  Gibson,  Depart- 
ment of  Anthropology. 

Larisa  Wanserski,  Northwestern  University.  Assisting  in  ongoing  aspects  of 
publicity  and  promotion  of  programs  sponsored  by  the  Division  of  Performing 
Arts,  including  press  release  and  program  note  composition,  writing  copy  for 
newsletter,  and  general  assistance,  with  Suzanne  Roschwalb,  Division  of  Per- 
forming Arts. 


Animal  Health 

Mark  Goldstein,  Cornell  University 

Jay  Gould,  Cornell  University 

Eileen  Hathaway,  University  of  Pennsylvania 

Lynn  Kramer,  Ohio  State  University 

Animal  Collection  Management 
Thomas  E.  Keefer,  University  of  Texas 

Zoo  Education,  Exhibits  and  Graphics 
Diana  Kwong,  Scripps  College 


Richard  H.  Bruner,  Armed  Forces  Institute  of  Pathology 

Tessa  Bunnag,  George  Washington  University 

Glenn  Crystal,  George  Washington  University 

David  J.  Donofrio,  Armed  Forces  Institute  of  Pathology 

Michael  Gross,  George  Washington  University 

340  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Margaret  Mitchell,  Washington  Technical  Institute 
Elizabeth  Neely,  Blue  Ridge  Community  College 
Leopoldo  Paasch,  George  Washington  University 
Page  Perry,  National  Cancer  Institute 
John  M.  Fletcher,  Armed  Forces  Institute  of  Pathology 
Robin  Townsend,  George  Washington  University 
Robert  C.  Trucksa,  Armed  Forces  Institute  of  Pathology 

Wildlife  Conservation 

Joel  Bradburne,  Warren  County  High  School 

Chantel  Cohen,  Goddard  College 

Louanne  DiPalma,  Patterson  College 

Kerry  Malson,  Virginia  Polytechnic  Institute  and  State  University 

Susan  Merritt,  Mount  Holyoke  College 

Andrea  Smith,  Patterson  College 

Zoological  Research 

Charles  Brady,  Ohio  University 

R.  Penn  Chu,  University  of  Maryland 

Todd  Davis,  George  Washington  University 

A.  Lang  Elliott,  University  of  Maryland 

Susan  Farabaugh,  University  of  Maryland 

Rebecca  Field,  Johns  Hopkins  University 

Kenneth  Green,  Johns  Hopkins  University 

Bruce  Groff,  University  of  Maryland 

Robert  Hoage,  University  of  Pittsburgh 

William  Principe,  New  Mexico  State 

Steve  Ralph,  University  of  Washington 

Elizabeth  Scheibel,  Mount  Holyoke  College 

Christine  Schonewald,  University  of  Maryland 

Susan  Wilson,  Free  University 

Paul  Woodward,  University  of  Maryland 


Douglas  Allchin,  Bucknell  University.  Upland  Plant  Ecology,  Dr.  Dennis 

Robert  Baker,  University  of  Maine.  Outdoor  Environmental  Education 
Curriculum  Development,  Dr.  John  Falk. 

David  Nash  Collier,  University  of  North  Carolina.  Estuarine  Molluscan 
Fauna,  Mr.  Robert  Cory. 

Mark  Jansen,  University  of  California,  Santa  Cruz.  Chemistry  of  Air-Water 
Interface,  Dr.  David  L.  Correll. 

Jeannine  Koshear  (2  terms),  University  of  California,  Santa  Cruz.  Structure 
and  Function  of  Communities  of  Terrestrial  Vertebrates  and  Anthropods, 
Dr.  James  Lynch. 

Bruce  Louks,  University  of  California  at  Davis.  Estuarine  Microbiology, 

Sharon  Maves  (3  terms),  University  of  California  at  Berkely.  Outdoor 
Environmental  Education  Curriculum  Development,  Dr.  John  Falk. 

Appendix  7.  Academic  Appointments  in  Fiscal  Year  1977  I  341 

Jim  Mills,   Earlham   College.   Structure   and  Function  of  Terrestrial  Animal 
Communities,  Dr.  James  Lynch. 

Douglas  Reece,  University  of  Missouri  at  Columbia.  Structure  and  Function 
of  Terrestrial  Animal  Communities,  Dr.  James  Lynch. 

Patricia  Valentine  (2  terms),  Barnard  College.  Psychological  Effects  of  Out- 
door Experiences,  Dr.  John  Balling. 

Mark  Whiting,  Utah  State  University.  Attached  Diatom  Communities  on 
Higher  Aquatic  Vascular  Plants,  Dr.  Maria  Faust. 


The  Edward  John  Noble  Foundation 

Mark  Bertness,  University  of  Maryland 

William  Cade,  University  of  Texas 

Phyllis  Coley,  University  of  Chicago 

Holly  Downing,  Smith  College 

Hugh  Drummond,  University  of  Tennessee 

Christina  Dubov,  San  Francisco  State  University 

Herbert  Kaufman,  John  Hopkins  University 

Harilaos  Lessios,  Yale  University 

Marcia  Litte,  Cornell  University 

Deedra  McClearn,  Harvard  University 

Nicholas  Volkman,  State  University  of  New  York 

Kentwood  Wells,  Cornell  University 

EXXON  Corporation 

Tania  Beliz,  Universidad  de  Panama 

Cesar  Benalcazar,  Universidad  del  Valle,  Cali,  Colombia 

Fabiola  Silva,  Universidad  del  Valle,  Cali,  Colombia 

Patricia  Chacon,  Universidad  del  Valle,  Cali,  Colombia 

Milton  Clark,  Universidad  de  Panama 

Vielka  Quintero,  Universidad  de  Panama 

Rafael  Rivera,  Universidad  de  Panama 

Ibero  Sarmiento,  Universidad  de  Panama 

Juan  del  Rosario,  Universidad  de  Panama 

Henry  B.  and  Grace  Doherty  Foundation 

Eric  Fischer,  University  of  California,  Berkeley 

Peter  Pressley,  University  of  British  Columbia,  Canada 

Ronald  Thresher,  University  of  Miami 

342  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

APPENDIX  8.  Benefactors  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution 
In  Fiscal  Year  1977 

As  a  trust  instrumentality  of  the  United  States,  the  Smithsonian  Institu- 
tion has  received  federal  support  since  it  was  established  in  1846  to  carry 
out  the  terms  of  James  Smithson's  will.  Appropriated  funds  have  long 
provided  important  additions  to  the  trust  funds,  donated  by  Smithson  and 
subsequent  benefactors,  to  enable  the  Institution  to  carry  out  its  respon- 
sibilities for  research  and  exhibition  of  the  national  collections  and  main- 
tenance of  the  valuable  objects  and  records  of  science,  history,  and  culture 
entrusted  to  the  Institution. 

The  Smithsonian's  basic  trust  funds  have  provided  the  Institution  with 
the  element  of  flexibility  and  independence  essential  to  its  creative,  inno- 
vative growth.  Trust  funds  traditionally  have  made  possible  many  of  the 
research,  acquisition,  and  educational  programs  which  are  central  to  the 
Smithsonian's  present  resources  and  achievements. 

The  Smithsonian  is  extremely  grateful  to  the  foundations,  corporations, 
and  individuals  listed  below  for  their  gifts  and  bequests  and  contributing 
memberships  in  the  Smithsonian  Associates. 


$100,000  or  more: 

Anonymous  S.  C.  Johnson  &  Son,  Inc. 

The  Morris  and  Gwendolyn  Cafritz      The  Andrew  W.  Mellon  Foundation 


$10,000  or  more: 

American  Commercial  Barge  Line  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Herbert  E.  Hawkes 

Company  Mrs.  James  Stewart  Hooker 

Anonymous  Janet  A.  Hooker  Charitable  Trust 

The  Arcadia  Foundation  International  Council  for 
Ashland  Oil,  Inc.  Bird  Preservation 

The  Brown  Foundation  Estate  of  Grover  Loening 

Mrs.  Helen  W.  Buckner  Mr.  Richard  Manoogian 

CBS  Foundation,  Inc.  The  Charles  E.  Merrill  Trust 

Peter  C.  Cornell  Trust  Milliken  Foundation 

Crowley  Maritime  Corporation  Mobil  Oil  Corporation 

Doubleday  &  Company,  Inc.  National  Geographic  Society 
The  Eppley  Foundation  for  Research    New  York  State  Council  on  the  Arts 

EXXON  Corporation  Edward  John  Noble  Foundation 

Max  C.  Fleischmann  Foundation  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Ralph  C.  Rinzler 

The  Ford  Foundation  Mr.  and  Mrs.  S.  Dillon  Ripley 

Appendix  8.  Benefactors  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution  I  343 

$10,000  or  more — continued 

Rockefeller  Brothers  Fund 
The  Rockefeller  Foundation 
The  Ruth  and  Vernon  Taylor 

The  Tinker  Foundation  Incorporated 
The  Tobacco  Institute,  Inc. 
Union  Mechling  Corporation 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Jeremy  P.  Waletzky 
DeWitt  Wallace  Fund,  Inc. 
Mr.  Thomas  J.  Watson,  Jr. 
The  Weatherhead  Foundation 
Matilda  R.  Wilson  Fund 
World  Wildlife  Fund 

$2,000  or  more: 

Miss  Janice  M.  Aime 
Amax  Foundation,  Inc. 
American  Can  Company 
American  Institute  of  Marine 

American  Ornithologists  Union 
American  Society  of  Interior  Design 

Educational  Foundation 
Amos  Press,  Incorporated 
Mrs.  Evelyn  F.  Bartlett 
The  Bass  Foundation 
Bath  Iron  Works  Corporation 
Mrs.  Patricia  D.  Beck 
Mr.  David  P.  Becker 
Mrs.  Betty  L.  Bergman 
Edith  C.  Blum  Foundation 
Book  of  the  Month  Club 
Mrs.  John  L.  Bradley 
Burlington  Industries  Foundation 
Butterick  Fashion  Marketing  Company 
Canal  Barge  Company,  Inc. 
Cargo  Carriers,  Incorporated 
Chevron  Chemical  Company 
CIBA-GEIGY  Corporation 
Classical  America 
Colt  Industries  Charitable 

Foundation,  Inc. 
Copernicus  Society  of  America 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  A.  Corroon 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Ron  Dante 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  F.  Arnold  Daum 
Diamond  Shamrock  Corporation 
Mr.  David  Dibner 
Dillingham  Corporation 
Dixie  Carriers,  Inc. 
The  Henry  L.  and  Grace  Doherty 

Charitable  Foundation,  Inc. 
Dow  Chemical  U.S.A. 
The  Charles  Engelhard  Foundation 
Mrs.  Sarah  G.  Epstein 
EXXON  Company,  U.S.A. 

Mrs.  Gertrude  Helen  Fay 

Finlay  Department 

Benson  &.  Edith  Ford  Fund 

Eleanor  Clay  Ford  Fund 

Mr.  S.  S.  Forrest,  Jr. 

Sumner  Gerard  Foundation 

Dr.  Gordon  Gibson 

Gladders  Barge  Line,  Inc. 

Evan  Gebhard  Gourgaud  Foundation 

Mr.  Charles  A.  Greenfield 

The  Griffis  Foundation,  Inc. 

Mr.  R.  Philip  Hanes,  Jr. 

Harcourt  Brace  Jovanovich,  Inc. 

Mr.  Louis  W.  Hill,  Jr. 

Mr.  George  W.  Hilton 

The  Hoffman-LaRoche  Foundation 

Mrs.  Everett  T.  House 

Ingram  Barge  Company 

Interdisciplinary  Communication 

Associates,  Inc. 
The  Island  Foundation 
Mrs.  Ronald  D.  Jeancon 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Gilbert  H.  Kinney 
Coe-Kerr  Gallery,  Inc. 
Samuel  H.  Kress  Foundation 
The  Lauder  Foundation 
Mr.  Howard  Lipman 
S.  C.  Loveland  Co.,  Inc. 
The  Magowan  Family  Foundation,  Inc. 
Mrs.  Robert  A.  Magowan 
The  Marriott  Foundation 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  Marsteller 
Brooks  and  Hope  B.  McCormick 

McDonald's  Corporation 
McGregor  Fund 
Dr.  and  Mrs.  A.  Melamed 
Mr.  Paul  Mellon 
Michigan  Council  for  the  Arts 
The  Midgard  Foundation 
Mrs.  Margaret  Carnegie  Miller 
Morey  Machinery,  Inc. 

344  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

$1,000  or  more — continued 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Thomas  B.  Morgan 
The  National  Needlework  Association 
The  Ohio  River  Company 
The  Ohrstrom  Foundation 
Peretz  Fund  of  the  Combined 

Jewish  Philanthropies  of 

Greater  Boston,  Inc. 
Ellis  L.  Phillips  Foundation 
The  Pioneer  Foundation 
Polaroid  Foundation,  Inc. 
The  Quaker  Oats  Company 
Rachelwood  Foundation 
Ralston  Purina  Trust  Fund 
Mr.  David  Rockefeller 
Mr.  John  D.  Rockefeller 
Governor  Nelson  A.  Rockefeller 
Arthur  Ross  Foundation 
Schering  Corporation 
Mrs.  Gertrude  Schweitzer 
Scripps  Institution  of  Oceanography 

Miss  Elsie  Shaver 

Mr.  Sidney  Singer,  Jr. 

Steelcase,  Inc. 

Miss  Elizabeth  Stein 

Steinway  &  Sons 

St.  Joe  Minerals  Corporation 

The  Florence  Louchheim  Stol 

The  Stroh  Brewery  Company 
Stroheim  &  Romann 
Mr.  John  S.  Thacher 
The  Valley  Line  Company 
Mr.  Richard  W.  Weatherhead 
The  Ellen  Bayard  Weedon  Foundation 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Lewis  A.  Weeks 
Wenner-Gren  Foundation 
Weyerhaeuser  Company 
The  Wyeth  Endowment  for 

American  Art 

$500  or  more: 

American  Philosophical  Society 


Mr.  Henry  Arnhold 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Stuart  B.  Avery 

Mr.  Barry  Bingham,  Sr. 

Mr.  Stephen  Brickel 

Dr.  G.  Arthur  Cooper 

Corning  Glass  Works  Foundation 

Mr.  G.  G.  Cornwell 

Mrs.  Priscilla  Cunningham 

Mrs.  Rita  M.  Cushman 

Joseph  C.  Domino,  Inc. 

General  Electric  Company 

GF  Business  Equipment,  Inc. 

Mrs.  Carol  Guyer 

Estate  of  Lazaar  Henkin 

Miss  Ruth  L.  Hewitt 

Mrs.  Amy  E.  Higgins 

Miss  Milka  Iconomoff 

IU  International 

The  JDR  3rd  Fund 

Estate  of  Charles  A.  Lindbergh 

Mr.  Donald  B.  Marron 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  Mayer 

Mrs.  Margaret  D.  McKee 

Mrs.  Constance  L.  Mellen 

National  Audubon  Society 

Mr.  David  L.  Pearson 

Mr.  Sidney  N.  Shure 

United  States  Postal  Service 

Upper  Mississippi  Towing  Corporation 

Mrs.  Edward  P.  Williams 

Miss  Mary  Knowles  Wisner 

We    also    gratefully    acknowledege    other    contributions    in    excess    of 
$100,000  received  from  approximately  1,100  contributors  in  1977. 


The  Contributing  Members  of  the  Smithsonian  National  Associates  sup- 
port the  Institution's  work  through  annual  contributions  of  $50,  $100, 
and  $500.  In  the  past  year  the  contributing  membership  doubled  from 
885  to  1,616  and  maintained  a  renewal  rate  of  85  percent. 

Appendix  8.  Benefactors  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution  I  345 

The  James  Smithson  Society  was  created  in  1977  to  encourage  and 
recognize  major  gifts  to  the  Smithsonian  Institution.  This  Society,  which 
is  the  highest  order  of  the  Contributing  Membership  in  the  Smithsonian 
Associates,  is  comprised  of  two  membership  categories.  Annual  members 
are  individuals  who  make  unrestricted  contributions  of  $1,000  to  $24,999 
annually.  Life  Members  are  those  who  give  $25,000  or  more  either  in 
monetary  gifts  or  additions  to  the  collections. 

The  Smithsonian  Institution  gratefully  acknowledges  the  generous  sup- 
port of  the  James  Smithson  Society  Charter  members,  1977  Life  members, 
and  the  Contributing  Members  of  the  Smithsonian  Associates. 

Life  Members 


Mr.  and  Mrs.  Gerald  M.  Best 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Leigh  B.  Block 
Mr.  Thomas  M.  Evans 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Joseph  H.  Hirshhorn 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  A.  Logan 


Mr.  and  Mrs.  Louis  Kaufman 


Mr.  Duncan  L.  Edwards 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Don  C.  Harrold 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Jacob  Kainen 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Edmund  C.  Monell 
Judge  and  Mrs.  G.   Burton  Pearson 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  Paul  Remensynder 
Dr.  and  Mrs.  Hans  Syz 
Mr.  Barry  Yampol 

Dr.  David  Landau 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Abraham  Rattner 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Ralph  C.  Rinzler 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Morton  Silverman 

Annual  Members  ($1,000  and  above) 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  5.  Anderson 
The  Honorable  and  Mrs. 

Walter  H.  Annenberg 
Mrs.  Evelyn  Bartlett 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Harry  Hood  Bassett 
Mr.  Henry  C.  Beck,  Jr. 
Mrs.  Henry  C.  Beck,  Jr. 
The  Honorable  and  Mrs. 

Ralph  E.  Becker 
Mrs.  Harry  Payne  Bingham 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  A.  Smith  Bowman 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Delong  Bowman 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  Adams  Bross 
Mr.  Keith  S.  Brown 
Mrs.  Keith  S.  Brown 
The  Honorable  and  Mrs. 

Philip  W.  Buchen 
Major  General  and  Mrs. 

Daniel  J.  Campbell 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  George  P.  Caulkins,  Jr. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  Home  Charles 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Walker  L.  Cisler 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Richard  P.  Cooley 

Mr.  Marshall  B.  Coyne 

Miss  Louise  Crane 

Mr.  Kenneth  M.  Crosby 

Mr.  Joseph  F.  Cullman  III 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Leo  Daly  III 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Justin  Dart 

Mrs.  Kathryn  W.  Donaldson 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  J.  C.  Donnell  II 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Gaylord  Donnelley 

Mr.  John  T.  Dorrance,  Jr. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Morton  Downey 

Mrs.  Dorothy  D.  Eweson 

The  Honorable  John  Clifford  Folger 

Mrs.  John  Clifford  Folger 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Alfred  C.  Glassell,  Jr. 

346  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Annual  Members — continued 

Mr.  Jerome  L.  Greene 

Mr.  John  Bradley  Greene 

Mrs.  John  Bradley  Greene 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Gilbert  C.  Greenway 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  H.  Greer,  Jr. 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Armand  Hammer 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  L.  Hanley 

Mrs.  W.  Averell  Harriman 

John  and  Lucia  Heard 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  R.  Herring 

The  Honorable  and  Mrs. 

Frank  N.  Ikard 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  George  H.  Jacobus 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  George  Frederick 

Jewett,  Jr. 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  H.  Warren  Kampf 
The  Honorable  and  Mrs.  W.  John 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Gilbert  Hart  Kinney 
The  Honorable  and  Mrs.  Philip  M. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Harold  F.  Linder 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  A.  Magowan 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Leonard  H.  Marks 
The  Honorable  and  Mrs. 

William  McChesney  Martin,  Jr. 
The  Honorable  and  Mrs.  George  C. 

The  Honorable  and  Mrs.  Robert  M. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Henry  S.  McNeil 
Dr.  and  Mrs.  Ruben  F.  Mettler 
Mrs.  Clifford  Michel 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  D.  Murchison 
Dr.  Josephine  L.  Murray 
The  Honorable  and  Mrs. 

Paul  H.  Nitze 
Mr.  Ricard  R.  Ohrstrom 

The  Honorable  and  Mrs.  Daniel 

The  Honorable  and  Mrs.  Jefferson 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  George  S.  Pillsbury 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Louis  F.  Polk 
The  Honorable  Frederick  W.  Richmond 
Dina  Merrill  Robertson 
Mr.  John  J.  Robertson 
Dr.  and  Mrs.  Milton  L.  Rock 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  R.  Salomon 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  B.  Francis  Saul  II 
Miss  Ottilie  Schillig 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Arthur  A.  Seeligson,  Jr. 
Dr.  and  Mrs.  James  H.  Semans 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  M.  Siegel 
Mr.  David  G.  Skinner 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  C.  Grove  Smith 
The  Honorable  and  Mrs.  Gerard  C. 

Mrs.  Edith  C.  Steinbright 
Miss  Marilyn  L.  Steinbright 
Mrs.  Gardiner  Symonds 
Mr.  Franz  G.  Talley 
Mrs.  Franz  G.  Talley 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Vernon  F.  Taylor,  Jr. 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  George  E.  Tener 
The  Honorable  and  Mrs.  Clark  W. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Wynant  Davis 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  C.  Woods  Vest,  Jr. 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Thomas  J.  Watson,  Jr. 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Benjamin  Welles 
Mr.  and  Mrs.   Brayton  Wilbur,  Jr. 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Morton  H.  Wilner 
Mr.  James  O.  Wright 
His  Excellency  Ardeshir  Zahedi 

SUSTAINING  MEMBERS  ($500  and  above) 

Mr.  George  H.  C.  Arrowsmith 

Mr.  Richard  Lee  Birchler 

Mr.  Alfred  P.  Brooks 

Ms.  Frances  Sells  Doss 

Mr.  Atwater  Kent 

Mr.  F.  M.  Kirby 

J.  A.  MacDonald  Foundation 

Mr.  Leroy  W.  Mink 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  N.  Minutillo 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Mandell  J.  Ourisman 

Ms.  Deborah  L.  Perry 

Mr.  and  Mrs.   Paul  Roberts 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Page  W.  Smith 

Mr.  Marshall  Steele 

Mrs.  Arthur  H.  Sulzberger 

Miss  Cecile  G.  Timolat 

Mrs.  Noam  D.  Zelman 

Appendix  8.  Benefactors  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution  I  347 

DONOR  MEMBERS  ($100  and  above) 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Stanley  N.  Allan 

Mr.  Woodley  Allen 

Mrs.  Elizabeth  G.  Amory 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  David  R.  Anderson 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  E.  B.  Anderson 

Mr.  Emmett  D.  Anderson 

Mr.  Joseph  R.  Anderson 

Mr.  Myron  Anderson 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  R.  5.  Antes 

Mr.  John  D.  Archbold 

Mr.  Fred  C.  Babcock 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Morton  W.  Bachrach 

Mr.  Alan  Baer 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Smith  Bagley 

Mr.  John  E.  Baker 

Mr.  Warren  Baker 

Lieutenant  General  and  Mrs. 

Earl  W.  Barnes 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Charles  L.  Bartlett 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  Bartlett 
Ms.  Lucille  Bass 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  J.  Pat  Beaird 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Walter  Beck 
Colonel  and  Mrs.  George  C.  Berger 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  H.  Bernard 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Seymour  Bernett 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Steven  Bershader 
Dr.  and  Mrs.  E.  A.  Bestard 
Mr.  H.  Harold  Bishop 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Donald  Eric  Black 
The  Honorable  and  Mrs.  Robert  O. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  D.  H.  Blumberg 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  J.  B.  Bogan 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Mel  H.  Bolster 
Ms.  Joan  V.  Bonk 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  F.  Borowsky 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  Boyd 
Mr.  Maxwell  Brace 
Miss  Eugenie  Rowe  Bradford 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Glenn  M.  Branch 
Mr.  J.  Bruce  Bredin 
Dr.  and  Mrs.  S.  B.  Brinkley 
Mr.  F.  Carroll  Brown 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Frederick  B.  Bryant 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  C.  W.  Buhler 
The  Honorable  and  Mrs. 

William  A.  M.  Burden 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  I.  Townsend 

Burden  III 
Mrs.  Jackson  Burke 
Mrs.  Julia  T.  Burlen 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Harry  W.  Burns 
Dr.  and  Mrs.  J.  A.  Burwell 

Mr.  Marion  B.  Busch 

Mr.  E.  T.  Byram 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  James  M.  Byrne 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Charles  M.  Cabaniss 

Dr.  G.  W.  Cage 

Mrs.  Eleanor  Rixson  Cannon 

Dr.  Francis  Caponegro,  Jr. 

Mr.  William  I.  Cargo 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Leo  A.  Carten 

The  Honorable  and  Mrs.  Henry  E. 

Catto,  Jr. 
Ms.  Priscilla  M.  Christy 
Mr.  Blake  Clark 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Jerald  L.  Clark 
Captain  and  Mrs.  Richard  Cobb 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Douglas  W.  Coffey 
Colonel  and  Mrs.  Russell  C.  Coile 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  A.  R.  Colon 
Dr.  George  W.  Conner 
Mr.   Leonardo  Contardo 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  J.  A.  Corbet 
Ms.  Patricia    d  w  Counts 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  David  M.  Crabtree 
Mr.  Stephen  F.  Crum 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Alan  M.  Dachs 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Keith  Davis 
Ms.  Caroline  de  Weinberg 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Joseph  E.  Dean 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  David  R.  Dear 
Mr.  Hal  P.  Demuth 
Dr.  and  Mrs.  Lewis  Hilliard  Dennis 
General  Jacob  L.  Devers 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  Doherty 
Mr.  George  Arntzen  Doole 
Mr.  Alden  Lowell  Doud 
Dr.  Joseph  S.  Drage 
Mr.  Wilson  A.  Draughon 
Mrs.  Helen  Jean  Arthur  Dunn 
Mr.  Lawrence  A.  Ehrhart 
Mr.  George  M.  Elsey 
Ms.  Ann  E.  Erdman 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  G.  Esswein 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  James  G.  Evans,  Jr. 
Colonel  and  Mrs.  J.  J.  Felmley 
The  Honorable  William  H.  Fitzgerald 
Mr.  Julius  Fleischman 
Mr.  Robert  W.  Fleming 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  M.  K.  Fleschner 
Mr.  David  Fogelson 
The  Honorable  and  Mrs.  Edward  Foley 
Mr.  Richard  E.  Ford 
Mr.  Earl  M.  Foreman 
Miss  Helen  E.  Forshier 
Ms.  Perry  J.  Frank 

348  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Donor  Members — continued 

Mrs.  J.  E.  A.  Freeman 

Mrs.  Rowland  G.  Freeman 

Mr.  M.  C.  Freudenberg 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Arthur  H.  Fribourg 

Mr.  William  C.  Frogale 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Geoffrey  S.  Fuller 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Arthur  W.  Gardner 

Mr.  T.  Jack  Gary,  Jr. 

Mr.  Barry  K.  Gibson 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  T.  K.  Glennan 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Henry  H.  Goldberg 

Colonel  and  Mrs.  Julius  Goldstein 

Mrs.  Adolph  Gottlieb 

Mrs.  Bette  C.  Graham 

Mrs.  Katharine  Graham 

Mr.  Lloyd  Graham 

Captain  and  Mrs.  C.  A.  Grandjean 

Dr.  Sheila  H.  Gray 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  H.  Groth 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Kenneth  M.  Grubb 

Mr.  Joseph  Guilietti,  Jr. 

Mr.  John  F.  Gunnell 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Alvin  Guttag 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Walter  Haas 

Mr.  John  L.  Hafenrichter 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Ernest  V.  Hallberg,  Jr. 

Ms.  Cynthia  Hanby 

Mr.  Gordon  Hanes 

Ms.  Morella  R.  Hansen 

Mrs.  Philip  A.  Hart 

Mr.  Thomas  Hays 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Patrick  Healy  III 

Ms.  Judith  B.  Heimann 

Ms.  Alverne  S.  Hellenthal 

Mr.  Ralph  D.  Helwig 

Mr.  Jeffrey  L.  Hendry 

Ms.  Genevieve  Henning 

Ms.  Nona  G.  Herndon 

Mr.  George  S.  Heyer,  Jr. 

Mr.  Robert  A.  Hicks 

Mr.  Alan  R.  Hill 

Dr.  J.  D.  Hills 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  M.  Hinton 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  L.  Hoffman 

Mr.  E.  Robert  Hofsas 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  B.  Holden 

Mr.  William  E.  Horn 

Mr.  Arthur  A.  Houghton,  Jr. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  James  H.  Hughes 

Mr.  R.  Bruce  Hunter 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  R.  Hunter 

Mr.  Claude  D.  Hurd 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  F.  Irving  Hutchings 

Mrs.  S.  T.  Inglish 

Dr.  Glenn  James 

Mr.  J.  Ruskin  Jelks,  Jr. 

Mr.  David  B.  Jenkins 

Mr.  James  L.  Johnson 

Colonel  and  Mrs.  F.  M.  Johnson,  Jr. 

Ms.  Anne  Kaufman 

Mr.  Daniel  C.  Kaye 

Mr.  Peter  M.  Kehoe 

Mrs.  George  C.  Keiser 

Mr.  Stephen  D.  Kelly 

Mr.  Harris  L.  Kempner 

Mr.  Walter  H.  Kidd 

Mr.  Charles  T.  Kindsvatter 

Dr.  Harold  King 

Dr.  H.  Kingsberry 

Mr.  Edgar  P.  Kirsopp 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  J.  K.  Knee 

Mr.  Michael  J.  Koliss 

Mr.  Laurence  E.  Korwin 

Mr.   Barton  Krawetz 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  A.  Scheffer  Lang 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Anthony  A.  Lapham 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  K.  C.  Latven 

Mr.  Robert  F.  Law 

Ms.  Candie  C.  W.  Lee 

Mr.  Edward  L.  Lembitz 

The  Honorable  and  Mrs. 

Edward  H.  Levi 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Arthur  Levine 
Dr.  C.  P.  Lewis,  Jr. 
Mrs.  Katherine  H.  Lloyd 
Mr.  and   Mrs.  Walter   Loewenstern,  Jr 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  James   P.   Londergan,  Jr 
Mr.  Benjamin  H.  Long 
Mrs.  John  E.  Long 
Mrs.  Edward  Macauley 
Mr.  Anthony  J.  Maciorowski 
Mrs.  J.  Noel  Macy 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Richard  R.  Mahlke 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Paul  Mannes 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Larry  B.  Marton 
Mr.   and  Mrs.  Robert  F.  Maxwell 
Mr.  Michael  E.  Mazer 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Terence  McAuliffe 
Mr.  Donald  L.  McCathran 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Lacy  McClain 
Dr.  and  Mrs.  John  J.  McGrath 
Mr.  John  S.  Mclnnes 
Mr.  Robert  P.  McKibbon,  Jr. 
Mr.  J.  Frank  Melcher 
Mr.  Harold  E.  Mertz 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Alfred  A.  Michaud 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  Miklas,  Jr. 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Gordon  K.  Milestone 

Appendix  8.  Benefactors  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution  I  349 

Donor  Members — continued 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Donald  E.  Miller 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  E.  Kirkbride  Miller 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Walter  C.  Miller 

Dr.  Raymond  Mize,  Jr. 

Mr.  Cardie  N.  Mooers 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Arthur  Cotton  Moore 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  J.  Edward  Moore 

Mr.  Charles  W.  Morris 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Carl  J.  Mulert,  Jr. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  James  H.  Muncy 

Mr.  G.  R.  Munger 

Mr.  John  F.  Murphy 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Edmund  L.  Murray 

Dr.  Henry  A.  Murray 

Mrs.  Albert  T.  Murri 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Bruce  H.  Nelson 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Dwight  W.  Newman 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Edmund  L.  Nichols 

Mr.  Thomas  5.  Nichols 

Mrs.  John  Nuveen 

Mr.  Robert  O'Brien 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Howard  F.  O'Neil 

Mr.   and  Mrs.   Guyon  P.   Pancer 

Miss  Ruth  Uppercu  Paul 

Mr.  Harry  A.  Paynter 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  C.  Wesley  Peebles,  Jr. 

Mr.  Louis  Peller 

Mr.  William  C.  Penick 

Mr.  James  P.  Perry 

Mr.  Melvin  G.  Perry 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Donald  A.  Petrie 

Mrs.  Charles  Emory  Phillips 

Ms.  Rae  H.  Pickrel 

Mr.  J.  Pierce 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Dwight  J.  Porter 

Mrs.  S.  Prentice  Porter 

Ms.  Dorothy  B.  Preslar 

Mr.  Charles  P.  Price 

Mr.  Douglas  S.  Price 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Jerold  Principato 

Mrs.  Dow  Puckett 

Mr.  Cyrus  J.  Quinn 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Ernest  G.  Rafey 

Mr.  William  Rausch 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Michael  M.  Rea 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Eugene  L.  Reagan 

Mr.  Vaughan  J.  Rees 

Dr.  Michael  J.  Reilly 

Mr.  Don  Rhodes 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Charles  W.  Richards 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Warren  Richards 

Mr.  James  H.  Ripley 

Ms.  Jane  F.  Roberts 

Mrs.  David  Roberts  III 

Mr.  Walter  P.  Robinson,  Jr. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Samuel  J.  Rosenfeld 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  John  W.  Rouse,  Jr. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Alan  K.  Rubin 

Dr.  Maryon  W.  Ruchelman 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Roy  R.  Russo 

Mr.  Henry  Sabatell 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Abner  Sachs 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  David  Sapadin 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Morton  Schomer 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Stephen  Schroffel 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Frederick  P.  Schubert 

Mr.  Lloyd  E.  Schuster 

Mr.  James  G.  Schwade 

Mr.  James  L.  Scott 

Ms.  Marjorie  H.  Scribner 

Miss   Carolynne  Seeman 

Mr.  James  G.  Shakman 

Mr.  Peter  L.  Sheldon 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  George  Sherman 

Mrs.  James  Sinkler 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  Sivard 

Mr.  Nelson  Slater 

Mr.  Sanford  Slavin 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Raymond  L.  Smart 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Dean  Smith 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Lawrence  P.  Snipper 

Dr.  Marian  A.  Solomon 

Mr.  Gary  Staples 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  T.  Dale  Stewart 

Mr.  Louis  Stifter 

Mrs.  Marjorie  Taylor  Striker 

Commander  Edward  J.  Sullivan 

Dr.  Philip  B.  Sullivan 

Mr.  David  A.  Sutherlund 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  A.  Sweeney 

Ms.  Martha  Frick  Symington 

Ms.  May  Day  Taylor 

Ms.  Linda  Teixeira 

The  Treuhaft  Foundation 

Mr.  John  E.  Toole 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  George  Toner 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  David  G.  Townsend 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Stephen  A.  Trentman 

The  Truland  Foundation 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  L.  Tull 

Mr.  James  M.  Tully 

Mr.  D.  L.  Turley 

Mr.  David  S.  Turner 

United  Steelworkers  of  America 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Philip  Varner 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Jeremy  P.  Waletzky 

Ms.  Barbara  R.  Walsh 

Lieutenant  Colonel  Ronald  A.  Walton 

350  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Donor  Members — continued 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Ray  Watkins 

Mr.  Arnold  Watson 

Ms.  Theresa  C.  O'Hara  Watson 

The  Honorable  James  E.  Webb 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  Weber 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Nathan  Wechsler 

Mrs.  Mary  Nan  West 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Stanley  Westreich 

Mrs.  Edwin  M.  Wheeler 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Peter  C.  White 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Grover  C.  White,  Jr. 

Mr.  James  L.  Whitehead 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Donald  E.  Widmann 

Mr.  Crocker  Wight 

Mrs.  Vivian  Wildman 

Mr.  W.  T.  Williams 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  James  A.  Williamson,  Jr. 

Mrs.  Mark  Winkler 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Allan  Y.  Wolins 

Mr.  David  W.  Wood 

Mr.  Clifford  R.  Wordell 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Herman  Wouk 

Mr.  C.  L.  Wright 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Nelson  Wurz 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Samuel  E.  Zimmerman 

SUPPORTING  MEMBERS  ($50  and  above) 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Leonard  L.  Abel 

Mrs.  Ann  Duncan  Adams 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Samuel  Adams 

Mr.  Robert  R.  Aitken 

Mr.  W.  W.  Alexander 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  R.  Eric  Alving 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Charles  D.  Amidon,  Jr. 

Mr.  John  Amig 

Mr.  Carl  G.  Anderson 

Mr.  James  G.  Andrews 

Miss  Rose  C.  Anthony 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  M.  B.  Antrim 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  J.  Arcuri 

Mr.  Norman  T.  Ares 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Rudolph  Arkin 

Mr.  Earl  A.  Armbrust 

Mr.  Jon  H.  Arneson 

Mr.  Joseph  S.  Asin 

Mr.  Ronald  L.  Auble 

Mr.  John  W.  Auchincloss 

Mrs.  Evelyn  A.  Azarchi 

Mr.  William  P.  Babione 

Mr.  Norman  G.  Bach 

Dr.  B.  Bacharach 

Mr.  Geoffrey  B.  Baker 

Mr.  Michael  D.  Baker 

Mr.  Robert  Quincy  Baker  III 

Mr.  Kirk  M.  Balcom 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Richard  F.  Ball 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Jeffrey  Barnes 

Dr.  H.  David  Barton 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  James  H.  Barton,  Jr. 

Mr.  James  Bateman 

The  Honorable  and  Mrs.  Lucius  D. 

Ms.  Winifred  H.  Bauer 
Miss  Virginia  Bay 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Martin  E.  Bayol 

Mr.  Charles  F.  Becker 

Mrs.  D.  R.  Beggs 

Mr.  Norman  D.  Belecki 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Frederic  J.  Bell 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  Bell 

Mr.  Thomas  Bellinger 

Mrs.  Brenda  C.  Bennett 

Dr.  Jeffrey  Berenberg 

Ms.  Carol  J.  Berg 

Mr.  Richard  G.  Berger 

Ms.  L.  Bergland 

Mr.  Samuel  W.  Bernheimer 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  James  E.  Bernstein 

Mr.  John  O.  Bertelli 

Dr.  Richard  S.  Beverly 

Mr.  William  G.  Beyer 

Mr.  J.  B.  Bickenbach 

Mr.  Joel  Binenfeld 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  James  F.  Bing 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  F.  Douglas  Birdzell 

Mr.  John  A.  Bishop 

Ms.  Sharon  Bishop 

Mrs.  Sallie  W.  Bishton 

Ms.  Jill  S.  Bixler 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Charles  P.  Blackledge 

Mrs.  Anthony  F.  Blanks 

Mr.  A.  E.  Blevins 

Mr.  Frank  Bliss,  Jr. 

Mr.  Donn  W.  Block 

Admiral  and  Mrs.  Robert  H.  Blout 

Mrs.  Irma  Kline  Blumenreich 

Mr.  David  A.  Bodner 

Mr.  Robert  F.  Bodroghy 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  August  Boesche 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Victor  L.  Bonat 

The  Honorable  and  Mrs.  Philip  Bonsai 

Appendix  8.  Benefactors  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution  I  351 

Supporting  Members — continued 

Mr.  Horace  Booth 

Mr.  Frederick  W.  Boots 

Mr.  Arthur  S.  Borara 

Ms.  Barbara  L.  Borchardt 

Mr.  Vincent  B.  Boris 

Ms.  Frances  B.  Bowen 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Paul  A.  Bowles 

Mr.  John  F.  Boyd 

Colonel  and  Mrs.  John  R.  Boyd 

Mr.  John  J.  Boyd,  Jr. 

Dr.  P.  H.  Boyer 

Ms.  Evelyn  W.  Bradshaw 

Mr.  Raymond  A.  Brady 

Mr.  Edward  L.  Brady  II 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  De  Witt  Bragan 

Dr.  William  L.  Brannon,  Jr. 

Dr.  James  C.  Bray 

Mr.  Gerald  Brenner 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Terence  R.  Brewer 

Mr.  Harvey  K.  Brock 

Mrs.  George  H.  Brodie 

Dr.  Michael  Brody 

Mr.  Edward  T.  Brooks 

Mr.  Charles  5.  Brown 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Harold  D.  Brown 

Mr.  J.  James  Brown 

Mr.  James  A.  Brown 

Mrs.  Marjorie  K.  Brown 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  S.  Weldon  Brown 

Mr.  William  F.  Brown 

Mr.  Herbert  S.  Brownstein 

Mr.  Donald  J.  Bruckmann 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Percival  F.  Brundage 

Mr.  W.  B.  Bryant 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Eugene  J.  Buehler 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  George  G.  Bull 

Mr.  Edward  P.  Bullock 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  James  M.  Burger 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Carl  B.  Burkard 

Mr.  R.  K.  Burkhart 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Donald  Burklew 

Mrs.  Clara  May  Burns 

Mr.  Richard  Scott  Burow 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  R.  Bush 

Mr.  John  J.  Byrne 

Mr.  Paul  T.  Calderwood 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  L.  Calhoun 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Edwin  Callahan 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Gregory  M.  Cambi 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  B.  Cameron,  Jr. 

Mr.  Richard  Caminiti 

Mr.  Richard  C.  Campany,  Jr. 

Mr.  William  D.  Campbell 

Mr.  Lawrence  E.  Cantrell,  Jr. 

Dr.  Cesar  B.  Carabuena 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Charles  Carey 

Mr.  Henry  A.  Carey,  Jr. 

Mrs.  B.  L.  Carlin 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  H.  Carlisle,  Jr. 

Mr.  Charles  G.  Carlyle 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Woolsey  Carmalt 

Mr.  Harvey  Carmel 

Ms.  Ruth  W.  Carney 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Kenneth  S.  Carpenter 

Mr.  Philip  L.  Carret 

Mr.  Kenneth  J.  Carroll 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Douglas  H.  Carter 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  A.  Casey 

Mr.  William  B.  Cassin 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Louis  J.  Castaldi 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Edmund  L.  Castillo 

Mr.  Sabastino  J.  Castro 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Kevin  J.  Catt 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Joseph  Chackin 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  James  G.  Chandler 

Mr.  Paige  L.  Chandler 

Mr.  Joel  Chaseman 

Mrs.  Harold  W.  Cheel 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Magnus  E.  Chelstad 

Mr.  K.  Dexter  Cheney 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Timothy  W.  Childs 

Ms.  Gabrielle  Choy 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Henry  C.  Christie 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Page  B.  Clagett 

Mr.  Ludwig  R.  Claps 

Mr.  H.  Lawrence  Clark 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Thomas  A.  Clark 

Mrs.  Eleanor  J.  Clausner 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  A.  B.  Clifford,  Jr. 

Mr.  Lawrence  W.  Cobb 

Mr.  Richard  E.  Cobb 

Colonel  and  Mrs.  Eugene  R.  Cocke 

Mrs.  B.  A.  Cody 

Mr.  Hayward  C.  Coe 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  David  G.  Cogan 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  L.  H.  Cohan 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Aaron  J.  Cohen 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Bernard  Cohen 

Mr.  Bertram  M.  Cohen 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Ed  Cohen 

Mr.  Robert  N.  Cohen 

Mr.  Ronald  M.  Cohen 

Commander  and  Mrs.  Gerald  L.  Cole 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  George  C.  Collett 

Ms.  Anne  T.  Collins 

Mrs.  J.  F.  Colwill 

Mr.  Robert  M.  Comly 

Colonel  J.  M.  Compton 

352  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Supporting  Members — continued 

Mrs.  Ethel  Conlisk 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  James  R.  Connell 

Mr.  George  A.  Cook 

Ms.  Margaret  Cook 

Mr.  C.  M.  Cooke,  Jr. 

Mr.  Thomas  G.  Corcoran,  Jr. 

Mrs.  Mildred  S.  Corrigan 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Ralph  J.  Coselli 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Donald  N.  Coupard 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Howard  V.  Covell 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Ronald  A.  Cowan 

Mrs.  Logan  O.  Cowgill 

Mr.  C.  W.  Cox 

Mr.  John  Howell  Cox 

Miss  Mary  L.  Cox 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Raymond  Cox 

Mrs.  W.  C.  Cox 

Ms.  Patricia  E.  Coyle 

Mr.  Jesse  L.  Crabbs 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  R.  Creal 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  5.  F.  Creane 

Mr.  Glenn  R.  Crocker 

Mr.  F.  L.  Cromwell 

Ms.  Linda  F.  Crouse 

Ms.  Linda  Cooper  Crow 

Ms.  Judith  C.  Croxton 

Mr.  George  A.  Crump 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  B.  Culver 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  W.  T.  Cunningham 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  R.  D.  Cuthbertson 

Mrs.  Chester  Dale 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  H.  Dalton 

Ms.  Winifred  B.  Dana 

Mr.  Ernest  B.  Dane 

Captain  and  Mrs.  R.  L.  Daniels 

Mr.  Herbert  I.  Dann,  Jr. 

Dr.  F.  Danziger 

Colonel  Joseph  J.  Darlak,  M.D. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  F.  Elwood  Davis 

Drs.  Nancy  W.  and  William  E.  Davis 

Ms.  Olivia  Davis 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Raymond  T.  Davis 

Mr.  Robert  J.  Davis 

Dr.  Walter  T.  Davison 

Mrs.  Alva  A.  Dawson 

Ms.  Donna  A.  de  Corleto 

Mr.  Hampton  M.  de  Jarnette 

Mr.  George  B.  de  Lano 

Mr.  Silvester  de  Thomasis 

Mr.  Alan  L.  Dean 

Mr.  Albert  L.  Dean,  Jr. 

Ms.  Marie  B.  Debacker 

Ms.  Cassandra  H.  Deck 

Major  General  Oren  E.  Dehaven 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Wayne  Richard  Delaney 

Captain  and  Mrs.  Victor  Delano 

Mr.  Howard  Dellon 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Andrew  S.  Deming 

Mr.  Vinel  E.  Dent 

Mr.  Eugene  A.  Derr 

Mr.  E.  P.  di  Giannantonio 

Miss  Patricia  Anne  Dick 

Captain  and  Mrs.  Paul  F.  Dickens 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Lowell  Dightman 

Ms.  Mary  C.  Dillingham 

Dr.  Henry  Dillon 

Mr.  R.  Samuel  Dillon,  Jr. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  Dimick 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Allen  T.  Dittmann 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  J.  Douglas  Diven 

Mrs.  Alfa  D.  Dodge 

Mr.  Austin  F.  Dohrman,  Jr. 

Ms.  Elizabeth  Donahue 

Mrs.  Maren  L.  Donohue 

Mr.  David  G.  Donovan 

Ms.  Sharon  Kay  Dooley 

Mr.  Arthur  F.  Dorr 

Mr.  James  A.  Dorsch 

Mr.  David  M.  Dorsen 

Mr.  Monroe  D.  Dowling 

Mr.  John  P.  Doyle 

Mrs.  James  A.  Drennan 

Major  General  Hans  H.  Driessnack 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Bruce  Drill 

Ms.  Collette  M.  Drobel 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Richard  Dubin 

Major  and  Mrs.  Jules  Dubois,  Jr. 

Mr.  A.  P.  Dumas,  Jr. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Walter  W.  Duncan 

Miss  Marjorie  H.  Dunham 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  H.  Stewart  Dunn 

Lieutenant  Colonel  and  Mrs.  John  J. 

Dr.  Edgar  Durbin,  Jr. 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Vernon  James  Dwyer 
Dr.  Elizabeth  M.  Earley 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Lynn  R.  Eastridge 
Brigadier  General  and  Mrs.  Richard  J. 

Mr.  Robert  Eberman 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Theodore  M.  Edison 
Mr.  Clarence  W.  Edminster 
Mr.  William  W.  Edmunds 
Mr.  Bert  T.  Edwards 
Mr.  Chester  R.  Edwards 
Dr.  Richard  W.  Efron 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Charles  M.  Egan 
Mr.  George  G.  Eggleston 

Appendix  8.  Benefactors  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution  i  353 

Supporting  Members — continued 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Thomas  Ehrlich 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  B.  Eichholz 

Mr.   Edward  L.   Eisenstein 

Mr.  Roger  W.  Eisinger,  Sr. 

Mrs.  Leila  Eley 

Mr.  Stuart  Elfman 

Miss  Lynette  F.  Eltinge 

Mr.  J.  C.  Mason  Emde 

Mrs.  J.  T.  Emery 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Pleasanton  H.  Ennis 

Mrs.  Lionel  C.  Epstein 

Mr.  R.  O.  Erickson 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  J.  Ertman 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Karl  Eurenius 

Mr.  Timothy  Evans 

Mr.  Henri  Eyl 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Paul  Fabricant 

Mr.  Jim  P.  Farrell 

Mr.  James   E.  Fearn 

Mr.  Bruce  F.  Fein 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Irving  Feist 

Mr.  John  F.  Felter 

Mrs.  Guido  C.  Fenzi 

Mr.  Joseph  C.  V.  Ferrusi 

Mr.   Roy  Feuchter 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Thomas  D.  Finney,  Jr. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  S.  Greenhoot  Fischer 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Joel  H.  Fisher 

Mr.  Kenneth  P.  Fisher 

Ms.  Maureen  Fisher 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  C.  Fitzgerald 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  A.  L.  Fjordbotten 

Mr.  Lewis  I.  Flacks 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  M.  F.  Flaherty 

Ms.  Sally  A.  Flanik 

Mr.  Edwin  F.  Fleischman 

Mrs.  Julius  Fleischmann 

Mr.  Nicholas  T.  Fleischmann 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Martin  Fleit 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Jerry  L.  Fletcher 

Mr.  David  Porter  Fogle 

Mr.  Albert  A.  Folop 

Mrs.  Gunilla  L.  Foster 

Mr.  John  H.  Foster 

Ms.  Caroline  R.  Foulke 

Mr.  Joel  Burr  Fowler,  II 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Herman  Frank 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  de  Jongh  Franklin 

Mr.  George  J.  Frazier,  Jr. 

Mr.  Donald  E.  Frein 

Colonel  and  Mrs.  Clarence  D.  Fried 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  F.  Frye 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Everett  G.  Fuller 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  H.  N.  Fullerton 

Mr.  Daniel  L.  Gaba 

Mr.  Anthony  J.  Gaetano,  Jr. 

Mr.  H.  B.  Gambrell 

Mr.  Edward  Gartman 

Mrs.  Virginia  B.  Garvey 

Mr.  William  Gasperow 

Ms.  Rachel  Gay 

Mr.  Robert  E.  Gayer 

Miss  Olga  M.  Gazda 

Mr.  Zachary  Paul  Geaneas 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Daniel  Geller 

Dr.  K.  L.  Geoly 

Ms.  Amanda  E.  George 

Ms.  Nancy  L.  George 

Mr.  Rodney  W.  George 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  David  Gevanthor 

Mr.  John  Ghiardi 

Ms.  Frances  A.  Giacobbe 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Kenneth  R.  Giddens 

Mr.  Lincoln  J.  Gilbert 

Mr.  Robert  S.  Gillian,  Jr. 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Roy  S.  Gillinson 

Mrs.  Bernard  Gimbel 

Mr.  Melvin  Gladstone 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Lester  E.  Glass,  Jr. 

Mr.  W.  J.  Godard 

Mr.  Royal  T.  Godden 

Mr.  John  M.  Goehner 

Mr.  Norris  S.  Goff 

Mr.  Robert  N.  Gold 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Donald  Goldberg 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Richard  W.  Goldman 

Mrs.  Ted  R.  Goldsmith 

Mrs.  Evelyn  M.  Goldstein 

Ms.  Gwendolyn  Goldstein 

Mr.  Peter  S.  Goltra 

Miss  Elinor  Goodspeed 

Mr.  Carroll  A.  Gordon 

Ms.  Fredericka  Y.  Gordon 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  Goshorn 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  R.  M.  Gotwald 

Ms.  Kathryn  R.  Gover 

Mr.  G.  Gowans 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Moses  J.  Gozonsky 

Ms.  Eva  Graham 

Mr.  and  Mrs.   Robert  L.  Graham 

The  David  Graham  Foundation 

Mr.  Theodore  W.  Grahlfs 

Mr.  William  F.  Graney 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  Grattan 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Frank  D.  Gray,  Jr. 

Mr.  Thomas  E.  Greathouse 

Colonel  and  Mrs.  Thomas  C.  Green 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Louis  Greenberg 

354  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Supporting  Members — continued 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  James  B.  Gregory 

Miss  Jeanne  Griest 

Mr.  J.  Donald  Griffin 

Ms.  Elisabeth  Griffith 

Mrs.  Gloria  W.  Griffith 

Mrs.  Hubert  L.  Grigaut 

Mr.  Robert  Groberg 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  David  Grodsky 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  C.  D.  Groover 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Daniel  Gruber 

Dr.  Grace  H.  Guin 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Hans  Gunzenhauser 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  J.  Haehnle 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Richard  H.  Hagemeyer 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Samuel  Halpern 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Theodore  M.  Hamady 

Mr.  Ira  J.  Hamburg 

Mr.  Courtnay  C.  Hamilton,  Jr. 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  William  F. 

Hamilton,  Jr. 
Mrs.  E.  P.  Hand 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  J.  Handiboe 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Lee  T.  Hannah 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  B. 

Hannum,  Jr. 
Mrs.  V.  G.  Hansen 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  M.  Harar 
Mr.  George  D.  Hardy 
Mr.  J.  H.  Harms 
Mr.  Ronald  Harring 
Dr.  James  C.  Harris 
Mr.  Robert  C.  Harris 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Ellen  H.  Harrison 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Harry  P.  Hart 
Mr.  L.  M.  Hart 
Mr.  Peter  M.  Hart 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  Harwell,  Jr. 
Colonel  Lee  C.  Harwig,  Jr. 
Mr.  Warren  W.  Hastings 
Mr.  George  A.  Hatzes,  Jr. 
Mr.  Philip  H.  Hazelton 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Vincent  P.  Healey 
Ms.  Mercedes  Hearn 
Mr.  Joseph  A.  Heckman 
Major  Charles  E.  Heimach 
Colonel  and  Mrs.  Robert  D. 

Heinl,  Jr. 
Mr.  Edward  Heler 
Dr.  and  Mrs.  L.  M.  Hellman 
Mr.  Eric  D.  Henderson 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Joseph  H.  Hennage 
Dr.  Jane  Ellen  Henney 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Timothy  Henry 
Dr.  Walter  L.  Henry 

Ms.  Deborah  D.  Herb 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  G.  F.  Herkes 

Mr.  William  H.  Hernandez,  Jr. 

Mrs.  Christian  A.  Herter 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Donald  Hesby 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  B.  Hewitt 

Mr.  Donald  Hill 

Mr.  Charles  H.  Himman 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Richard  H.  Hinchcliff 

Mr.  William  M.  Hines 

Mrs.  J.  H.  Ward  Hinkson 

Mr.  Joseph  U.  Hinshaw 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Charles  J.  Hitch 

Mr.  M.   L.  Hite 

Lieutenant  Colonel  and  Mrs.  John  G. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  David  S.  Hoag 
Mr.  John  G.  Hoecker 
Mr.  Michael  R.  Hoffman 
Mr.  Charles  Beecher  Hogan 
Ms.  F.  Lynn  Holec 
Mr.  Henry  E.  Holley 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  L.  J.  Holroyd 
Mrs.  Charles  D.  Holt 
Mr.  Roger  E.  Holtman 
Ms.  Laura  V.  Holtz 
Mr.  Hume  Horan 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Joseph  F.  Horning 
Mr.  James  R.  Howe 
Mrs.  Albert  A.  Hughes 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  David  L.  Hughes 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Phillip  S.  Hughes 
Mr.  John  L.  Hughes-Caley 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  David  R.  Hull 
Mrs.  E.  H.  Hulsey 
Mr.  Vance  Y.  Hum 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  James  D.  Hurd 
Mr.  John  Hutchinson 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  James  M.  Idema 
Mr.  William  W.  Idler 
Ms.  Janet  R.  Inscore 
Mr.  Harry  Jackson 
Ms.  Sandra  Jacobi 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Ephraim  Jacobs 
Mr.  Nicholas  Jacobs 
Mr.  Harald  W.  Jacobson 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Lawrence  I.  Jacobson 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Martin  A.  Jacoby 
Mr.  Joseph  M.  Jaron 
Mr.  William  L.  Jarrell 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Thomas  E.  Jenks 
Mr.  W.  N.  Jerson 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  David  D.  Johnson 
Dr.  Donald  A.  Johnson 

Appendix  8.  Benefactors  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution  I  355 

Supporting  Members — continued 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Edward  N.  Johnson 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Irwin  B.  Johnson 

Ms.  Nancy  H.  Johnson 

Mr.  Robert  E.  Johnson 

Miss  Charlotte  Jones 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Wayne  V.  Jones 

Mr.  G.  Quinton  Jones,  Jr. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  B.  Jones,  Jr. 

Mr.  Mitchell  F.  Jones,  Jr. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Michael  Joseph 

Mrs.  Ann  F.  Joyce 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Albert  H.  Jung 

Mr.  John  M.  Kalbermatten 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Milton  Kaplan 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Arnold  Kaplin 

Mr.  James  B.   Karickhoff 

Mr.  D.  C.  Kaufman 

Ms.  Ruthanne  Kaufman 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  C.  M.  Kaye 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Ira  Kaye 

Mr.  E.  J.   Kazanowski 

Ms.  Catherine  Kazmierczak 

Mrs.  James  F.  Keefer 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Earl  W.  Keegan 

Mr.  S.  Keeler 

Mr.  Thomas  M.  Keeling 

Ms.  Eleanor  Kehoe 

Mr.  David  L.  Keir 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Eugene  A.  Keller 

Mr.  Robert  C.  Keller,  Jr. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  B.  Kellert 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  Kenety 

Ms.  Anna  Marie  Kent 

Judge  and  Mrs.  Allen  R.  Kenyon 

Mr.  Andrew  A.  Kerhulas,  Jr. 

Mr.  William  R.  Kerivan 

Mr.  John  Kicak 

Mr.  T.  J.  Kimmel 

Mr.  Robert  Y.  Kimura 

Mr.  Gordon  E.  King 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Joseph  M. 

Captain  and  Mrs.  Alexander  L. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Arthur  Klein 
Mr.  Kenneth  W.  Klein 
Ms.  Roswitha  J.  Klement 
Mr.  Lawrence  G.  Knecht 
Mr.  Wily  W.  Knighten 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  F.  Knorr 
Mr.  John  W.  Knowles 
Ms.  Jean  R.  Knutsen 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Allison  J.  Koberg 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Rolph  A.  Kohler 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  P.  Kogod 

Mr.  David  E.  Koranek 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  M.  C.  Korengold 

Mr.  Larry  Koziarz 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  A.  Kraas 

Mr.  Michael  Kraft 

Mr.  Albert  Kramer 

Mrs.  Howard  D.  Kramer 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  R.  L.  Kranker 

Ms.  Nanette  Krieger 

Major  and  Mrs.  A.  N.  Kropt 

Miss  S.  Victoria  Krusiewski 

Mrs.  George  F.  Kugler,  Jr. 

Mr.  Raoul  Kulberg 

Mr.  Stanley  J.  Kuliczkowski 

Ms.  Mary  A.  Kumpe 

Colonel  and  Mrs.  J.  Scott  Kurtz 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Otto  A.  Kurz 

Mr.  and  Mrs.   Edward  Kwalwasser 

Mr.  William  P.  la  Plant,  Jr. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Achille  la  Pointe 

Ms.  Ruth  M.  la  Pointe 

Ms.  Benay  la  Rock 

Mr.  and  Mrs.   Erwin  Lachman 

Mr.  Albert  J.  Laflam 

Mrs.  Kama  Laird 

Mr.  Glenn  G.  Lamson,  Jr. 

Mr.  John  Lanchak 

Mrs.  Marilyn  Lane 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Felix  J.  Lapinski 

Mr.  Hugh  Leroy  Latham 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Charles  E.  Law,  Sr. 

Mr.  John  T.  Lawrence 

Ms.  Ella  Jean  Layman 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Frank  J.  Leahy,  Jr. 

Mr.  Wilfred  M.  Leatherwood,  Jr. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Richard  M.  Lederer,  Jr. 

Mr.  James  A.  Lee 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  W.  David  Lee 

Mr.  Marion  S.  Leech 

Colonel  and  Mrs.  Jack  L.  Leggett 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Stanley  W.  Legro 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Stan  Leibner 

Ms.  Jacqueline  F.  Leng 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Curt  Leonard 

Ms.  Ethelynne  H.  Leonard 

Lieutenant  Colonel  Richard  J.  Leonard 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  Lerner 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Harald  R.  Leuba 

Mr.  Daniel  W.  Leubecker 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Carl  M.  Leventhal 

Mr.  Robert  Levine 

Mr.  Herman  D.  Levy 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  David  A.  Lewis 

356  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Supporting  Members — continued 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Ernest  E.  Lewis 

Mr.  H.  D.  Lewis 

Mr.  Morgan  Lewis 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Martin  Lichtenstein 

Mr.  Raymond  Lieberman 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  G.  Liebhardt 

Mr.  Frank  W.  Lindenberger 

Mr.  Frank  S.  Linder 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Richard  H.  Lindgren 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  D.  A.  Lindquist 

Mrs.  Jean  C.  Lindsey 

Miss  Jane  T.  Lingo 

Mr.  R.  Robert  Linowes 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Sol  M.  Linowitz 

Mr.  William  Liss 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  J.  List 

Dr.  Kathleen  E.  Lloyd 

Dr.  P.  Loe 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Jerome  T.  Loeb 

Ms.  Ursula  G.  Lohmann 

Dr.  Sonja  Loncarec 

Mr.  Tom  H.  W.  Loomis 

Mr.  Duarte  A.  Lopes 

Mr.  Arnold  Lorbeer 

Mr.  John  G.  Lorenz 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Gerald  Loube 

Dr.  Ira  S.  Lourie 

Mr.  Richard  G.  Loutsch 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Stephen  Low 

Mr.  William  Lowenthal 

Mr.  Harry  Lunn 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Joseph  W.  Luquire 

Mr.  Norman  W.  Lutkefedder 

Ms.  Margaret  R.  Lynch 

Mrs.  Elizabeth  MacMillan 

Mr.  Herbert  C.  Macey 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  James  L.  Mack 

Mr.  T.  Macklin,  Jr. 

Ms.  Mary  R.  MacMartin 

Mr.  J.  Robert  MacNaughton 

Mr.  Rex  A.  Maddox 

Mrs.  James  T.  Magee 

Captain  Ronald  L.  Magee 

Mrs.  Isabel  C.  Mahaffie 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  A.  Mainzer 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Richard  Mallchok 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Richard  F.  Manegold 

Mr.  Robert  W.  Mann 

Mr.  E.  Manuel  Manning 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  D.  Manns 

Major  and  Mrs.  George  S. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  H.  Tyler  Marcy 
Mr.  John  W.  Margosian 

Mrs.  R.  A.  Marmet 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Andrew  W.  Marshall 

Mr.  Barton  A.  Marshall 

Mr.  Richard  Heeman  Marshall 

Mrs.   Elizabeth  Martin 

Mrs.  William  Marvel 

Miss   Priscilla  Mason 

Mrs.  Barbara  F.  Masur 

Mr.  P.  H.  Mathews 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  A.  B.  Mauger 

Ms.  Freda  J.  Mauldin 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Charles  E.  May 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Francis  Mayle,  Jr. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Joseph  S.  Mazza 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Norman  H.  McCabe 

Mr.  Thomas  L.  McCamley 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Martin  E.  McCavitt 

Mrs.  Betty  McComsey 

Colonel   Stephen  McCormick 

Mr.  John  P.  McCullough 

Mr.  Matthew  B.  McCullough 

Mr.  Allan  R.  McDonald 

Mr.  Charles  Vincent  McDonald 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  James  P.  McDonald 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Grover  R.  McDowell 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  J.  W.  McEachen 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Donn  McGiehan 

Mr.  James  P.  McGranery,  Jr. 

Mr.  Hugh  F.  McGrath 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Kenneth  C.  McGuiness 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Philip  L.  McHugh 

Dr.  Richard  J.  Mcllroy 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  B.  B.  McKay 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Richard  R.  McLauglin 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  R.  R.  McMeekin 

Mr.  Thomas  M.  McMurray 

Mr.  J.  Jerome  McNally 

Dr.  J.  Malcolm  McNeil 

Ms.  Betty  M.  McQueen 

Ms.  Emily  M.  McQueen 

Mr.  W.  W.  McWhinney 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Gilbert  D.  Mead 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Richard  J.  Medalie 

Dr.  Barbara  A.  Mella 

Mrs.  Dorothy  B.  Melville 

Mrs.  R.  B.  Menapace 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Louis  W.  Mendonsa 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Norman  J.  Merksame 

Mrs.  Ida  C.  Merriam 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Harold  W.  Merritt 

Mr.  David  Messent 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  L.  Meyer 

Ms.  Marilyn  Meyerhoff 

Mr.  Edwin  Charles  Michael 

Appendix  8.  Benefactors  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution  I  357 

Supporting  Members — continued 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  D.  Michael 

Dr.  David  B.  Michaels 

Ms.  Patricia  Milford 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Edward  A.  Miller 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  G.  O.  Miller 

Mr.  L.  Allen  Miller 

Mr.  Milo  E.  Miller 

Mr.  Warren  G.  Miller 

Mr.  M.  H.  Miller 

Ms.  Justine  Milliken 

Mr.  Donn  Minnium 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  John  Minna 

Dr.  Emile  R.  Mohler,  Jr. 

Mr.  Robert  M.  Molitor 

Colonel  and  Mrs.  Kenneth  L.  Moll 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  George  D.  Monk 

Dr.   Frederick   Paul  Montana 

Mrs.  E.  P.  Moore 

Mr.  James  Moore 

Mr.  Leonard  Moretz 

Ms.  Margaret  Morgan 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Warren  R.  Morrow 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  Mudd 

Mrs.  Anita  Mueller 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Ted  Mueller 

Mr.  Burnaby  Munson 

Mr.  Robert  C.  Murdock 

Mr.  Patrick  J.  Murphy 

Dr.  Frank  J.  Murphy 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Donald  A.  Myers 

Mr.  John  Rodman  Myers 

Miss  Lucile  Myers 

Mr.  Peter  B.  Myers 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Joel  B.  Nadler 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Thomas  Nadolski 

Ms.  Alixa  Naff 

Mr.   Robert  Naugle 

Mr.  Thomas  W.  Nawn 

Ms.  Mary  T.  Nealon 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  E.  Newby 

Mr.  Leland  J.  Newell 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  Newlin 

Mr.   Robert  Newman 

Mr.  Gary  Ray  Newport 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Fred  J.  Newton 

Mr.  Robert  L.  Nichols 

Mr.  Roger  A.  Nickles 

Mrs.  F.  C.  Noble 

Major  and  Mrs.  Gerald  T.  Nolan 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Glenn  Nordin 

Mr.  Giles  R.  Norrington 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Jack  R.  Norwood 

Mr.  David  P.  Notley 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Michael  P.  Novelli 

Colonel  C.  K.  Nulsen 
The  Honorable  and  Mrs. 

Sam  A.  Nunn 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Carey  B.  O'Conner 
Ms.  Patricia  H.  O'Connor 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Paul  T.  O'Day 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  A.  E.  O'Donnel 
Mr.  Thomas  O'Hare 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Jerry  O'Regan 
Mr.  Owen  Oates 
Colonel  J.  W.  Oberg 
Mrs.  John  B.  Ogilvie 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Graden  E.  Okes 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Paul  A.  Oliver 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Kenneth  P.  Olson 
Mr.  Robert  C.  Olson 
Mr.  Cyrus  Omidyar 
Mrs.  Carolyn  C.  Onufrak 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Thomas  D.  Orr 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  E.  G.  Osbourne 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  David  Osnos 
Mr.  Allan  W.  Ostar 
Mr.  W.  W.  Owens 
Mr.  William  T.  Owens 
Mr.  George  E.  Paleologos 
Dr.  and  Mrs.  Michael  N. 

Commander   Everett  A.   Parke 
Mrs.  Alice  Mengel  Parker 
Mr.  Charles  M.  Parker 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  L.  Parnell,  Jr 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Gerald  H.  Patrick 
Mr.  Jeffrey  Ewen  Patterson 
Ms.  Helen  Ann  Patton 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Stanley  J.  Pawlowski 
Mr.  Charles  W.  Payne 
Mr.  Raymond  Pearlstine 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Harold  A.  Pedersen 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Jack  Walter  Peltason 
Mr.  Clarence  Pennington 
Mr.  William  C.  Pennington 
Mr.  George  E.  Perez 
Mr.  Thomas  W.  Perry,  Jr. 
Mr.  Tucker  W.  Peterson 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Joseph  T.  Philibert 
Mrs.  Joseph  B.  Philips 
Captain  and  Mrs.  Charles  Phillips 
Ms.  Ruth  Phillips 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Adrien  Picard 
Mr.  James  H.  Pickford 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  D.  Pierce 
Ms.  Jeanette  B.  Pispek 
Mr.  Stanley  B.  Plotkin 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Dexter  S.  Plumlee 

358  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Supporting  Members — continued 

Mr.  Michael  G.  Pohlod 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Glenn  Polston 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Leo  Pompliano 

Mr.  Frank  T.  Pope,  Jr. 

Mr.  Bernard  L.  Poppert 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Rodman  Porter 

Mr.  Paul  J.  Posner 

Mr.  John  N.  Postak 

Mr.  Paul  E.  Postelnek 

Ms.  Laura  R.  Potter 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  E.  L.  Povich 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Richard  Preston 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Glenn  Pribus 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Reuben  P.  Prichard 

Mr.  R.  W.  Pritchard 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  R.  Probst 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Jeffrey  A.  Prussin 

Ms.  Inez  L.  Pulver 

Dr.  Regina  A.  Puryear 

Mr.  Daniel  M.  Radcliffe 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  A.  R.  Rankin 

Dr.  Carl  L.  Rasak 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Walton  A. 

Rathbun,  Jr. 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Harold  Ravner 
Ms.  Isabel  M.  Rea 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  Grandin  Reading 
Mr.  Jack  Reams 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  J.  Philip  Reberger 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Edwin  Rector 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Thorburn  Reid 
Mr.  Michael  L.  Restaine 
Mr.  F.  F.  Reynolds 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Frank  M.  Reynolds 
Mr.  John  Arthur  Reynolds 
Mrs.  John  B.  Rhinelander 
Mr.  Joseph  A.  Rice 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Michael  A. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  W. 

Ms.  Brenda  Lee  Richter 
Dr.  Monira  K.  Rifaat 
Mr.  James  R.  Rivera 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  H.  Rixse,  Jr. 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Maxwell  B.  Roberts 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  F.  L.  Robertson 
Mr.  Paul  Robindeaux 
Dr.  Max  Robinowitz 
Mr.  Hamilton  Robinson 
Mr.  Roy  Antony  Robson 
Dr.  and  Mrs.  S.  David  Rockoff 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Paul  Rollins 
Mr.  John  J.  Roome 

Mr.  William  Rose  III 

Mr.  Gerald  A.  Rosen 

Mr.  Marvin  Rosenberg 

Mr.  Leon  I.  Rosenbluth 

Mr.  R.  M.  Rosenthal 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Albert  S.  Roslyn 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Richard  Ross 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  J.  S.  Rossen 

Mr.  Robert  J.  Rovang 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Thomas  E.  Rowland 

Mr.  Jim  L.  Russell 

Mrs.  John  Barry  Ryan 

Mr.  Herbert  C.  Ryding,  Jr. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Hachemi  Saada 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Marvin  P.  Sadur 

Ms.  Mary  L.  Safrit 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  David  L.  Salmon 

Mr.  Stephen  M.  Salny 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Herbert  Salzman 

Mr.  Arthur  R.  Sando 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Julius  Sankin 

Mrs.  Joseph  C.  Satterthwaite 

Mrs.  Robert  P.  Sattler 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  B.  Francis  Saul  II 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Thorndike  Saville 

Mr.  Michael  F.  Sawyer 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  J.  E.  Sayers 

The  Very  Reverend  and  Mrs. 

Francis  B.  Sayre 
Ms.  Catherine  M.  Scannell 
Mr.  Charles  W.  Schaffer 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Radford  Schantz 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Paul  J.  Scheips 
Mr.  Ronald  J.  Schellhase 
Mr.  Robert  J.  Schemel 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  James  H.  Scheuer 
Dr.  Basil  A.  Schiff 
Ms.  Penelope  Schleifer 
Mrs.  Anita  Schlem 
Mr.  John  C.  Schleter 
Mrs.  Julian  L.  Schley 
Ms.  Antoinette  B.  Schmahl 
Mr.  Harvey  B.  Schneider 
Ms.  Judy  L.  Schneider 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Harvin  Schneiderman 
Mr.  Jacques  J.  Schoch 
Mr.  William  E.  Schremp 
Miss  Greta  Schuessler 
Dr.  and  Mrs.  William  J.  Schultis 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Leslie  I.  Schwartz 
Mrs.  Morton  L.  Schwartz 
Major  and  Mrs.  T.  E.  Schwartz 
Mr.  Tommy  Schwartz 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Benjamin  K.  Schwarz 

Appendix  8.  Benefactors  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution  I  359 

Supporting  Members — continued 

Mr.  C.  W.  Scott 

Dr.  Wayne  Scott 

Mr.  Allen  J.  Seeber 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Gene  F.  Seevers 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Lloyd  R.  Seiling 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Seymour  Max  Selig 

Mr.  Lee  C.  Seligman 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Ralph  Sellers 

Ms.  Catherine  H.  Sells 

Mr.  Sol  Seltzer 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Edward  E.  Sergent 

Mr.  Sherman  J.  Sexton 

Dr.  Gordon  T.  Shahin 

Dr.  James  J.  Shanley 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Willis  H.  Shapley 

Mr.  John  F.  Shaw 

Dr.  Robert  L.  Sherman 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Wiliam  W.  Sherwin 

Mr.  William  G.  Shields 

Mr.  John  D.  Shilling 

Mr.  Rufus  Shivers 

Mr.   and  Mrs.  Harry  Shoub 

Colonel  B.  S.  Shute 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Norman  S.  Siegel 

Mr.  Alexander  W.  Sierck 

Ms.  Ellen  Vera  Sigal 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Jack  Silberman 

Dr.  Henry  K.  Silberman 

Dr.  Frank  Silver 

Ms.  Evelyn  Silverglit 

Mrs.  John  Farr  Simmons 

Mrs.  Ellen  Hanna  Simmons 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Richard  K.  Simmons 

Mr.  Robert  M.  Simmons 

Mrs.  Charles  Simon 

Mr.  Matthew  H.  Simon 

Mr.  Stanley  Simon 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  James  D.  Singletary 

Lieutenant  Colonel  David  T.  Sites 

Ms.  Anne  Smalet 

Colonel  and  Mrs.  C.  Haskell  Small 

Mr.  B.  A.  Smith 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Charles  H.  Smith 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Harold  Smith 

Mr.  Hugh  Stewart  Smith 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Joe  Pitts  Smith 

Mrs.  L.  M.  Smith 

Mrs.  Myron  B.  Smith 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Scott  M.  Smith 

Ms.  Shirley  A.  Smith 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Timothy  D.  Smith 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Larry  Snodgrass 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Gerald  Snyder 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Saul  Snyder 

Mr.  Robert  W.  Snyder  II 

Mrs.  Robert  A.  Sonneborn 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Hugh  M.  South 

Mr.  W.  J.  Spargo 

Mr.  Edward  W.  Spears 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Henry  Spiegelblatt 

Mr.  Gary  W.  Spokes 

Mr.  G.  Sprague 

Dr.  Daniel  L.  Stabile 

Mr.  Richard  W.  Stafford 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Julius  Stanges 

Mr.  Ronald  A.  Stanley 

Mrs.  Edythe  E.  Stauffer 

Mr.  Stuart  L.  Strauss 

Dr.  Colby  S.  Stearns 

Mr.  William  R.  Stehle 

Dr.  Marjorie  L.  Stein 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Henry  Z.  Steinway 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Leo  M.  Stepanian 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  B.  Stephens 

Ms.  Elizabeth  M.  Stern 

Mr.  Jeffery  A.  Stevens 

Mr.  Richard  W.  Stickell 

Dr.  Serena  Stier 

Mr.  John  S.  Stiles,  Jr. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Paul  K.  Stockmeyer 

Mrs.  Tegner  Stokes 

Mr.  J.  Jacques  Stone 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  K.  A.  Strand 

Mrs.  Richard  H.  Stratton 

Mrs.  R.  Strickhart 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Joseph  Stuart 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  A.  Stutzer 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Richard  L.  Sugarman 

Ms.  Elizabeth  Sullam 

Mr.  Eugene  T.  Sullivan 

Mr.  Dwight  Y.  Sumida 

Mr.  Donn  E.  Summers 

Lieutenant  General  and  Mrs.  Gordon 

Sumner,  Jr. 
Mr.  Charles  A.  Suter 
Mr.  David  E.  Suttle 
Mr.  Robert  L.  Swart,  Jr. 
Mr.  W.  M.  Swatek 
Dr.  and  Mrs.  Edgar  Sweren 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Ralph  Swetlow 
Mrs.  Mary  Davidson  Swift 
Mr.  Richard  O.  Swim 
Mr.  Gerald  L.  Swope 
Mr.  Harry  F.  Swope  III 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  James  McK.  Symington 
Dr.  I.  R.  Tabershaw 
Mr.  Worthington  Heaton  Talcott 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Pier  Talenti 

360  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Supporting  Members — continued 

Mr.  James  J.  Tanner 

Dr.  Vincent  A.  Taraszkiewski 

Mr.  Curtis  W.  Tarr 

Mrs.  Benjamin  E.  Tate 

Miss  G.  E.  Tatting 

Dr.  Joel  M.  Taubin 

Ms.  Hilda  Taylor 

Mr.  Julian  M.  Teal 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Ralph  H.  Teller 

Mr.  Peter  A.  Ten  Eyck 

Mr.  Joseph  M.  Tessmer 

Mr.  Alfred  Thieme,  Jr. 

Ms.  Linda  R.  Thompson 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Brian  Thompson 

Ms.  Mary  Edith  Thomson 

Mr.  D.  S.  Thome 

Mrs.  B.  W.  Thoron 

Mr.  George  Tievsky 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Gordon  M.  Tiger 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Sylvan  M.  Tobin 

Mrs.  Stirling  Tomkins 

Mrs.  Dorothy  Townsend 

Mr.  Henry  R.  Traubitz 

Mr.  Thomas  T.  Traywick,  Sr. 

Mrs.  S.  Diane  Treat 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  R.  Trigg  III 

Mr.  Warren  L.  Tripp 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Lynn  A.  Trobaugh 

Mr.  Jabes  Glen  Trott 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  A.  Buel  Trowbridge 

Mr.  S.  C.  Tupman 

Mr.  Walter  A.  Turchick 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Paul  Turkeltaub 

Mr.  John  H.  Turner 

Mrs.  A.  G.  Tuthill 

Mr.  George  E.  Tuttle 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Paul  E.  Tychsen 

Dr.  Winston  M.  Ueno 

Mrs.  Judith  Falk  Unger 

Mr.  Anthony  S.  Vaivada 

Lieutenant  Egbert  N.  P.  Van  Es 

Mr.  Charles  O.  Van  Horn 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Joseph  C.  Vanzant,  Jr. 

Commander  and  Mrs. 

Joseph  C.  Vanzant 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Theodore  Vass 
Ms.  Emily  W.  Vaughn 
Captain  Robert  E.  Vaughn 
Mr.  John  M.  Veatch 
Mr.  John  M.  Venditti 
Mr.  Wallace  W.  Voigt 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Elmer  E.  Wachter 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  P.  Wagner 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Milo  Waldes 

Ms.  Clara  B.  Walker 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  George  E.  Walker 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Lawrence  W.  Walker 

Mr.  A.  E.  Wall 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Jay  R.  Wallace 

Mrs.  Elizabeth  D.  Walsh 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Richard  F.  Walsh 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  William  T.  Walter 

Mr.  James  M.  Walton 

Mrs.  Harry  Wagner 

Drs.  Henry  and  Celia  Ward 

Mr.  John  S.  Ward,  Jr. 

Mr.  Lewis  T.  Waters 

Ms.  Susan  C.  Watkins 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Joseph  C.  Watts 

Colonel  and  Mrs.  Louis  V.  Watwood 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  W.  C.  Weaver 

Dr.  Hamilton  B.  Webb 

Ms.  Beverly  Weber 

Mr.   Fred  Week 

Mr.  Larry  A.  Wehr 

Mrs.  Shelley  M.  Weicker 

Mr.  Norman  Weiden 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Frank  A.  Weil 

Miss  Ruth  M.  Weiland 

Mr.  J.  K.  Weinman 

Mr.  Edmund  Wellington,  Jr. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Oscar  M.  Wells 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Douglas  C.  Wendt 

Mrs.  Beth  Werner 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Richard  J.  Wertheimer 

Mr.  Otto  R.  Wessel 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Larry  E.  Westphal 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  B.  Wharton 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Gerald  R.  Wheaton 

Mr.  George  Y.  Wheeler 

Mr.  Thomas  J.  Whelan 

Ms.  Gloria  Whipple 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Ben  White 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Philip  C.  White 

Mr.  Reider  J.  White 

Mrs.  Robert  K.  White 

Ms.  Verna  H.  White 

Mrs.  Joseph  M.  Whitson 

Mr.  G.  William  Whyers 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  E.  Wickman 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  H.  Wilbur 

Mr.  Julius  Wile 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Gordon  Wiley 

Major  General  and  Mrs.  H.  L.  Wilkers 

Mrs.  Richard  E.  Wilkie 

Mr.  J.  Harvey  Wilkinson 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  Willard 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Norman  C.  Willcox 

Appendix  8.  Benefactors  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution  I  361 

Supporting  Members — continued 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Arnold 

Clarke  Williams 
Mr.  E.  H.  Williams 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Paul  J.  Williams 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  E.  I.  Williams,  Jr. 
Colonel  E.  J.  Williams 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  Williamson 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  K.  Willis 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Morton  H.  Wilner 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Edward  Foss  Wilson 
Mr.  L.  E.  Wilson 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Luke  W.  Wilson 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Donald  E.  Wilson 
Mr.  Robert  W.  Wilson 
Mrs.  Milton  Wilson,  Jr. 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Curtin  Winsor,  Jr. 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Milton  S.  Winters 
Mrs.  Flora  Jane  Winton 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Philip  B.  Wisman 
Colonel  Ralph  M.  Wismer 
Mr.  Russell  R.  Witherow 
Ms.  Miriam  R.  Witlin 
Mr.  Gilbert  A.  Wolf 
Mr.  Claude  R.  Wolfe 
Mrs.  Saralyn  V.  Wolff 
Ms.  Audrey  J.  Wolfinger 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  David  B.  Wood 

Mr.  David  L.  Wood 

Mr.  George  E.  Woodin 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  Woodward 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  Work 

Mrs.  Frank  L.  Wright 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Kenneth  M.  Wright 

Mr.  Walter  Ray  Wright 

Mr.  Christopher  B.  Wry,  Jr. 

Ms.  Jane  W.  Wuchinch 

Mrs.  Leslie  H.  Wyman 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Philip  D.  Yaney 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Charles  D.  Young 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Frederick  W.  Young 

Mr.  Kenneth  R.  Youngert 

Mr.  N.  P.  Ytterday 

Mr.  Daniel  H.  Zafren 

Mr.  Peter  Zagarella 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Lawrence  G.  Zambotti 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  A.  Zauner 

Mr.  Thomas  G.  Zee 

Mrs.  John  H.  Zentay 

Mr.  A.  B.  Zimmer 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Joseph  Zinn 

Dr.  S.  S.  Zungoli 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Gunter  Zweig 


Miss  E.  S.  Abernethy 

Mrs.  Frances  Allensworth 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Wilfrid  J.  Amisial 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Thomas   D.   Anderson 

Mr.  William  L.  Anderson 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Mark  Edwin  Andrews 

Miss  Basile  Anglin 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Alfred  Appel 

Mr.  Arthur  R.  Armstrong 

Mrs.  Michael  Arpad 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  S.  5.  Auchincloss 

Miss   Cheryle  Ann  Aurecchione 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Paul  L.  Austin 

Mrs.  Donald  A.  Baillie 

Mrs.  N.  Meyer  Baker 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Christopher  C 

Mrs.  Paul  F.  Barham 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  A.  M.  Barnes,  Jr. 
Mr.  Charles  J.  Barnes 
Mrs.  Genevieve  Barth 
Dr.  Helen  Batchelor 
Mrs.  D.  Bronson  Beeler 
Mrs.  Katherine  H.  Benedict 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Merrill  Berkley 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  J.  Pierre  Bernard 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Walter  S.  Blair 

Miss  Frances  Blank 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Morris  B.  Blumberg 

Mrs.  Julian   S.   Boardman 

Mrs.  Dean  E.  Bowen 

Miss  Helen  G.  Boyajian 

Miss  Virginia  I.  Boy-ed 

Miss  Dorothea  Bourne 

Miss  Helen  Brandt 

Mrs.  J.  Elliott  Braucher 

Mrs.  Mary  M.   Brennan 

Mrs.  Nan  Broeder 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Leon  Brown 

Mr.  William  A.  Bryson,  Jr. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Donald  P.   Buchanan 

Mrs.  William  E.  Carey 

Mrs.  Charles  W.  Caldwell 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  H.  E.  Carrico 

Ms.  Mary  Carson 

Miss  Linda  L.  Castiglioni 

Ms.  Anne  M.  Chute 

Miss  Irene  W.  Clark 

Mrs.  Travis  H.  Clark 

Mr.  Ludwig  Claps 

362  /  Smithsonian  Year  1977 

Foreign  Study  Tour  Participants — continued 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Joe  R.  Cobern 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Sydney  M.  Cone,  Jr. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Valentine  J.  Connolly 

Mrs.  Lois  Lorton  Cook 

Miss  Mary  Cooley 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  C.  Coplan 

Judge  and  Mrs.  Leo  W.  Corkin 

Mr.  Perry  Cott 

Mr.  Albert  H.  Cousins,  Jr. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  B.  W.  Crain,  Jr. 

Mrs.  Gus  Cranz,  Jr. 

Mrs.   Elizabeth  P.  Cressman 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Richard  W.  Cutler 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Krest  Cyr 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Charles  P.  Dabney 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Gilbert  Dalldorf 

Mrs.   Ethel  M.  Danenhower 

Mr.  and  Mrs.   Harry  Daniel 

Dr.  Helen  E.  Daniells 

Mrs.  Abraham  W.  Danish 

Miss  Susan  Darling 

Mrs.   Robert  Daugherty 

Mrs.  L.  D.  Dennis 

Miss  Celeste  A.  DeRosa 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Laurence  B.  Dodds 

Mrs.  H.  Whitney  Dodge 

Mrs.  Kenneth  M.  Doty 

Miss  P.  M.  Douglas 

Mrs.   William   G.   Dreisbach 

Mrs.  J.  Patrick  Dunne 

Miss  Virginia  M.  Dusel 

Mrs.  Tom  J.  Eals 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  James  S.  Earley 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Kent  D.  Eastin 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Herman  J.  Eckrich,  Jr. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  E.  Donald  Elliott 

Mrs.  F